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Common Ransomware Infection Methods & How to Stay Protected How Ransomware Works?

Most commonly ransomware infections begin with:

Malicious email attachment to install ransomware.

Exploit kits to use known vulnerabilities in web browsers and other software to get ransomware installed.

Besides, this there are two most common types of ransomware.

Two Most Common Types of Ransomware:

Locker ransomware: locks victim out of his system, making it impossible to access any apps, data, or other files. Usually, in this case files aren’t encrypted the victim is just locked out of the system and ransom is demanded to give an unlock key for the infected computer. Most common examples of it include, Winlocker and others.

Key Characteristics of a Ransomware:

Irrevocable encryption.

Ability to encrypt all types of documents, files, pictures, audio, video files and other data you have on your PC.

Changes file name to hide itself.

Adds different extension to the files.

Displays a message or an image to show data is encrypted and victim needs to pay ransom to get the access back.

Usually, requests payment in cryptocurrency with a time limit that makes it hard to track. Also, the ransom amount keeps on changing with time.

Uses complex evasion techniques to go invisible by antivirus.

Often uses infected PCs as botnets.

Can spread from one system to another usually a local network, creating further damage.

Capable of extracting data from infected computer (usernames, email addresses, passwords, and more.)

Common Ransomware Examples

Spora that infects network shares.

WannaCrypt infects computer by exploiting EternalBlue vulnerability.

A Petya variant exploits EternalRomance vulnerability and uses stolen credentials to move across networks.

Reveton locks system screen instead of encrypting files.

Locky and Cerber ransomware looks for and encrypt specific file types, like media files, documents and others.

Bad Rabbit ransomware

Also Read : Crypto Mining Is The Next Big Threat After Ransomware

Ways to Stay Safe from Ransomware Attack

1. Training, and Education

It isn’t easy for an average user to know what the difference between a phishing email or spear phishing attack is. What they understand is downloading an attachment might harm their system or infect some of the system files.

But to stay protected from ransomware attack they need to know how to identify a phishing attack and which emails or attachments they should never open. For this they can simply make a phone call to the sender or ask the team to verify the message before sharing any information or considering the mail to be genuine.

2. Always take Data Backup

The most common harm caused by ransomware is to lock you out of your system and to encrypt data. Therefore, to deal with a ransomware attack one should always keep updated backup of his data so that in worst case scenario he has the data handy.

Apart from this the backup should always be tested periodically to ensure that there are no infectious file in the backup data that the user might restore.

Plus, companies and individuals should stop making the common mistake of restoring the data before the ransomware is completed cleared from the system. The system should be re build before the data is restored.

3. Lock Macros

But if you are using latest version of Microsoft office to stay secure disabling all macros is recommended. As it provides security to the user.

4. Patch and Update Frequently

Most common recommendation or suggestion given by all is to always keep the OS updates. As an updated software, OS provides better security.

5. Remove Administrator Rights

Only when required full access or read and write access should be granted.

Apart from these tips user should remember following other tips to stay protected from ransomware attack:

Avoid using administrator account.

Disable macros in Microsoft Office suite – Word, Excel, PowerPoint, etc.

Disable browser plugins like Adobe Reader, Flash, Java and others.

Keep browser security and privacy intact.

Remove outdated plugins and add-ons from the browser.

Don’t open emails received from stranger or undisclosed sender.

Use a reliable and paid antivirus product updated automatically.

Must Read : Ransomware is Not Always About Money


Ransomware is the biggest threat faced by companies and individuals, if proper measures aren’t taken in time you never know to what lengths it can harm you. Therefore, to stay protected from ransomware attacks one needs to learn about ransomware, how it works, what are the types of ransomware and preventive measures to stay protected from phishing mails the most common source of spreading malicious content that is a ransomware.

Hope you like our article about common ransomware methods and how to stay protected. If there is anything you would like us to add, please let us know. Your feedback is valuable to us.

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Hospital Treats Its Own Spyware Infection

Seattle’s Northwest Hospital and Medical Center recently began to suffer from spyware. Despite the efforts of IT, scores of desktops became infected.

”Pop-ups at desktops became a severe and growing problem,” says Ken Burton, CTO of Northwest Hospital. ”It slowed down performance to many help desk calls.”

