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Introduction to Django Middleware

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Middleware Activation

Include the middleware item in the MIDDLEWARE list within the chúng tôi file to activate a middleware. The list below holds the default middleware items generated when a Django project starts. The order of declaration for the middleware components has significance.

MIDDLEWARE = [ '', 'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware', 'django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware', 'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware', 'django.contrib.messages.middleware.MessageMiddleware',

The following explains the necessity and usage of the default middleware listed above in the Django framework:

Default Middlewares Operations Descriptions djangosecure.Middleware.SecurityMiddleware X-Frame-Options: DENY Limits the pages displayed to be within a frame. HTTP Strict Transport Security Setting this allows the website to be accessible to the browser only on HTTPS instead of HTTP. X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff This option helps to prevent against MIME sniffing vulnerabilities. X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block When an XSS(Cross-site scripting) attack is detected, it stops the website pages from getting further loaded. SSL Redirect Detecting proxied SSL In rare instances, the request.is_secure(), the method returns false for valid requests; setting this option will help to set an alternative header to the secured external connection. Rewriting of URLs based on APPEND_SLASH and PREPEND_WWW settings. When APPEND_SLASH is TRUE, and the URL does not have a ‘/,’ then the new URL will have a slash at the end of the URL. NA Restrict access for the users listed in DISALLOWED_USER_AGENTS setting django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware When the session Middleware is activated, every HttpRequest object will have a session attribute tagged as the first argument. This is a dictionary object, and session values can be inserted into this dictionary object using a request. Session anywhere in the view file. Django. middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware This middleware option allows protection against all cross-site request forgeries. django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware django.contrib.messages.middleware.MessageMiddleware This middleware will handle all temporary messages between the website and the web browser. Limits the pages displayed to be within a frame. How does middleware work in Django?

Below are the key points on the working of middleware in Django,

The order of declaration for the middleware components is significant.

The middleware classes get executed twice in the request/response lifecycle.

During a request, the classes are executed from top to bottom order.

During a response, these classes get executed from bottom to top order. This is why the order of the components is significant.

The _init_ method is executed during the start of the server.

the _call__ method is executed for every request.

Mandatory Methods in a Middleware

The middleware must include at least one of the methods listed below:

If middleware needs to process during request:


process_view(request, view_func, view_args, view_kwargs)

If middleware needs to process during response:

process_exception(request, exception) (only if the view raised an exception)

process_template_response(request, response) (only for template responses)

process_response(request, response)

Custom Middleware

1. Place a file called chúng tôi anywhere inside the project. The location where this middleware file has been placed is not a big deal, as per the Django setup. The crucial aspect is ensuring that this file’s path is accurately specified in the middleware list within the chúng tôi file. This is the most important element.

class NewMiddleware: def __init__(self, get_request): self.get_request = get_request def __call__(self, request): request = self.get_request(request) print("The Newly installed middleware is successfully triggered!!!") return request MIDDLEWARE = [ '', 'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware', 'django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware', 'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware', 'django.contrib.messages.middleware.MessageMiddleware', # Userdefined Middleware 'Django_app1.middleware.NewMiddleware', ]

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Complete Guide On Loan Note With Working And Example

What is a Loan Note?

The term “loan note” refers to the contract between a lender and a borrower that clearly outlines the legal obligations of both parties involved in the transaction. It is also seen as the extended version of the IOU document between a lender and a borrower.

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How Does Loan Note Work?

A loan note represents a legally binding contract between a borrower and a lender, with both parties committed to the terms and conditions outlined in the document. Either the borrower or lender can draw it up. Typically, either party can invoke the right to seek arbitration, as stated in a typical loan note, if they fail to meet any contractual obligations. In most cases, the lenders invoke the loan notes to recover their money when the borrower defaults.

When a loan note is signed, it is considered that both borrower and lender have read the entire document and agree to the legal terms and conditions cited in the note. Both parties should have notarized copies of the signed and original loan note. Given the stringent legal conditions, they should document all the transactions, disbursals, and repayment with a receipt.

Business loans

Purchases (car, furniture, etc.)

