Trending February 2024 # Data Science Interview Questions: Land To Your Dream Job # Suggested March 2024 # Top 9 Popular

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This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

Introduction

In this article, I have curated a list of 15 data science questions including a challenging problem that helps you while you are targeting to crack Data Science Jobs. These data science questions are based on my experience on appearing various interviews.

– Probability, Statistics and Linear Algebra in Data Science

– Different algorithms of Machine Learning

1. From the given principal components, which of the following can be the first 2 principal components after applying Principal Component Analysis(PCA)?

(a) [1,2] and [2,-1]

(b) [1/2,√3/2] and [√3/2,-1/2]

(c) [1,3] and [2,3]

(d) [1,4] and [3,5]

Principal Component Analysis(PCA) finds the direction that is having a maximum variance of data. It finds directions that are mutually orthogonal and the calculated principal components are normalized. So, for all the given options only option-b will be going to satisfy all the properties of principal components in the PCA algorithm.

2. We cannot apply Independent Component Analysis(ICA) for which of the following probability distributions?

(a) Uniform distribution

(b) Gaussian distribution

(c) Exponential distribution

(d) None of the above

We cannot apply Independent Component Analysis(ICA) to Gaussian or Normal variables since these distributions are symmetrical. Basically, this is the kind of constraint that we have to keep in mind while applying the Independent Component Analysis(ICA) algorithm.

3. Choose the correct option in the case of Linear Discriminant Analysis(LDA):

(a) LDA maximizes the distance between classes and minimizes distance within a class

(b) LDA minimizes both between and within a class distance

(c) LDA minimizes the distance between classes and maximizes distance within a class

(d) LDA maximizes the distance between and within the class distance

LDA tries to maximize the between-class variance and minimize the within-class variance, through a linear discriminant function. It assumes that the data in every class are described by a Normal Distribution having the same covariance.

4. Consider the following statements about categorical variables:

Statement 1: A Categorical variable has a large number of categories

Statement 2: A Categorical variable has a small number of categories

Which of the following is true?

(a) Gain ratio is preferred over information gain for 1st statement

(b) Gain ratio is preferred over information gain for 2nd statement

(c) Category does not decide preference of gain ratio and information gain

(d) None of the above

5. Consider 2 features: Feature 1 and Feature 2 having values as Yes and No

Feature 1: 9 Yes and 7 No

Feature 2: 12 Yes and 4 No

For all these 16 instances which feature will have more entropy?

(a) Feature 1

(b) Feature 2

(c) Feature 1 and feature 2 both have the same entropy

(d) Insufficient data to decide

For a two-class problem, the entropy is defined as:

Entropy = -(P(class0) * log2(P(class0)) + P(class1) * log2(P(class1)))

Similarly, we can calculate for the other feature also, and then we can easily compare.

6. Which of the following is/are true when bagging is applied to regression trees:

S1: Each tree has high variance with low bias

S2: We take an average of all the regression trees

S3: There are n regression trees for n bootstrap samples

(a) S1 and S3 are correct

(b) Only S2 is correct

(c) S2 and S3 are correct

(d) All correct

Bagging is a type of ensemble technique in which we are forming the bootstrap samples from our training data and for each sample, we train a weak classifier, and finally, for the predictions on the test dataset, we combine the results of all the weak learners. Averaging of results helps us to reduce the variance while keeping bias approximate constant.

7. Determine entropy of a feature (X) having following values:

X = [0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1 ]

(a) -0.988

(b) 0.988

(c) -0.05

(d) 0.05

For a two-class problem(say A and B), the entropy is defined as:

Entropy = -(P(class-A) * log2(P(class-A)) + P(class-B) * log2(P(class-B)))

Now, we have a total of 7 zeroes and 9 ones present in that feature X. So, by putting the values of 7/16 and 9/16 in the above formula, we get the value of entropy to be 0.988.

8. Which of the following options is true for the Independent Component Analysis(ICA) estimation?

(a) Negentropy and mutual information of the variables are always non-negative.

(b) For statistically independent variables, mutual information is zero.