Burton realized the problem could quickly escalate to more serious types of spyware which could potentially steal passwords, solicit confidential financial information and compromise patient records. As a result, spyware prevention became a priority in the hospital’s regulatory compliance efforts.

”Although we hadn’t yet been affected by the nastier forms of malware, it became apparent that anti-virus and other types of security protection were not enough,” says Burton. ”We couldn’t take the risk of clinical or financial data snooping.”

After initially putting out fires on a desktop-to-desktop basis with freeware tools, the company implemented eTrust PestPatrol by Computer Associates Inc. of Islandia, NY. This gave IT a means of controlling spyware centrally and preventing more serious attacks.

”We are now maintaining the integrity of our desktops and have eliminated spyware-related help desk calls,” says Burton. ”We feel solid as regards safeguarding our user community and patient records.”

HIPAA Shake Up

According to Stamford, Conn.-based Gartner Inc., a major industry analyst firm, 80 percent to 90 percent of computers suffer from some form of spyware. To make matters worse, Gartner analysts report spyware has spread from being mainly a consumer threat to being a real concern for the enterprise. And that is a big cause for concern in the health care industry due to the mandates of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which calls for heightened information security.

HIPAA requires, among other things, for hospitals to maintain electronic safeguards for patient privacy. But with spyware becoming increasingly invasive, it presents a big challenge to compliance efforts.

”As part of ongoing HIPPA efforts, you have to protect patient records from malicious software,” says Burton. ”You have to have spyware prevention in place or you are at risk.”

Battling Spyware and Adware

The Northwest Hospital’s Cisco-based network consists of 1,200 end users, with the IT infrastructure residing in one central data center. The 100 or so servers that host all hospital information and applications are primarily Windows Server 2003 based, though a handful of UNIX servers are also present. At the desktop, Windows 2000 predominates.

On the security side, the organization uses Computer Associates’ eTrust suite for anti-virus, firewall and intrusion detection system (IDS). In addition, it utilizes employee Internet management software from Websense Inc. of San Diego. Burton says this program has been configured to block instant messaging, gambling and pornographic material from entering the network. Despite these tools, adware became a menace.

”No matter what you do, some users will let some adware in,” he says. ”We were getting 12 calls a day from users complaining about pop-ups or adware-related slows.” As well as tying up the phone lines, this meant that one or two technicians had to make daily rounds to cleanse PCs of spyware. Initially, they used freeware tools, such as Ad-Aware from Lavasoft of Sweden. Burton found such tools great for working on home PCs, but unworkable in an enterprise setting.

”Technicians had to use them manually, moving from desktop to desktop to debug our machines,” he adds. ”We wanted to be able to scan enterprise PCs in a minute and have the program running in real-time mode like in modern anti-virus tools.”

The organization narrowed the selection process down to Webroot Spy Sweeper by Webroot Software Inc. of Boulder, Colo., and PestPatrol from Computer Associates. The selection parameters included figuring the amount of administration required, effectiveness in detecting and preventing spyware, time taken for scans and CPU utilization.

Burton used the Windows Performance Monitor to test both products. He says Webroot and PestPatrol both consumed more resources than he’d like, but PestPatrol came out a little ahead. He measured it at 15 percent to 30 percent CPU usage with a few higher spikes — better than other tools, but not good enough. He says he is working with the vendor to have later versions consume far fewer resources.

”If people are performing work-related tasks at their desks, the spyware program shouldn’t interfere,” says Burton. ”The way it works currently, they might get a noticeable freeze — perhaps one or two seconds — on occasion.”

In terms of management, he says he is largely happy with PestPatrol.

All pest detection and cleaning activities are logged to a central reporting system. The administrator sets policies on actions to take when spyware is found. Specific applications can be excluded from detection by name, type, filename, directory or path if desired. Updates are automatically relayed from the vendor Website to one server in the Northwest data center. Those updates are then automatically distributed to PCs running the workstation agent.

”The management capabilities of PestPatrol were the best of the bunch, but were not quite where we needed them to be,” says Burton. ”The next release will have better reporting and other management enhancements.”

Integration Needed

Northwest’s main complaint is that PestPatrol has to be managed separately from the rest of the eTrust repertoire. To be fair, Burton says, Computer Associates only recently acquired the product and integration takes time.