Real estate loans

Student loans

Lending to friends and family

Example of Loan Note

Let us look at an example to understand the concept. Recently, David approached a retail investor to lend him $200,000. Unfortunately, the investor is not a close acquaintance of David, so they don’t share a relationship of trust. However, the investor agreed to pay him the money subject to a loan note, safeguarding him against David’s inability to repay.

The loan note included the amount of the loan, interest rate charged, loan tenure, schedule of repayment, associated fines or penalties, and the course of action if David fails to repay the principal and interest on time. It also clearly outlined the loan disbursal schedule and repayment timeline. It is a legally binding agreement, so both parties must honor the document’s terms and conditions.

Advantages of Loan Note

It enables the lender to act, claim, and recover the loan amount if the borrower fails to pay it back within the prefixed timeline.

As it is legally enforceable, the lender can drag the borrower to court in the case of a default to safeguard its interest.

It considers a secured lending instrument while dealing with a large amount of money, especially if the borrower and the lender won’t have a longstanding relationship.

It secures the lender and helps claim the principal amount in case of bad debts.

Start-ups or new entrepreneurs usually use it to access seed capital from friends and family.

Individuals use it to avoid undue tax obligations due to a lump sum payment from a settlement or cash-out transaction.

It is issued to borrowers with a good credit rating leading to a healthy credit risk profile.

First, it is usually a lengthy and legally binding document, making it very difficult for the involved parties to read. However, failure to read thoroughly can get them into deeper trouble.

In some cases, it also includes early payment penalties that prevent the borrower from closing the loan account before its tenure.

Although it provides legal recourse for both parties, the legal reviews are time-consuming.

Key Takeaways

Some of the key takeaways of the article are:

It refers to the legally binding signed agreement between a borrower and a lender that outlines the commitments and obligations of both parties involved in the transaction.

A typical loan note includes all the terms & conditions of the loan, such as the amount of the loan, repayment schedule, loan tenure, interest rate, and fees & penalties.

This agreement is usually associated with business loans, purchasing cars or homes, student loans, or lending to friends and family.

It enables the lender to act, claim, and recover the loan amount if the borrower fails to pay it back within the prefixed timeline.

It is usually a very long document, making it very difficult to read and time-consuming. However, it is important to read the contract carefully as it is legally enforceable.


So, it can be seen that a loan note is usually issued when the loan amount is relatively on the higher side because it is considered a secured mode of lending. The legal contract safeguards the interest of the involved parties in the loan transaction, especially that of the lender. However, like any other financial instrument, it also has shortcomings that can be overcome to some extent through careful understanding of the terms and conditions of the note.

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Complete Guide To Mysql Date_Sub()

Definition on MySQL DATE_SUB()

The date_sub() is a built-in function of MySQL database server, which is used to make the difference of a time or date value from a date or DateTime value and outputs the result as date or DateTime. The function accepts two arguments; the first argument passed is starting date or initial date from which the second argument, which is the time interval, is subtracted argument to generate the output. The function can output the result in various units. The unit should be passed in the function we want our output to be.

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Below is the syntax of MySQL Date_sub():

DATE_SUB (start_date,time expression unit)

Mathematically, the Date_sub function can also be written as below:

Date_sub=difference(start_date,time interval)

The above syntax of date_sub() takes two arguments. They are:

start_date is the initial date or datetime value or beginning date.

A time expression is a string representing a time value subtracting from the start_date value. The unit is the time unit as year, month, day, etc.

The unit can be microseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, weeks, months, years, quarters, second_microsecond, minute_microsecond, minute_second, hour_microsecond, hour_second, hour_minute, day_microsecond, day_second, day_minute, day_hour, year_month, etc.

The following statement uses the date_sub () function to subtract two days from May 24, 2023:

Examples of MySQL DATE_SUB()

Below are the examples mentioned for better understanding :

Example #1


Select date_sub('2024-05-24',interval 2 day) AS result;


The above example’s start date is 2023-05-24, written in the yyyy-mm-dd format. The second argument is a 2-day interval. The output of the date_sub() function is 2023-05-22 in the console.

Example #2

Below is the query where the time interval is of 5 hours:


Select date_sub('2024-05-24',interval 5 hour) AS result;


Since the time interval is 5 hours, the function’s output is a DateTime value.

