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The Linux kernel is a restless beast, and must continally evolve and change. Especially in ways that mystify us poor end lusers. A recent wrinkle, as of kernel version 2.6.20, is changing the /dev names for ATA devices, so that all ATA and SCSI devices are named /dev/sd*. This is a result of using the shiny new libata subsystem. In the olden days PATA (also called IDE) hard drives and ATAPI devices (CD/DVD, tape drives) were /dev/hd*, and SCSI and SATA devices were /dev/sd*.

However, not all Linux distributions default to using libata. *buntu Feisty and Gutsy are all over the map; some versions of them use the new naming convention, some don’t, and I haven’t figured out which ones, or why. You can see how your own system handles these names with a couple of simple commands. This example from Kubuntu Gutsy shows the old style:

hda hda1 hda2 hdc hdd sda sda1 sda2 /dev/hda1 on / type ext3 (rw,errors=remount-ro) /dev/sda1 on /home type ext3 (rw) /dev/sda2 on /media/sda2 type ext3 (rw) /dev/hda2 on /var type ext3 (rw)

The first command shows all the ATA and SCSI devices detected by your kernel. The second command shows which ones are mounted. On this system there is one PATA hard disk with two partitions (hda), two CD/DVD drives (hdc, hdd), and one SATA disk with two partitions (sda). When I boot into Fedora 8, which defaults to libata, it looks like this:

sda sda1 sda2 sdb sdb1 sdb2

Where are the two CD/DVD drives? These get /dev/sr* names under libata:

sr0 sr1

So why did this happen? Is it because kernel developers have cruel senses of humor, and delight in tormenting us? While that is a possibility, the real reason, as always, is to improve the kernel. The Linux kernel has evolved considerably since the bad old days of ide-scsi, the old ide subsystem, and the ATAPI subsystem. All of these had their problems. This has all been replaced by libata, which is easier to maintain, supports more devices, and works better.

In addition to cleaning up a pile of old kernel messes, libata supports power management, SMART (Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology System), and SATA port multiplier (PMP). PMP means you can use a single controller with multiple SATA devices. The one downside is you don’t get as many partitions on PATA disks- under the old IDE subsystem you could have 64 partitions, but you only get 15 under libata. So if you like to carve your PATA disks into vast numbers of partitions, you’ll either need to use the old subsystems and drivers, or join the 21st century and use LVM. (Or try the experimental kernel patch by Carl-Daniel Hailfinger that lets you have 127 partitions on a single hard disk; see Resources.)

# /dev/sda1 UUID=b099f554-db0b-45d4-843e-0d6a1c43ba44 /home ext3 defaults 0 2

Yes, UUIDs are long and unattractive. But they are unique, so no matter what udev or anything else on your system tries to do with them, they will always be the same. How do you know what the UUID is?

# vol_id -u /dev/sda1 b099f554-db0b-45d4-843e-0d6a1c43ba445

On Fedora it’s /lib/udev/vol_id.

LABEL=/1 / ext3defaults 1 1

vol_id –export [device name] displays complete information, including labels. Where does this label come from? Fedora creates it at installation. To create or change filesystem labels, you need to use a command specific to your filesystem. e2label is for Ext3. For ReiserFS, use reiserfstune, and you must unmount the filesystem first. On XFS use xfs_admin, and for JFS you need jfs_tune. For FAT filesystems use mlabel, which is part of mtools.

ata1.00 primary master ata1.01 primary slave ata2.00 secondary master ata2.01 secondary slave Resources

Merging libata PATA support into the base kernel


support for 127 Partitions on SATA, IDE and SCSI

Manage Linux Storage with LVM and Smartctl

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How To Delete Files With Long Names

How to Delete Files With Long Names [Easy Steps & Tips] Third-party file manager may help you delete the long file names




If you have a lot of files with long file names, it can be helpful to either shorten them or create new ones to make them more manageable.

However, you may have issues deleting long file names at times because your OS fails to process them.