”I don’t want two separate tools. I want it to integrate fully with anti-virus,” says Burton. ”Fortunately, that is the direction C.A. is taking.”

Due to resource consumption issues, the hospital has held off employing PestPatrol in real-time mode. Under that method, it is constantly looking at the stream as the users view email or the Web. For the moment, he is content to perform a once-a-day scan after hours on all machines. Once the next product release has arrived, he will test it and plans to role it out in real-time mode — provided it consumes fewer resources, as promised.

But even with some issues to resolve, he’d much rather have anti-spyware software running than continually have to manually debug individual desktops.

”The difference in having a centralized tool is like night and day as you move from reactive to proactive management,” says Burton. ”With so many spyware threats constantly coming out, you need an enterprise-class tool to stay on top of things.”

What Is Double Extortion Ransomware?

What is Ransomware?

A hostage situation exists due to ransomware. It is a form of malicious software or malware that takes data, encrypts it, and then prevents the rightful owners from accessing it until the attacker receives the ransom demanded by the attacker. The ransom cost can range widely, from a few hundred dollars to millions of dollars. Most of the time, a cryptocurrency like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Tether, etc., is required as payment. The victim is required to satisfy the attacker’s deadline, which is specified.

It Is important to realize that it might not just be compromised files and data. Users’ access to any or all of their systems may be restricted, and they may be locked out.

What Exactly is a Double Ransomware Attack?

In double extortion, however, the attackers go one step further and threaten to sell the confidential information to the highest bidder, post it on the dark web, or destroy it if the ransom is not paid by the due date. Backups are excellent for restoring data, but they cannot lessen the impact of stolen data.

The key is that the malicious hacker has more power to guarantee payment is made. Numerous institutions, such as law firms, hospitals, and schools, to name a few, keep enormous volumes of sensitive data that, if compromised, may be disastrous for both the institution and the persons involved. The effectiveness and danger of double extortion ransomware attacks are due to this.

The Sequence of Double Extortion Ransomware Attacks

The common steps that cybercriminals take while launching a double extortion ransomware attack are as follows −

By any means required, the threat actor gets initial access to the victim’s system.

The hacker then searches the network for all the important information.

The data is then exfiltrated by the attacker or ransomware gang.

The system is subsequently infected with the ransomware that the attacker has chosen.

Data encryption is used.

Access to the information kept hostage is prohibited to the victim.

The ransom is requested, and what will happen if it is not paid is made clear.

The information should be returned and access provided if the ransom is paid.

How to Stop Ransomware Attacks That Use Double Extortion

Attacks using double extortion ransomware are very risky, expensive, and have no assurance of success. As to make matters worse, attacks are happening more frequently and are getting more vicious and aggressive in nature. The good news is that you may take preventative measures to safeguard your business from double extortion ransomware assaults.

Architecture with Zero Trust

When it comes to trust, your organization should have a zero-trust policy. Applications, websites, emails, and links shouldn’t be automatically trusted; rather, they should require a thorough authentication procedure before access is given. This calls for the implementation of the following three principles −

Cut down on the attack surface by using a proxy-based brokered exchange to hide users and network applications from the Internet.

Reduce the capacity to move laterally. − If the information is hidden, hackers can’t steal it. In order to decrease the likelihood that an attacker will be able to move laterally through your servers, steal more data, and cause more damage, it is important to conceal data from view appropriately.

Monitor all incoming and outgoing communications continuously for signs of a potential data breach. This covers both encrypted and unencrypted data.

Make sure security policies are applied uniformly

It can be challenging for larger businesses to ensure that safety procedures and rules are constantly followed. However, making sure users always take the proper security precautions is worth the effort and money. Implementing a secure access service edge (SASE) architecture is the most effective approach to do this. No matter who uses the system or where it is located, this technology ensures that security regulations are followed.

Update security programs and protocols

The most susceptible software to cyberattacks is out-of-date software. A priority should always be given to security updates. Your IT team must conduct routine scans to look for updated software and install it as soon as feasible.

Make sure the following is established −

A few recovery strategies to prevent data loss

A number of data backups

Dual-factor or multiple-factor authentication (makes it harder for cybercriminals to crack).