(c) For statistically independent variables, mutual information should be minimum and

negentropy should be maximum

(d) All of the above.

The following things are true wrt ICA Algorithm:

– For any variables that are involved in our algorithm, the sign of negentropy and mutual information is always non-negative.

– But if we have statistically independent variables, then mutual information is zero.

– Also, for statistically independent variables, the value of mutual infor l be minimum whereas, on the other hand, the negentropy should be maximum.

9. In the case of Principal Component Analysis(PCA), if all eigenvectors are the same then we can not choose principal components because,

(a) All principal components are zero

(b) All principal components are equal

(c) Principal components can not be determined

(d) None of the above

In the case PCA Algorithm, which is an unsupervised machine learning algorithm, if all eigenvectors are the same then we are unable to choose principal components as in that case all the principal components become equal.

Subjective Data Science Questions

10. A society has 70% male and 30% female. Each person has a ball having either red or blue color. It is known that 5% of males and 10% of females have red-colored balls. If a person is selected at random and found to have blue balls. Calculate the probability that the person is a Male.

Solution: (0.711)

Here we use the concept of Conditional Probabilities.

11. You are working on a spam classification system using Support Vector Machines(SVM). “Spam” is a positive class(y=1) and “not ive class(y=0). You have trained your classifier and there are m=1000 examples in the validation set. The confusion matrix of the predicted class vs actual class is presented in the following chart:

Actual Class: 1 Actual Class: 0

Predicted Class: 1 85 890

Predicted Class: 0

10

What is the average accuracy and class-wise accuracy of the classifier(based on the above confusion matrix)?

Hint: Average Classification Accuracy: (TP+TN)/(TP+TN+FP+FN)

Class-wise classification accuracy: [TN/(TN+FP)+TP/(TP+FN)]/2

where, TP = True positive, FP = False positive, FN = False negative, and TN = True negative.

Comprehension Type Questions

Consider a set of 2-D data points having coordinates {(-3,-3), (-1,-1),(1,1),(3,3)}. We want to reduce the dimensionality of these points by 1 using the Principal Component Analysis(PCA) algorithm. Assume the value of sqrt(2)=1.414. Now, Answer the following questions:

12. Find the eigenvalue of the data matrix XXT(XT represents the transpose of X matrix)

13. Find the weight matrix W.

14. Find the reduced dimensionality of the given data.

Solution: Here the original data resides in R2 i.e, two-dimensional space, and our objective is to reduce the dimensionality of the data to 1 i.e, 1-dimensional data ⇒ K=1

We try to solve these set of problem step by step so that you have a clear understanding of the steps involved in the PCA algorithm:

Step-1: Get the Dataset

Here data matrix X is given by [ [ -3, -1, 1 ,3 ], [ -3, -1, 1, 3 ] ]

Step-2: Compute the mean vector (µ)

Mean Vector: [ {-3+(-1)+1+3}/4, {-3+(-1)+1+3}/4 ] = [ 0, 0 ]

Step-3: Subtract the means from the given data

Since here the mean vector is 0, 0 so while subtracting all the points from the mean we get the same data points.

Step-4: Compute the covariance matrix

Therefore, the covariance matrix becomes XXT since the mean is at the origin.

Therefore, XXT becomes [ [ -3, -1, 1 ,3 ], [ -3, -1, 1, 3 ] ] ( [ [ -3, -1, 1 ,3 ], [ -3, -1, 1, 3 ] ] )T

= [ [ 20, 20 ], [ 20, 20 ] ]

Step-5: Determine the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the covariance matrix

det(C-λI)=0 gives the eigenvalues as 0 and 40.

Now, choose the maximum eigenvalue from the calculated and find the eigenvector corresponding to λ = 40 by using the equations CX = λX :

Accordingly, we get the eigenvector as (1/√ 2 ) [ 1, 1 ]

Therefore, the eigenvalues of matrix XXT are 0 and 40.

Step-6: Choosing Principal Components and forming a weight vector

Here, U = R2×1 and equal to the eigenvector of XXT corresponding to the largest eigenvalue.