In such a case, a third-party file manager that is capable of deleting the long file names comes in handy.



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Have you ever run into a file name that was too long to delete or a file extension that was superfluous? This can happen when you’re removing an old file or editing a new file with a long title. Some files in Windows are strange. You may find that the file name is too long to delete or rename.

If this sounds familiar, we’re here to lift that burden. You don’t have to be stuck with a file you want to get rid of. In this article, we shed more light on how to delete files with long names.

What are long file names?

Long file names are file names that exceed the maximum length of 255 characters. You can use long file names as long as you want, but you must be careful to avoid problems when naming your files.

If you try to save a file with a long filename, Windows will automatically truncate the name to 255 characters or less and then save it to disk. A long filename that is too big for Windows to store on disk will result in an error when the user tries to use that file.

Long file names can be used for several reasons:

Why can’t I delete files with long names?

There are many reasons that can prevent you from deleting files with long names. These include:

The file is open in another app – If the file is open in any program or application, the file will not be deleted immediately. 

Not enough permission – Some files require an administrator account to be deleted. If you’re using a standard account, you may need to switch to one with administrator privileges.

You’re deleting a copy – If you try to delete a file that’s been renamed and its original name still exists in your current directory, then Windows will not be able to delete the new name until the original name is deleted first. 

OS can’t process it – The operating system has a limit for the length of the name and if the file has a name that exceeds that limit, it will not be able to delete it.

How do I delete files that are too long?

Before you proceed with any of these steps, we recommend you check the following:

Ensure you have administrative privileges.

Check that you have enough free hard drive space in your PC.

1. Use a third-party file manager

Deleting long file names is a tedious task. It can be done using an automated tool or manually, but the latter is more time-consuming and cumbersome.

A third-party file manager is a great way to delete long file names from your computer. It will allow you to search for and select the files you want to keep, as well as delete them all at once.

Aomei Partition Assistant Professional is a third-party file manager that can be used to manage files and folders in your system. It is also one of the best partitioning software available on the market, so you can easily see what you are doing.

AOMEI Partition Assisstant Professional

Powerful file manager that lets you easily manage your partitions, delete unnecessary partitions, and move and resize partitions.

Free trial Visit website

2. Rename the file

While this method works most of the time, some file names are stubborn and won’t delete. For instance, when you try to delete a PDF with a long file name, you may be unsuccessful since most PDFs don’t allow any edits.

You can choose to install PDF editor software to help you edit the file but most of them are paid for. The free ones may be able to help but a majority of them come with basic features. If this works, you should be able to delete the file but if it doesn’t, proceed to the next step.

3. Delete via Command Prompt

Hopefully, one of these methods has been able to help you get rid of the long file name that wouldn’t delete. Aside from file names, you may also have trouble deleting a folder. If you encounter such an issue, don’t hesitate to check out our expert article on the same.

Still experiencing issues?

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Google Replaces Title Tags With Site Names For Homepage Results

Google appears to have stopped showing title tags for mobile search results for the entire website such as in searches for the name of a website which generally show the home page.

This feature does not work for subdomains.

According to Google’s Search Central documentation for site names:

What’s being shown in mobile searches is just the generic name for a website.

For example, a mobile search for Search Engine Journal shows a search engine results page (SERP) with the generic name of the website, Search Engine Journal.

The title tag for the above home page is:

Non-branded searches for keywords appear to still show the title tags.

Brand name + keyword searches also appear to still show the title tags.

Why Is Google Using Site Names?

Google is using site names in order to make it easier for users to identify the specific website in the search results.

Google’s official announcement explained:

“Today, Search is introducing site names on mobile search results to make it easier to identify the website that’s associated with each result…”

This new feature is available in the English, French, Japanese, and German languages and will begin showing up in other languages over the next few months.

New Feature Doesn’t Always Work

But a search using the compound word domain name HubSpot shows the old version search result with the title tags.