Educate the users

Provide users with in-depth training on double extortion ransomware attacks so they are aware of what they are and the terrible consequences they can have on the business or even specific employees inside the business. Employees must be aware of the warning signs and the precautions they might take to avoid aiding one of these attacks. All new hires should receive training, and it should be followed up with more training after a certain amount of time (e.g., three years).

Implement protective measures

Although taking preventative measures is unquestionably beneficial, they do not offer complete protection from double extortion ransomware assaults. Even well-known businesses are susceptible to ransomware assaults. Adopting trustworthy attack surface management software gives your business’s network the highest level of security. You have a much higher chance of spotting possible threats before they develop into full-fledged attacks with a 360-degree perspective.

Implement a solution to manage attack surfaces

Continuous monitoring ensures that merging cyber threats are immediately alerted, keeping you safe from double extortion ransomware assaults.

Research Methods In Clinical Psychology

Psychology is the study of human behavior and mental processes. It’s a social science that examines people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors using various approaches to evaluation. The field of psychology has grown from a branch of philosophy and anthropology into a multidisciplinary scientific approach that uses many research methods. About 80% of psychologists work in private practice while the rest work in universities, hospitals, or counselling centres.

What is Clinical Psychology?

Clinical psychology is a branch of the greater field of psychology, as its name suggests. Clinical psychologists are interested in behavior and mental processes, much like all other psychologists. Clinical psychologists do a study on human behavior, try to apply the findings of that research, and conduct individual evaluations. Clinical psychologists support persons who want treatment for psychological issues, much like certain other professional members do.

Clinical psychology is described as “a clinical field that involves the provision of diagnostic, evaluation, treatment plan, therapy, preventative, and consulting services to patients of an emergency room, inpatient units, and clinics of hospitals” by the American Psychological Association.

According to a different definition provided by the Canadian Psychological Association, it is a vast area of practice and research within the science of psychology that applies psychological principles to the assessment, prevention, amelioration, and rehabilitation of psychological distress, disability, dysfunctional behavior, and health-risk behavior, as well as to the enhancement of psychological and physical well-being.

Who does Research in Psychology?

Researchers in psychology, including experimental and clinical psychologists, study how people think and behave. In order to create behavioral therapy treatment plans and tactics, these experts frequently employ a variety of scientific techniques to investigate mental processes. The focus of psychology research techniques might be on how individuals perceive the environment, process information, make decisions, and respond to stimuli, and they can have a quantitative or qualitative context.

Numerous psychological study methodologies also draw findings about a population using statistical tools. Nonstatistical approaches are used in qualitative-based research methods in psychology to understand the experiences of the people and communities being studied. While psychological research is used by psychologists, psychiatrists, and other mental health experts, there are uses in other businesses where this kind of study may support favorable results

Research Methods in Clinical Psychology

Consider the following research methods to create treatment plans more successfully if your line of work involves psychological treatment and therapy


To investigate the frequency and root causes of mental health issues, psychologists frequently employ questionnaires. When selecting and surveying sample groups of patients, researchers frequently employ random selection procedures. Survey research might be quantitative or qualitative. To choose a sample that is typical of the population and to generate more trustworthy data for analysis, use random selection. You may adopt treatment solutions by understanding human behavior with the use of survey data.

Case Studies

Experimental Studies

Psychologists can use experimental investigations to ascertain if there is a causal link between two variables, such as a patient’s behavior and mental health. To determine if a change in one independent variable has an impact on a dependent variable, psychologists may conduct experimental investigations. The psychologist can then gauge how changing one-factor impacts people’s performance or behavior. To identify the outside factors influencing a community’s patterns of behavior, psychologists could conduct experimental investigations. To better understand collective human behavior as it relates to numerous causes and consequences, these studies can also be helpful in other areas, such as sales psychology.

Content Analysis

To find patterns, meanings, and themes in a patient’s written communication styles, content analysis entails examining text-based data. Clinical psychologists are capable of doing content analyses on any type of writing, including handwritten letters, business emails, and whole transcripts of patient interviews or monologues. By carefully examining the patient’s word choice and speech patterns, this study approach can assist you in creating the most effective psychological therapies. Furthermore, content analysis is a useful technique for many forensic psychologists who are trying to solve criminal cases, behavioral difficulties, and serious mental health problems.