Now, the eigenvalue decomposition of C=XXT

And W (weight matrix) is the transpose of the U matrix and given as a row vector.

Therefore, the weight matrix is given by [1 1]/1.414

Step-7: Deriving the new data set by taking the projection on the weight vector

Now, reduced dimensionality data is obtained as xi = UT Xi = WXi

x1 = WX1= (1/√ 2 ) [ 1, 1 ] [ -3, -3 ]T = – 3√ 2

x2 = WX2= (1/√ 2) [ 1, 1 ] [ -1, -1 ]T = – √ 2

x3 = WX3= (1/√ 2) [ 1, 1 ] [ 1, 1]T = – √ 2

x4 = WX4= (1/√ 2 ) [ 1, 1 ] [ 3, 3 ]T = – 3√ 2

Therefore, the reduced dimensionality will be equal to {-3*1.414, -1.414,1.414, 3*1.414}.

Challenging Problems

15. You are given a dataset having N data points and d=2 features consisting of the inputs X ∈ Rn×d, and labels y ∈ ( -1, 1 }N, as illustrated in the figure,

Suppose that we want to learn the (unknown) radius r of a circle centered at a given fixed point c, such that this circle separates the two classes with minimum error. To do so, we need to find the parameter r(radius) that minimizes some suitable cost function E(r). How would you design/define this cost function E(r)? Also, justify why/how you choose your cost function?

Image Source-1

One possible solution:

Basically, in this possible solution, we are trying to find the distance of all the points wrt a particular center and then find the difference between that distance and radius of that mentioned circle, and then multiply it by the particular label of that data point and then try to find the maximum between this value and zero and then finally take the average of all the values which we got after sum up this for all the data points. This is a naive solution that we can think of for a given problem statement.

OPEN FOR DISCUSSION

But, I have given one possible solution for this problem just for giving a path for thinking of some different solutions to a given problem.

Read more Data Science questions, here!

Reference:

Related

30+ Most Important Data Science Interview Questions (Updated 2023)

X               1               20                 30                    40

Y               1               400                800                   1300

(A)  27.876

(B) 32.650

(C) 40.541

(D) 28.956

Explanation: Hint: Use the ordinary least square method.

Q5. The robotic arm will be able to paint every corner of the automotive parts while minimizing the quantity of paint wasted in the process. Which learning technique is used in this problem?

(A) Supervised Learning.

(B) Unsupervised Learning.

(C) Reinforcement Learning.

(D) Both (A) and (B).

Explanation: Here robot is learning from the environment by taking the rewards for positive actions and penalties for negative actions.

Q6. Which one of the following statements is TRUE for a Decision Tree?

(A) Decision tree is only suitable for the classification problem statement.

(B) In a decision tree, the entropy of a node decreases as we go down the decision tree.

(C) In a decision tree, entropy determines purity.

(D) Decision tree can only be used for only numeric valued and continuous attributes.

Explanation: Entropy helps to determine the impurity of a node, and as we go down the decision tree, entropy decreases.

Q7. How do you choose the right node while constructing a decision tree?

(A) An attribute having high entropy

(B) An attribute having high entropy and information gain

(C) An attribute having the lowest information gain.

(D) An attribute having the highest information gain.

Explanation: We select first those attributes which are having maximum information gain.

Q8. What kind of distance metric(s) are suitable for categorical variables to find the closest neighbors?

(A) Euclidean distance.

(B) Manhattan distance.

(C) Minkowski distance.

(D) Hamming distance.

Explanation: Hamming distance is a metric for comparing two binary data strings, i.e., suitable for categorical variables.

Q9. In the Naive Bayes algorithm, suppose that the prior for class w1 is greater than class w2, would the decision boundary shift towards the region R1(region for deciding w1) or towards region R2 (region for deciding w2)?

(A) towards region R1.

(B) towards region R2.

(C) No shift in decision boundary.

(D) It depends on the exact value of priors.

Explanation: Upon shifting the decision boundary towards region R2, we preserve the prior probabilities proportion since the prior for w1 is greater than w2.