Search Result for Keyword Phrase “HubSpot”

But a search for Hub Spot (with a space between the two words) does work and shows the site name.

Search Result for Keyword Phrase: “Hub Spot”

A search for compound word name “Wordfence” and “word fence” returns the same site name search.

Search Result for keywords “Wordfence” & “Word Fence”

So it appears that Google isn’t consistently returning site name results for HubSpot but is doing it correctly for many other sites.

Structured Data for New Site Names Feature

Google is recommending the use of the WebSite structured data type.

Previously the WebSite structured data site was considered pointless because obviously Google knows a website is a website and it didn’t need structured data to understand that Google was indexing a website.

But that’s changed because Google is now using the WebSite structured data type, specifically the “name” property, to understand what the site name of a website is.

Google published an example of the WebSite structured data with the “name” property in use:

{ “@type” : “WebSite”, “name” : “Example”, }

The above structured data must be shown on the home page.

Google’s Search Central page for site name recommends the following for placement of the WebSite structured data:

“The WebSite structured data must be on the homepage of the site.

By homepage, we mean the domain-level root URI.

What if a Site Has an Alternate Name?

What’s useful about the WebSite structured data is that it offers the opportunity to tell Google what the alternate name of the website is.

Google explains how to do it:

“If you want to provide an alternate version of your site name (for example, an acronym or shorter name), you can do this by adding the alternateName property.

This is optional.”

The structured data for adding an optional name looks like this:

JSON Structured Data for Optional Name

{ “@type” : “WebSite”, “name” : “Example Company”, “alternateName” : “EC”, }

Google Uses More Than Structured Data

The Google documentation on site names explains that Google is using on-page, off-page and meta data information in addition to structured data to determine what a webpage site name is.

This is what Google uses to understand the site name:

WebSite structured data

Title tag

Headings (H1, H2, etc.)

Open Graph Protocol meta data, specifically the og:site_name

Something to take note of is that og:site_name property is an optional but recommended Open Graph property.

The Open Graph notation generally looks like this in the HTML code:

Google Site Names

The new site names feature in Google search looks attractive on mobile devices.

It makes sense to have less clutter in the SERPs for home page brand name searches. although I can see some complaining about the absence of title tag influence in these kinds of searches.

Citations Read the Official Announcement

Introducing site names on Google Search

Read the Search Central Documentation

Provide a site name to Google Search

Featured image by Shutterstock/Asier Romero

How To Split Disk Space In Windows 11

How to Split Disk Space in Windows 11 [Simplest Way] Learn to create new partitions on your Windows 11 device




Most computers come with an entire disk available so that you can set it up to suit your needs.

In Windows 11, you can customize your hard disk space into several partitions for various uses.

In Windows 11, you can divide your hard disk into multiple partitions. Each partition acts as an independent hard drive.

If you’re wondering why you should partition your hard drive in Windows 11, the answer is simple: it keeps your data organized and can even help protect your system from a crash.

You can use each for a particular purpose. One can be for storing documents and personal files and another for installing programs.

Windows 11 is known for its high space requirements so it is better to organize your drives to allow you to allocate space accordingly.

When you create multiple partitions on your hard drive, it’s easier to manage your files and back up your data.

Why do I need to divide my Windows 11 hard disk drive?

Windows 11 does not come with a partitioned hard disk. The drive is one big block of space in which you can create multiple partitions. 

You can divide your hard drive in Windows for a lot of different reasons; it’s not just about creating more space.

The most common reason to do this is that you want to keep different parts of your computer separate from each other. However, another reason is security.

Each partition is treated like a separate physical hard drive by the operating system, so it helps you to logically organize your data and make optimum utilization of the available space. 

You may wonder how many partitions are sufficient for your hard disk. It is recommended that you organize your space in terms of your OS files, software and programs, and finally your files and folders.

Quick Tip:

For those of you that want quick results and more in-depth management options, we suggest using third-party partition assistant software.