A quantitative research technique called meta-analysis examines the outcomes of previously published studies that addressed the same subject and compiles different study findings into a comprehensive set of data. By scanning library databases for all studies that have been published on a certain subject, psychologists may do a meta-analysis and compile the findings into a comprehensive overview. Psychologists can produce an easily available resource that offers a collective appraisal of previous and present research by combining several linked research questions into a single research paper. As a result, meta-analysis can result in suggestions for future studies that will assist the field of psychology to improve.

Correlational Research

A non-experimental research technique called correlational research analyses two variables and evaluates their connection (correlation). In this research strategy, two constant variables—for example, the results of two distinct personality tests—are observed, and their relationship is examined. Given that both tests analyze personality type, the results of the first personality test may correlate with the results of the second.

While correlational research may be used to find connections between two qualities, actions, or events, it does not take into consideration any causal connections between the variables you are studying. As a result, many academics may combine causal research with correlational studies to get more accurate results from their study.

Quasi – Experiment

Similar to a typical experiment, a quasi-experiment does not randomly place individuals in experimental groups. This lends support to studies where psychologists may be more interested in an independent variable that cannot be a random variable, such as a participant’s intrinsic quality. For instance, since identified mental health qualities are not random and make it impossible to randomly assign people to research groups, you may utilize a quasi-experiment to examine participants who exhibit these traits.

Naturalistic Observation

Psychologists use the research technique known as naturalistic observation to examine patients’ behavior while they are in their natural contexts. Naturalistic observation is a useful technique for seeing how individuals interact and act in familiar situations, such as when they are doing home chores, riding public transit, or shopping in a store. The population-based conclusions that may be drawn from this study technique can help guide future studies that assist innovation in psychology, healthcare, and even technology, sales, and business.

Structured Observation

Structured observation is an observational research technique that assesses behavior in a more controlled context, such as monitoring participants in voluntary psychological tests taking place in a lab. Psychologists may keep an eye on people in controlled environments to better understand particular behaviors. Structured observation techniques are widely used in clinical and medical research investigations to better control experimental variables and guarantee more accurate data analysis. In order to better understand how a new behavioral therapy or medicine impacts patients’ behaviors, psychologists may, for example, conduct a structured observation. They may then alter or enhance their treatment strategies in light of the findings.


Clinical Psychology is a science and it is very important, as it always attempts to improve or cure the people who are suffering from some disorder. For such a responsible job, the clinical psychologists always need to research the sources from which they can get reliable information. However, the subject matter of this field is always elusive, as individuals and relationships are both subject to multiple interpretations. Theories can change and new research may become available that will challenge what you thought was true. This does not mean that the field isn’t sound, but it is something that you need to remain mindful of if you are involved in research clinical psychology

Contributed Capital Vs Common Stock

What is Contributed Capital?

Contributed Capital is defined as the capital which are in the form of liquid assets and cash as given by the shareholders in return of the ownership of the stock. They are also regarded as paid-in capital.

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Investors who generally make contributions of capital, they take up the equity issues in return. The shareholders here purchase the stock basis the price quoted for each stock by the business. Investors, therefore, make contributions of capital if they are willing to purchase the stock at the price quoted by the business.

How to Calculate Contributed Capital?

The contributed capital is calculated as the sum of the value of the common stock that the business issued and the additional paid in capital. It is represented as per the formula described below: –

Contributed Capital = Par Value of Common Stock + Additional Paid-In Capital

The first step to determine the contributed capital would be to determine the effective par value of the stock. This is the amount that the business would quote to the investors when going to the financial market. The next step would be the determination of additional paid-in capital which the investors normally pay over and above the par value of the common stock to the business. As the last step, the contributed capital would be determined as the sum of the common stock and the additional paid-in capital.

Example of Contributed Capital

Suppose the business issued 1,000 common stock having a price of $10 per share. When the business went to the primary market, the business was able to procure $120,000 on the issuance of the stock. Help the management determine the additional paid in capital and contributed capital.


Management raised $120,000 from the primary market. This amount would be regarded as the contributed capital of the business. The additional paid in the capital would be the difference of the contributed capital and the par value of the stock.