Q10. Which of the following statements is FALSE about Ridge and Lasso Regression?

(A) These are types of regularization methods to solve the overfitting problem.

(B) Lasso Regression is a type of regularization method.

(C) Ridge regression shrinks the coefficient to a lower value.

(D) Ridge regression lowers some coefficients to a zero value.

Explanation: Ridge regression never drops any feature; instead, it shrinks the coefficients. However, Lasso regression drops some features by making the coefficient of that feature zero. Therefore, the latter is used as a Feature Selection Technique.

Q11. Which of the following is FALSE about Correlation and Covariance?

(A) A zero correlation does not necessarily imply independence between variables.

(B) Correlation and covariance values are the same.

(C) The covariance and correlation are always the same sign.

(D) Correlation is the standardized version of Covariance.

Explanation: Correlation is defined as covariance divided by standard deviations and, therefore, is the standardized version of covariance.

Q12. In Regression modeling, we develop a mathematical equation that describes how, (Predictor-Independent variable, Response-Dependent variable)

(A) one predictor and one or more response variables are related.

(B) several predictors and several response variables response are related.

(C) one response and one or more predictors are related.

(D) All of these are correct.

Explanation: In the regression problem statement, we have several independent variables but only one dependent variable.

Q13. True or False: In a naive Bayes algorithm, the entire posterior probability will be zero when an attribute value in the testing record has no example in the training set.

(A) True

(B) False

(C) Can’t be determined

(D) None of these

Q14. Which of the following is NOT true about Ensemble Learning Techniques?

(A) Bagging decreases the variance of the classifier.

(B) Boosting helps to decrease the bias of the classifier.

(C) Bagging combines the predictions from different models and then finally gives the results.

(D) Bagging and Boosting are the only available ensemble techniques.

Explanation: Apart from bagging and boosting, there are other various types of ensemble techniques such as Stacking, Extra trees classifier, Voting classifier, etc.

Q15. Which of the following statement is TRUE about the Bayes classifier?

(A) Bayes classifier works on the Bayes theorem of probability.

(B) Bayes classifier is an unsupervised learning algorithm.

(C) Bayes classifier is also known as maximum apriori classifier.

(D) It assumes the independence between the independent variables or features.

Explanation: Bayes classifier internally uses the concept of the Bayes theorem for doing the predictions for unseen data points.

Q16. How will you define precision in a confusion matrix?

(A) It is the ratio of true positive to false negative predictions.

(B) It is the measure of how accurately a model can identify positive classes out of all the positive classes present in the dataset.

(C) It is the measure of how accurately a model can identify true positives from all the positive predictions that it has made

(D) It is the measure of how accurately a model can identify true negatives from all the positive predictions that it has made

Explanation: Precision is the ratio of true positive and (true positive + false positive), which means that it measures, out of all the positive predicted values by a model, how precisely a model predicted the truly positive values.

Q17. What is True about bias and variance?

(A) High bias means that the model is underfitting.

(B) High variance means that the model is overfitting

(C) Bias and variance are inversely proportional to each other.

(D) All of the above

Explanation: A model with high bias is unable to capture the underlying patterns in the data and consistently underestimates or overestimates the true values, which means that the model is underfitting. A model with high variance is overly sensitive to the noise in the data and may produce vastly different results for different samples of the same data. Therefore it is important to maintain the balance of both variance and bias. As they are inversely proportional to each other, this relationship between bias and variance is often referred to as the bias-variance trade-off.

Q18. Which of these machine learning models is used for classification as well as regression tasks?

(A) Random forest

(B) SVM(support vector machine)

(C) Logistic regression

(D) Both A and B

Explanation: Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Decision Trees are two popular machine-learning algorithms that can be used for classification and regression tasks.

A. It is computationally expensive

B. It can get stuck in local minima

C. It requires a large amount of labeled data

D. It can only handle numerical data

Explanation: It can get stuck in local minima

Data Science Interview Questions on Deep Learning Q19. Which of the following SGD variants is based on both momentum and adaptive learning?

(A) RMSprop.

(D) Nesterov.