Tenorshare Partition Manager simplifies the process. It has a simple UI with straightforward features that let you split your hard disk space efficiently.

With this tool, you can create and manage partitions. Select their size, set volume label, and change drive letters and paths.

Manage already created partitions without risking data loss. You can resize, convert and split your partitions so your disk space is allocated exactly how you need it.

Tenorshare Partition Manager

Divide hard disk space and control your partitions with straightforward management tools.

Free trial Visit website

How can I create a new partition in Windows 11? 1. Use the Disk Management tool

1. Hit the Windows + X keys to open the Quick Access menu, then select Disk Management.

5. Continue pressing Next on the consecutive windows and assign a name to the new drive.

A quick and handy method to create new partitions on your hard disk is via your Windows 11’s built-in Disk Management tool.

The tool is free and easy to use and allows you to divide your disk space however you like. Simply follow the volume wizard and the process will be done in no time.

Can I delete a Windows 11 partition to create another?

Yes, you can delete a partition to create another. Deleting it will erase all of its contents, so make sure you have transferred the files that you want to keep elsewhere before deleting. Once you have deleted the drive, the space will be available for use as part of other partitions.

To delete a drive, follow the steps below:

We hope with the help of this guide, you have been able to divide your hard disk space into more useful partitions to help you stay organized. 

Remember to back up all your files before you shrink or delete any drives. Also, check out our article on what to do if Windows 11 requires more free space to avoid performance issues.

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5 Best Linux Package Managers For Linux Newbies

Linux is a popular open-source operating system that has gained a lot of popularity in recent years. It is known for its flexibility and security, making it a preferred choice for developers and enthusiasts alike. One of essential features of Linux is its package manager, which is a tool that helps users manage software installation, removal, and updates. In this article, we will discuss 5 best Linux package managers for Linux newbies.

What is a Linux Package Manager?

Before we dive into list of package managers, let’s understand what a package manager is. In simple terms, a package manager is a tool that helps users install, remove and manage software packages on a Linux system. These packages are pre-compiled software bundles that contain all necessary files and dependencies required to run software.


The apt-get package manager is most commonly used package manager on Debian-based Linux distributions, such as Ubuntu and Linux Mint. It is a command-line tool that uses Advanced Package Tool (APT) to manage software packages.


Pacman is a package manager used on Arch Linux and its derivatives. It is a command-line tool that is simple and easy to use. Pacman uses Arch User Repository (AUR) to manage software packages, which is a community-driven repository that allows users to create and maintain packages.


Yum is a package manager used on Red Hat-based Linux distributions, such as CentOS and Fedora. It is a command-line tool that uses Yellowdog Updater, Modified (YUM) to manage software packages.


Zypper is a package manager used on openSUSE Linux and its derivatives. It is a command-line tool that uses ZYpp package management library to manage software packages.


DNF is a package manager used on Fedora and its derivatives. It is a command-line tool that uses DNF package management library to manage software packages.

Graphical Package Managers

In addition to command-line package managers, Linux also has a variety of graphical package managers that provide a more user-friendly interface for managing software packages. These graphical package managers can be helpful for Linux newbies who are not yet comfortable with command line.

Here are some examples of popular graphical package managers −

Ubuntu Software Center

The Ubuntu Software Center is a graphical package manager that is included with Ubuntu and other Debian-based Linux distributions. It provides users with an easy-to-use interface for searching, installing, and managing software packages.

The Ubuntu Software Center also includes user reviews and ratings for software packages, which can be helpful in deciding which packages to install.

GNOME Software

GNOME Software is a graphical package manager that is included with many Linux distributions that use GNOME desktop environment. It provides users with a simple interface for browsing, searching, and installing software packages.

GNOME Software also includes user reviews and ratings for software packages, as well as a feature that recommends packages based on user’s previous software installations.


Discover is a graphical package manager that is included with many Linux distributions that use KDE desktop environment. It provides users with a simple interface for browsing, searching, and installing software packages.