Par Value of the Stock = Number of Shares * Par Value

Par Value of the Stock = 1,000 x $10

Par Value of the Stock = $10,000

additional paid-in capital is calculated as:

Additional Paid-In Capital = Contributed Capital – Par Value of the Stock

Additional Paid-In Capital = $120,000 – $10,000

Additional Paid-In Capital =$110,000

Hence the business has additional capital of $110, 000 and contributed capital of $120,000 respectively.

Contributed Capital Components

The contributed capital has two broad components namely common stock and additional paid-in capital. The contributed capital therefore can be computed as the sum of common stock and additional paid-in capital. The common stock therefore is defined as the financial instrument that are expressed in terms of value of par corresponding to the number of issued stocks. The additional paid-in capital for the business is defined as money that is given by the share holders which is over and above the par value of the stock.

Contributed Capital on Balance Sheet Importance of Contributed Capital

The contributed capital is recorded when the business goes for initial public offering. The paid-in capital is then determined basis the amount of stock that is sold to the investors directly. Therefore, any transactions of trades that happens in the secondary market with respect to the stocks are not recorded as the contributed capital. The contributed capital is important because it shows the excess amount the business gets over and above the par value of the stock.

Contributed Capital vs Common Stock

Common stocks are normally issued at the par value by the business. Each common stock would have a par value which the investors purchase. The value reported under the account for the common stock forms the part of the contributed capital. Therefore, the contributed capital could be the sum of the common stock and the corresponding paid-in capital where the paid-in capital would represent amount of capital that the investors pay to the business that is over and above the par value of the stock.

Advantages of Contributed Capital

There is no burden on the fixed payment wherein the amount that is received from the investors have no fixed or compulsory obligations of the payment. There are no interest payments that the business has to normally pay when issuing other sources of capital.

If the business earns good profits, the business then distributes the profits in the form of dividends. In the event if the business is not able to generate suitable profits then the business is liable to make dividend payments to the business.

The business does not have to pledge any security in the form of collateral which the business has to give if in case it is raising finance through debt. The money raised through contributed capital does not pledges any existing securities and assets which the business may have to do in case the finance is raised through debt.

If the money raised through contributed capital is used to purchase a tangible asset then the tangible asset could be further used for pledging purpose when the business is looking to raise more finance in the form of debt.

Since there is a high risk from such investment, the investors expect to earn high rate of return.

For the investors, the contributed capital does not offer much benefits as the profits, growth and dividends from the business depends upon the performance of the business and the returns earned remains to be uncertain.

The returns earned from the contributed capital are not similar to the returns earned from taking up the debt issues by the business.

The investors who invest through the contributed capital have the right to select the board of directors as well as they approve critical business decisions. Due to this feature, results in dilution in terms of ownership and control.

Since the ownership is diluted, there is an appreciation in the oversight level of the management related decisions.


The contributed capital is described in term of the common stock and additional paid-in capital of the business. It describes the amount that the business gathers through the means of issuing stocks to the prospective stockholders and is described in the form of the equity investment as made by the stockholders of the business. The investors procure shares from the business in exchange of cash or liquid assets they own. The business may issue stock and gather finance to pay off the existing debt of the business. With high contributed capital, the business raises the level of equity investment which in turn dilutes the ownership of existing stockholders.

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Methods And Examples Of Postgresql Backup

Introduction to PostgreSQL Backup

If you are using the PostgreSQL database in the production environment for your clients, you need to ensure that your database is always working fine and available 24 * 7. For the availability of the database, you must often keep a backup of your client’s database. To ensure data restoration in the event of database corruption, crashes, or loss, you must have the ability to restore the data. For this reason, PostgreSQL provides us with a facility to keep the backups using three methods –

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Hadoop, Data Science, Statistics & others

Methods of PostgreSQL Backup

Three methods of PostgreSQL backup are given below:

1. SQL Dump 2. File System-Level Backup tar -cf chúng tôi /etc/psql/12/data 3. Continuous Archiving

This methodology combines the File system-level backup methodology and Write Ahead Logs (WAL) stored in pg_xlog. The database maintains logs for each and every transaction performed on it. To determine the successful completion and commitment of a transaction, the system maintains a checkpoint. Whenever a crash occurs or data is lost. To recover the database, you can restore the data stored in the file-based system and then apply the logs from that point until the checkpoint to bring the database to its current state. However, this process is a bit clumsy and complex but provides some benefits over the other two, as discussed previously.