Explanation: Adam, being a popular deep learning optimizer, is based on both momentum and adaptive learning.

Q20. Which of the following activation function output is zero-centered?

(A) Hyperbolic Tangent.

(B) Sigmoid.

(C) Softmax.

(D) Rectified Linear unit(ReLU).

Explanation: Hyperbolic Tangent activation function gives output in the range [-1,1], which is symmetric about zero.

Q21. Which of the following is FALSE about Radial Basis Function Neural Network?

(A) It resembles Recurrent Neural Networks(RNNs) which have feedback loops.

(B) It uses the radial basis function as an activation function.

(C) While outputting, it considers the distance of a point with respect to the center.

(D) The output given by the Radial basis function is always an absolute value.

Explanation: Radial basis functions do not resemble RNN but are used as an artificial neural network, which takes a distance of all the points from the center rather than the weighted sum.

Q22. In which of the following situations should you NOT prefer Keras over TensorFlow?

(A) When you want to quickly build a prototype using neural networks.

(B) When you want to implement simple neural networks in your initial learning phase.

(C) When doing critical and intensive research in any field.

(D) When you want to create simple tutorials for your students and friends.

Explanation: Keras is not preferred since it is built on top of Tensorflow, which provides both high-level and low-level APIs.

Q23. Which of the following is FALSE about Deep Learning and Machine Learning?

(A) Deep Learning algorithms work efficiently on a high amount of data and require high computational power.

(B) Feature Extraction needs to be done manually in both ML and DL algorithms.

(C) Deep Learning algorithms are best suited for an unstructured set of data.

(D) Deep Learning is a subset of machine learning

Explanation: Usually, in deep learning algorithms, feature extraction happens automatically in hidden layers.

Q24. What can you do to reduce underfitting in a deep-learning model?

(A) Increase the number of iterations

(B) Use dimensionality reduction techniques

(C) Use cross-validation technique to reduce underfitting

(D) Use data augmentation techniques to increase the amount of data used.

Explanation: Options A and B can be used to reduce overfitting in a model. Option C is just used to check if there is underfitting or overfitting in a model but cannot be used to treat the issue. Data augmentation techniques can help reduce underfitting as it produces more data, and the noise in the data can help in generalizing the model.

Q25. Which of the following is FALSE for neural networks?

(A) Artificial neurons are similar in operation to biological neurons.

(B) Training time for a neural network depends on network size.

(C) Neural networks can be simulated on conventional computers.

(D) The basic units of neural networks are neurons.

Explanation: Artificial neuron is not similar in working as compared to biological neuron since artificial neuron first takes a weighted sum of all inputs along with bias followed by applying an activation function to give the final result, whereas the working of biological neuron involves axon, synapses, etc.

Q26. Which of the following logic function cannot be implemented by a perceptron having 2 inputs?

(A) AND

(B) OR

(C) NOR

(D) XOR

Explanation: Perceptron always gives a linear decision boundary. However, for the Implementation of the XOR function, we need a non-linear decision boundary.

Q27. Inappropriate selection of learning rate value in gradient descent gives rise to:

(A) Local Minima.

(B) Oscillations.

(C) Slow convergence.

(D) All of the above.

Explanation: The learning rate decides how fast or slow our optimizer is able to achieve the global minimum. So by choosing an inappropriate value of learning rate, we may not reach the global minimum; instead, we get stuck at a local minimum and oscillate around the minimum, because of which the convergence time increases.

Data Science Interview Questions on Coding Q28.What will be the output of the following python code?

Trends In The Data Science Job Market

The data science job market is growing faster than most others, as companies of every shape and size look for professionals to solve their data problems.

Whether it’s modeling and analyzing data sets or preparing data for machine learning (ML) projects, companies need more data science talent and are sharpening their recruitment and retention strategies in that area.

Read on to learn more about the trends that experts are seeing, both from the recruiter’s and the candidate’s perspectives, in the data science job market:

Also read: Top 50 Companies Hiring for Data Science Roles

Many data science candidates are growing more interested in the educational opportunities a potential employer can offer them.