Query with a Negative Interval

The interval or second argument’s time expression could be positive or negative. We can handle both positive and negative time intervals passed as the second parameter in the date_sub() function. When the time interval is negative, the date_sub() function functions similarly to the date_add() function, as demonstrated in the query below:

Example #3


Select date_sub('2024-05-24',interval -2 day) AS result;


In the above query, we have passed a negative 2-day interval as our second parameter. Therefore, two days are added to the starting or initial days in the output.

Example #4


Select date_sub('2024-02-29',interval -2 day) AS result;


In the above query, the start date is 2023-02-29, and the second argument, i.e., the interval is a negative interval of 2 days. Technically, the output of the query must be 2023-02-30, which is an invalid date as there is no 30th day in February month. Therefore the output of the query is March 2nd, 2023.

Query for an Invalid or Abnormal Date Example #5


Select date_sub('2024-02-35',interval -2 Day) AS result;0


In the example below, 2023-02-35 is an invalid date; therefore, it gives the output NULL and a warning message in the output console.

Example #6 Show warnings;


Example #7


Select date_sub(null,interval 1 Day) AS result;


Since, In the above query, we have passed a null value in the initial date value as our first parameter, whatever we give as an interval in the second argument will output a null value.

Query for Automatic Adjusted Day

When subtracting a MONTH, YEAR, or YEAR_MONTH interval from a date, if the result is a date with a day number greater than the maximum day of the new month, the day will be adjusted to the maximum day in the new month.

The below query explains the automatically adjusted day concept easily.

Example #8


Select date_sub('2024-05-30',interval 1 month) as result;


In this example, we subtracted one month from May 24th, 2023, so the outcome is April 30th, April.

Example #9


Select Date_sub('2024-05-24',interval 2 week) AS 'negative week'; Select Date_sub('2024-05-24', interval 2 month) AS 'negative month'; Select Date_sub('2024-05-24',interval 2 quarter) AS 'negative quarter';


Example #10


Select date_sub('2024-05-24 11:00:00', interval 6 hour) As result;

Example #11


Select date_sub(curdate(), interval 6 hour) AS result


Example #12


select date_sub(curdate(), interval -2 day) result;


Example #13


Select date_sub('2024-05-24 12:20:20.000010',interval 1000 microsecond) As result;


Example #14


Select date_sub('2024-05-24 12:20:20.000010',interval 750 microsecond)As result;



If we specify a time interval value that is too small for the specified unit, the DATE_SUB() will assume that the user did not provide the left-most part of the interval value.

DATE_SUB function with a negative value as a parameter is the same as that of the DATE_ADD function.

The DATE_SUB function is used in the below-mentioned versions of MySQL:

MySQL 5.7,  MySQL 5.6,  MySQL 5.5,  MySQL 5.1,  MySQL 5.0,  MySQL 4.1,  MySQL 4.0,  MySQL 3.23

Conclusion – MySQL DATE_SUB()

In this article, we learned how MySQL date_sub() function subtracts the time from a date or datetime value in various units. We have tried to explain every aspect of the date_sub() function easily with the query with almost all the units like microseconds, days, months, years, weeks, quarters, etc., along with the screenshots of the output console for a better understanding of the reader. We have also learned about the negative date-time concepts of the date_sub() function.

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Bash Exit Codes: A Complete Guide

When working with Bash scripts, it is essential to understand the concept of exit codes. An exit code is a number that a command or script returns to the operating system upon completion of its execution. It indicates whether the command or script completed successfully or failed and provides additional information about the outcome of the operation. In this guide, we’ll explore the basics of Bash exit codes, how to use them in scripts, and related concepts that will help you write efficient and reliable scripts.

Basics of Bash Exit Codes

In Bash, an exit code is an integer value between 0 and 255 that a command or script returns to the shell. By convention, an exit code of 0 means success, and any non-zero value means failure. Some commonly used exit codes are:

Exit code 0: Success

Exit code 1: General error

Exit code 2: Misuse of shell built-ins

Exit code 126: Command cannot execute

Exit code 127: Command not found

Exit code 128: Invalid argument to exit

Using Exit Codes in Bash Scripts

In Bash scripts, you can use exit codes to determine the success or failure of a command or script and take appropriate actions based on the outcome. For example, you can use the if statement to check the exit code of a command and execute different commands based on the result.