Discover also includes user reviews and ratings for software packages, as well as a feature that recommends packages based on user’s previous software installations.

Package Manager Features

When choosing a package manager, there are a few key features to consider. Here are some features to look for −

Dependency Resolution

A good package manager should be able to automatically resolve dependencies when installing or updating software packages. This can save users a lot of time and hassle.

Package Signing

Package signing is a security feature that ensures that packages are not tampered with or altered during installation process. A good package manager should be able to verify package signatures to ensure that software packages are authentic.

User-friendly Interface

A package manager should have a user-friendly interface that makes it easy for Linux newbies to install, remove, and manage software packages. interface should be intuitive and easy to navigate.


A good package manager should be fast and efficient. Users don’t want to spend a lot of time waiting for packages to install or update.

Package Selection

The package manager should have a wide selection of software packages available. This can vary depending on Linux distribution, but a good package manager should have a good selection of commonly used packages.

Package Manager Alternatives

While package managers listed in this article are some of most popular and widely used, there are other package managers available for Linux users. Here are some alternatives −


Snap is a package manager that is designed to work across different Linux distributions. It uses containerization to ensure that packages are isolated from rest of system, which can improve security.

Snap packages are self-contained, meaning that they include all necessary dependencies required to run software. This can make it easier to install and update software packages.


Flatpak is another package manager that is designed to work across different Linux distributions. It uses containerization to ensure that packages are isolated from rest of system, which can improve security.

Like Snap, Flatpak packages are self-contained, meaning that they include all necessary dependencies required to run software.


AppImage is a package format that is designed to be portable across different Linux distributions. It allows users to download and run applications without needing to install them on system.

AppImage packages are self-contained, meaning that they include all necessary dependencies required to run software.


In conclusion, Linux package managers are an essential tool for managing software packages on a Linux system. package managers listed in this article are some of best Linux package managers for Linux newbies. They provide users with simple commands and a user-friendly interface that makes it easy to install, remove, and update software packages. Whether you are using Debian-based, Red Hat-based, or openSUSE-based Linux distributions, you can find a package manager that suits your needs.

How To Recover A Cryptolocker Infected Hard Drive

CryptoLocker is a ransomware which is just simple and devastating. Up until now, computers effected by CryptoLocker were unusable unless you paid the demanded monetary payment.

What is CryptoLocker

We have already covered what CryptoLocker is previously. In short, it is a ransomware trojan which is specifically designed to infect computers running Windows operating system. Once a computer is infected, it encrypts all the data present in the local storage, mapped network drives and any mounted removable drives using 2048-bit RSA public key cryptography, essentially rendering all the files unusable. Unless you pay the ransom (300 USD or equivalent Bitcoins), you won’t be able to get your files back.

Up until now, there was no way to recover the data encrypted by CryptoLocker.

Thanks to the researchers at Fox-IT and FireEye, though, who managed to recover the private encryption keys and Kyrus Technologies for building the actual decryption engine. Combining the efforts, these security firms launched a website which can be used by the victims of CryptoLocker to decrypt their encrypted files free of charge.

Decrypt CryptoLocker Infected Files

Once you have submitted the sample file, the file will be processed and the website will send you the decryption key (private key) along with a link to download the decryption program.

Once you have received the decryption key and the decryption tool via email, launch the decryption tool and use the command below to start decrypting your encrypted files.


CryptoLocker is nasty malware which feeds on users’ precious data. If you are infected by CryptoLocker, you can use the above service to get your files back. In addition, make sure you are using a good anti-virus software to protect yourselves from any future attacks. Do note that even though this process (hopefully) works with CryptoLocker, it may not be able to decrypt the files encrypted by CryptoLocker variants like CryptoBit, CryptoDefense, etc.

Vamsi Krishna

Vamsi is a tech and WordPress geek who enjoys writing how-to guides and messing with his computer and software in general. When not writing for MTE, he writes for he shares tips, tricks, and lifehacks on his own blog Stugon.

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