In the upcoming session, we will briefly discuss the SQL dump method, which we consider the most convenient and preferred approach.

Explanation of SQL Dump

Furthermore, the database operations continue to run while pg_dump is in progress and not locked. However, it is important to note that certain operations, like ALTER TABLE, which are related to structural changes, will be blocked during the execution of pg_dump. You must specify external -o in the pg_dump command if your database schema depends on OIDs such as foreign keys. For this, you will also need to dump the OIDs.


pg_dump: It is the utility program provided in PostgreSQL to store the current state of the database into a file containing commands which, when run on the database server, will recreate the state of the database when it was dumped using the same. To run it, you need to execute pg_dump as a client-side program through the Linux command line prompt.

databaseName: It is the database name you want to dump.

outputFile: It is the file name that has to be created after the dumping is finished.

The execution of the pg_dump process is limited to the superuser login because only the superuser has the necessary permissions to read all databases and tables. Although, you do have a facility to dump the database remotely. By default, the environment variables PGHOST, PGPORT, and PGUSER consider the localhost, port 5432, and the username associated with the operating system as the default values for connecting to the database.

You can change the PGHOST and PGPORT by using the options -h for the host and -p for the port in the pg_dump command. To change and override the PGUSER variable, you can use the -U option in the statement. Client authentication mechanisms confirm all of this.


Check whether the file is created successfully. Let us use the ls command, which lists all the files in the current directory –



Now, we have a ready backup file named “myBackupFile” that has been dumped.

Let us see the contents of the Postgres database by checking all its tables with the help of the dt command.

c postgres dt


So, it contains three tables which we will drop one by one. By using the commands

drop table educba; drop table teams cascade; drop table developers;

and then further check whether all of them are deleted by dt command.


So, now the database Postgres does not contain any tables in it. Now, we will learn how to restore the data to the database.

Restoring the Dump

Having a backup file allows us to restore the database at any time, which proves helpful in situations where the database becomes corrupted or is lost.However, it would be best if you considered some things before restoring. The database you are trying to restore should be on the server. If not, then you should create the database with the help of the command

createdb -T template0 Postgres

in our case. Since the database already exists, you can verify its presence by using the command l, which displays the following output from the database server. Therefore, there is no need to execute the createdb command now.



The other thing is to ensure that the database you are restoring should already consist of all the users with the right to it. In our case, the Postgres user owns the Postgres database. Hence, a database server should already have a user named Postgres, or it will give an error while restoring. You can check this by firing the command –

SELECT usename FROM pg_catalog.pg_user;

which results in the following –

Now, the Postgres database and user are already in my database server. I can go for restoring the database using the command –

psql postgres < myBackupFile;

as the syntax of restoring the dump is

psql empty_database < backup_file psql postgres < myBackupFile;


Now, if we check the contents of the Postgres database using the command dt, it gives the output as –



Also, the contents of all the tables are restored correctly –

select * from developers;


Handling Restoration Errors

In PostgreSQL, the restoration process persists even if an error occurs in between. It only tells about them at the end of the completion of the restore. In this case, the database is restored incompletely. If you want to stop the restoration process on error occurrence, you can use –

psql --set ON_ERROR_STOP=on postgres < myBackupFile

ON_ERROR_STOP option helps you to stop the restoration process whenever the error occurs. To restore the database in a transactional manner, where only the entire database is restored or no changes are made, you can use the “-1” or “–single-transaction” option. This option ensures that the restoration process operates as a transactional process.

psql -1 postgres < myBackupFile

For dumping all the databases in the current database server to a file, you can use the pg_dumpall utility program and provide the default database while restoration.

Conclusion – PostgreSQL Backup

We can dump our database so that a backup is available in the near future to restore the database in case of any problem with data available from the database using pg_dump in PostgreSQL. You can utilize other methods, including File system level backup and Continuous archiving, to maintain backups of your PostgreSQL database.

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