Here’s an example:

#!/bin/bash ls /usr/bin if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then echo "Command succeeded" else echo "Command failed" fi

In this script, we run the ls command on the /usr/bin directory and check its exit code using the $? variable. If the exit code is 0, we print “Command succeeded,” and if it’s non-zero, we print “Command failed.”

You can also use exit codes to terminate a script or function prematurely. For example, you can use the exit command to exit a script with a specific exit code.

Here’s an example:

#!/bin/bash function my_function { # Do some work if [ some condition ]; then exit 1 fi # Do more work } my_function if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then echo "Function succeeded" else echo "Function failed" fi

In this script, we define a function my_function that performs some work and checks a condition. If the condition is true, we use the exit command to exit the function with an exit code of 1. We then check the exit code of the function using $? and print the appropriate message.

Related Concepts $? Variable

As mentioned earlier, the $? variable is a special variable that stores the exit code of the last command executed in Bash. You can use this variable to check the success or failure of a command and take appropriate actions based on the result.

trap Command

The trap command is a Bash built-in command that allows you to execute a command when a signal is received. You can use the trap command to handle errors or unexpected events in your script and take appropriate actions based on the situation.

Here’s an example:

#!/bin/bash function cleanup { echo "Cleaning up" # Do some cleanup work } trap cleanup EXIT # Do some work exit 0

In this script, we define a function cleanup that performs some cleanup work when the script exits. We use the trap command to execute this function when the script receives the EXIT signal. This ensures that the cleanup code is always executed, even if the script fails or is terminated prematurely.


Exit codes are an essential concept in Bash scripting that allow you to determine the success or failure of a command or script and take appropriate actions based on the outcome. By understanding how to use exit codes in your scripts, you can write efficient and reliable code that handles errors and unexpected events gracefully.

Complete Guide To Golden Handshake With Working

What is Golden Handshake?

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Normally employment contracts contain a clause of severance package to be given to the employees by the employer when they lose out on their active jobs due to professional negligence or due to lay-offs or due to voluntary retirement. The severance package is offered to the employees who are either engaged in a high-risk job or they are employed as a top executive in the organization. This is primarily done to protect employee interests when they hold top executive posts. The severance package is the collection of the benefits offered by the employer to the employee when the services of the employees are ended abruptly or they are laid off from the organization. Normally, the employer and employee have to sign the severance agreement or contract. The total amount of the money receivable to the employee depends upon the tenure’s length they stay in the organization. Such payments may also include unutilized vacations or sick leaves and business expenses that are yet to be reimbursed.

How does it work?

Whenever a business feels that the top employee has attained an age where he could be asked to retire or whenever business reaches the point that they have to cut down the costs of the employees, they initiate the golden handshake clause as per the contract. They communicate with the employees who hold the top executive positions in the organization. In such a scenario, it is not the mistake of the employees and yet their services are being terminated. The severance package under the golden handshake clause mitigates the imminent financial risk resulting from an abrupt termination of services. The scenarios where a golden handshake is prominently applied are when the employee is closed to his retirement age or either the business is looking towards the reduction in costs of operations.

Examples of Golden Handshake Reasons for Golden Handshake

In the business lifecycle, there comes a point beyond which if the business continues to undertake the rising costs of operations, this could result in imminent failures for the business. The business may shut down eventually and this would end up affecting the employees who are at the bottom-most level or tier in the organization. Therefore, as a defense mechanism and to protect the interests of all employees, the top executives are asked to take up voluntarily retirement or they are laid off by the business which then helps the business to curb their rising costs. Since the employees who held the top-level positions in the organizations were not at any fault, the business offers them a golden handshake which helps the laid-off employees to mitigate their financial risk.

Golden Handshake vs Golden Parachute

The golden parachute is termed as a package that the employee receives if the business has been taken over by the other company and the services of the employee are terminated as the result of the merger. The golden parachute is also given to key and top executives employed in the business. The package under the golden parachute may be composed of severance pay, stock options and cash bonuses. The golden parachute can be regarded as a poison pill which undertaken by the target business in the form of employee exodus to discourage the attempts of a hostile takeover by the acquiring business.  On the other hand, the golden handshake can be compared to as golden boot offered by the organization to offered with the intent of initiating their voluntary retirement from the organization. The golden handshake is nowhere related to mergers and takeovers.