Scott Hoch, head of data at chúng tôi , an artificial intelligence (AI)-powered RevOps platform provider, believes that many less experienced data professionals are hoping to find a company that will provide supportive mentorship and learning opportunities as they look to expand their skills.

“When I talk to people in this community, either coming out of boot camps or who are making the switch into data science, they’re always looking to learn,” Hoch said.

“For these people earlier in their career, they’re looking for mentorship, looking to grow, and they’re looking to understand how data science fits into a real-world project.”

David Sweenor, senior director of product marketing at Alteryx, a data science and analytics company, said that candidates want to keep abreast of the latest trends in the market and work for a company that allows them to apply that learning to their projects.

“Data science candidates are looking to use some of the latest machine learning innovations and techniques to solve real-world business problems,” Sweenor said.

Many companies are listening to candidates’ desires for additional education and are finding ways to incorporate skill-building through partnerships in the education sector and learning resources.

Sunil Senan, VP of DNA at Infosys, a global IT services and digital transformation company, explained how companies are finding new ways to invest in their existing talent through a mixture of certifications and courses for non-technical employees.

“A key trend in the data science job market includes enterprises investing early in the talent pipeline through partnerships with educational institutions, training programs, and upskilling from within,” Senan said.

“Businesses are partnering with institutions to ensure the correct educational opportunities are being implemented at universities, along with creating strong training programs for digital careers.

“Training platforms such as these are building strong tech candidates, giving non-tech professionals the opportunity to gain more expertise within fields like data science, which in turn helps enterprises upskill non-tech employees from within.”

Continue your data science education: 10 Top Data Science Certifications

When many data scientists first come out of a degree or certification program, they know how to code and generally pursue data science projects, but they might not always bring specialized skill sets and experiences to the table.

Companies are now searching for data science specialists who can quickly apply their existing skills to a specific problem the company faces.

Kevin Pursel, VP of recruiting at Doma, a real estate tech solutions company, shared why his company and others like it are looking for data science specialists over generalists.

“As opposed to hiring a statistician that can write a few lines of code, now we’re looking for far more niche skill sets, such as deep learning engineers, NLP engineers, computer vision engineers, risk data scientists, machine learning engineers, data engineers, and even machine learning operations engineers,” Pursel said.

“It’s getting more and more difficult to grow as a data science generalist. Companies want to hire specialized people that can push the capabilities of their products and organizations.”

Although many others agree that specialists have more earning and growth potential than generalists in the current data science job market, it’s important to note that generalists might have more of an opportunity at smaller companies or those that are just starting to focus on data science.

Hoch from chúng tôi explained how large and small companies have different expectations for their data science talent:

“There’s a divide between what large companies are looking for in data scientists and what smaller companies and startups are looking for,” Hoch said.

“That divide is growing. At larger companies, they already have a lot of the infrastructure in place for managing their data and cleaning it up. They’re looking for data scientists and researchers to come in and just go very deep on data science problems.

“Whereas startups and smaller companies might not have all of that data science and data infrastructure in place. They’re looking for jacks-of-all-trades who can start getting insights out into production and work on more of the stack. So a lot of people are coming into data science, and the divide and needs between larger and smaller companies seem to be growing.”

Also read: Key Machine Learning (ML) Trends

Data science careers are hardly limited to tech companies or the “Fortune 500”; companies of different sizes, locations, and industrial backgrounds are hiring for data talent across the board.

Data science candidates recognize they are in high demand right now, and as a result, many are looking for companies with missions that align with their personal interests and values.

Stuart Davie, VP of data science at Peak, a decision intelligence company, said that what a company stands for can be a huge draw for data science candidates.

“Data scientists in general are relatively deep thinkers and are often motivated by topics like ethics and sustainability,” Davie said.

“While these are not usually the main things they are looking for in a role, ethics and sustainability initiatives that data scientists can be involved in can help set your company apart from the competition or present worthwhile opportunities that increase satisfaction (and retention).”

Jeff Kindred, PHR, senior technical recruiter at Shelf Engine, a company that specializes in automating insights into grocery supply chains and waste, has personally seen how data science candidates are compelled to join organizations with missions they feel they can get behind.