Normally top-level executives or employees are engaged in a high-risk job. Taking the nature of risk into the account, the employer agrees to offer a hefty package in the form of a golden handshake. This motivates the employee to work diligently for the employer.

Normally when top-level executives change jobs, they take into account the level of severance package offered by the employer along with the salary offered.

The golden handshakes take care of the financial security of the employee when he or she faces unemployment and job loss.

It helps employees to seek out better alternatives and opportunities as they won’t have to worry on the account of immediate money requirements or funding needs.

The golden handshake offered to the employee is often not performance-based. The employment contract does not add the stipulation or clause that the employee has to perform throughout his employment tenure. Therefore, when employees are fired under the ground of non-performance, the employees would still be eligible for the severance package.

The organization may induce early retirements for the employees deliberately to tone down the costs of increasing operations.

They could further initiate it to cut down on their labor force to meet the demand of an ever-changing business environment or to cope up with a takeover.

If the top executives take up a golden handshake then they have to accept the non-compete clause under the severance package.

A non-compete clause states that the top executive would be allowed to open any rival business for predefined tenure once terminated from the organization.


The golden handshake is one of the clauses in the employment contract of the employee who holds top executive or management level position in the organization. The golden handshake offers a severance package which helps employee mitigate their financial risk.

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Excel Sparklines – A Complete Guide With Examples

Sparklines feature was introduced in Excel 2010.

In this article, you’ll learn all about Excel Sparklines and see some useful examples of it.

Sparklines are tiny charts that reside in a cell in Excel. These charts are used to show a trend over time or the variation in the dataset.

You can use these sparklines to make your bland data look better by adding this layer of visual analysis.

While Sparklines are tiny charts, they have limited functionality (as compared with regular charts in Excel). Despite that, Sparklines are great as you can create these easy to show a trend (and even outliers/high-low points) and make your reports and dashboard more reader-friendly.

Unlike regular charts, Sparklines are not objects. These reside in a cell as the background of that cell.

In Excel, there are three types of sparklines:




In the below image, I have created an example of all these three types of sparklines.

The first one in G2 is a line type sparkline, in G3 is a column type and in G4 is the win-loss type.

Here are a few important things to know about Excel Sparklines:

Sparklines are dynamic and are dependent on the underlying dataset. When the underlying dataset changes, the sparkline would automatically update. This makes it a useful tool to use when creating Excel dashboards.

Sparklines size is dependent on the size of the cell. If you change the cell height or width, the sparkline would adjust accordingly.

While you have sparkline in a cell, you can also enter a text in it.

You can customize these sparklines – such as change the color, add an axis, highlight maximum/minimum data points, etc. We will see how to do this for each sparkline type later in this tutorial.

Note: A Win-loss sparkline is just like a column sparkline, but it doesn’t show the magnitude of the value. It is better used in situations where the outcome is binary, such as Yes/No, True/False, Head/Tail, 1/-1, etc. For example, if you’re plotting whether it rained in the past 7 days or not, you can plot a win-loss with 1 for days when it rained and -1 for days when it didn’t. In this tutorial, everything covered for column sparklines can also be applied to the win-loss sparklines.

Now let’s cover each of these types of sparklines and all the customizations you can do with it.

Let’s say that you want to insert a line sparkline (as shown below).

Here are the steps to insert a line sparkline in Excel:

Select the cell in which you want the sparkline.

In the ‘Create Sparklines’ dialog box, select the data range (A2:F2 in this example).

This will insert a line sparkline in cell G2.

To insert a ‘Column’ or ‘Win-loss’ sparkline, you need to follow the same above steps, and select Columns or Win-loss instead of the Line (in step 3).

While the above steps insert a basic sparkline in the cell, you can do some customization to make it better.

When you select a cell that has a Sparkline, you’ll notice that a contextual tab – Sparkline Tools Design – becomes available. In this contextual tab, you’ll find all the customization option for the selected sparkline type.

Edit Group Location & Data: Use this when you have grouped multiple sparklines and you want to change the data for the entire group (grouping is covered later in this tutorial).

Edit Single Sparkline’s Data: Use this to change the data for the selected sparkline only.

When you create a line sparkline with a dataset that has an empty cell, you will notice that the sparkline shows a gap for that empty cell.

In the above dataset, the value for April is missing which creates a gap in the first sparkline.

Here is an example where there is a missing data point in a column sparkline.

You can specify how you want these empty cells to be treated.

Here are the steps:

In the drop-down, select ‘Hidden & Empty Cells’ option.

In the dialog box that opens, select whether you want to show

Empty cells as gaps

Empty cells as zero

Connect the before and after data points with a line [this option is available for line sparklines only].

In case the data for the sparkline is in cells that are hidden, you can check the ‘Show data in hidden rows and columns’ to make sure the data form these cells is also plotted. If you don’t do this, data from hidden cells will be ignored.

Below is an example of all three options for a line sparkline:

Cell G2 is what happens when you choose to show a gap in the sparkline.

Cell G3 is what happens when you choose to show a zero instead.

Cell G2 is what happens when you choose to show a continuous line by connecting the data points.

You can do the same with column and win-loss sparklines as well (not the connecting data point option).

If you want to quickly change the sparkline type – from line to column or vice versa, you can do that using the following steps:

In the Type group, select the sparkline you want.

While a simple sparkline shows the trend over time, you can also use some markers and highlights to make it more meaningful.

For example, you can highlight the maximum and the minimum data points, first and the last data point, as well as all the negative data points.

Below is an example where I have highlighted the maximum and minimum data points in a line and column sparkline.

These options are available in the Sparkline Tools tab (in the show group).

Here are the different options available:

High/Low Point: You can use any one or both of these to highlight the maximum and/or the minimum data point.

First/Last Point: You can use any one or both of these to highlight the first and/or the last data point.

Negative Points: In case you have negative data points, you can use this option to highlight all of these at once.

Markers: This option is available only for line sparklines. It will highlight all the data points with a marker. You can change the color of the marker using the ‘Marker Color’ option.

You can change the way sparklines look using the style and color options.

It allows you to change the sparkline color (of lines or columns) as well as the markers.

Pro Tip: If you’re are using markers to highlight certain data points, it’s a good idea to choose a line color that is light in color and marker that is bright and dark (red works great in most cases).

When you create a sparkline, in its default form, it shows the lowest data point at the bottom and all the other data points are relative to it.

In some cases, you may not want this to be the case as it seems to show a huge variation.

In the below example, the variation is only 5 points (where the entire data set is between 95 and 100). But since the axis starts from the lowest point (which is 95), the variation looks huge.

This difference is a lot more prominent in a column sparkline:

In the above column sparkline, it may look like the Jan value is close to 0.

To adjust this, you can change the axis in the sparklines (make it start at a specific value).

Here is how to do this:

Select the cell with the sparkline(s).

In the drop-down, select Custom Value (in the Vertical Axis Minimum Value Options).

In the Sparkline Vertical Axis Settings dialog box, enter the value as 0.

This will give you the result as shown below.

By setting the customs value at 0, we have forced the sparkline to start at 0. This gives a true representation of the variation.

Note: In case you have negative numbers in your data set, it’s best to not set the axis. For example, if you set the axis to 0, the negative numbers would not be shown in the sparkline (as it begins from 0).

You can also make the axis visible by selecting the Show Axis option. This is useful only when you have numbers that cross the axis. For example, if you have the axis set at 0 and have both positive and negative numbers, then the axis would be visible.

If you have a number of sparklines in your report or dashboard, you can group some of these together. Doing this makes it easy to make changes to the whole group instead of doing it one by one.

To group Sparklines:

Select the ones that you want to group.

Now when you select any of the Sparkline that has been grouped, it will automatically select all the ones in that group.

You can ungroup these sparklines by using the Ungroup Option.

You can not delete a sparkline by selecting the cell and hitting the delete key.

To delete a sparkline, follow the steps below:

Select the cell that has the sparkline that you want to delete.

You May Also Like the Following Excel Tutorials:

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