“When I speak to candidates about why they are considering Shelf Engine as their potential next employer, I almost always hear that our mission, ‘To reduce food waste through automation,’ caught their attention. They then began to research our organization more and were very interested to learn about us and our data science opportunities.”

Many companies know they want and need data science talent for a variety of company projects, but several are hiring for these roles before they realize the exact scope of their projects.

When companies move forward with disorganized data goals, they’re finding that data science professionals become frustrated and quickly move toward new opportunities.

Hoch from chúng tôi shared two typical cases in which companies hire data talent before they’ve thoughtfully planned the work for them.

“One piece of feedback that I hear a lot when people are looking for new roles: they got hired to do data science at a company that was too young, and they had to do all of this other data engineering work, and it wasn’t a good fit,” Hoch said.

“The other one that I hear about a lot is big companies will try to tackle really big and hard machine learning projects where they don’t understand everything that’s required to go into it: the budget, the work, all of it.

“These data scientists will be brought in to work on really interesting-sounding projects, but the company’s just not ready to execute yet. That leaves these engineers in a tricky spot.”

Theresa Kushner, data and analytics practice lead at NTT DATA Services, an IT service management company, believes it’s not only important that the company sets clear projects and goals for data science talent, but that they also create a supportive environment where other departments understand and collaborate well on data projects.

“In today’s environment, [data scientists] also leave in search of more meaningful project work with companies that understand their capabilities,” Kushner said.

“One of the most frustrating environments for a data scientist to work in is within a company where there are few people who understand the value they can deliver. Data scientists may not always understand the businesses they support, but they do understand data and how to manipulate it to gain value.

“The data scientist relationship with the business sponsor of the work or project is a key to keeping a data scientist or to hiring one in the first place. … Overall, data scientists want meaningful work done in an understanding and supportive environment.”

Thiago da Costa, CEO of Toric, a data and business intelligence (BI) company, believes that many companies fail their data scientists when they don’t equip them with the right teams and tools to effectively manage data projects.

“A data scientist can only be productive if they are working in a team with data engineers, data analysts, software developers, ops, and other data-related roles,” da Costa said.

“Even if it’s somewhat easy to get a job, it is also easy to fail because companies are not well prepared, tooled, and organized to make this individual succeed. As a result, we are seeing a lot of people change jobs quickly and unhappy in organizations which over-hire for the role or are not prepared to make data a priority.”

Also read: Seven KPIs for AIOps Teams

Whether it’s ill-prepared resources or teams that don’t include well-rounded talent, many companies are responding to inefficiencies among data science teams with new roles that keep digital transformation at the forefront.

Cindi Howson, chief data strategy officer at ThoughtSpot, a big data analytics company, believes that analytics engineers will soon come into prominence on data science teams.

“For the last few years, data science has been the craze for companies looking to capitalize on digital transformation initiatives,” Howson said.

“However, the role of the data scientist has since lost its luster in recent memory as companies have failed to operationalize models, and universities and certificate programs have churned out coders who cannot apply their learnings in the business world. Data scientists spend countless hours on the drudgery of dealing with messy, disparate data — all of which has tarnished data science’s sheen.

“This year, I expect to see the rise of a new role in the industry that replaces data scientists: the analytics engineer. Paired with the ability for transformations to be done within cloud platforms on all data, analytic engineers will be essential to controlling transformation logic and leveraging the full capabilities of the modern data stack.”

60+ Data Engineer Interview Questions And Answers In 2023

1) Explain Data Engineering.

Here are Data Engineering interview questions and answers for fresher as well experienced data engineer candidates to get their dream job.

Data engineering is a term used in big data. It focuses on the application of data collection and research. The data generated from various sources are just raw data. Data engineering helps to convert this raw data into useful information.

2) What is Data Modelling?

Data modeling is the method of documenting complex software design as a diagram so that anyone can easily understand. It is a conceptual representation of data objects that are associated between various data objects and the rules.

3) List various types of design schemas in Data Modelling

There are mainly two types of schemas in data modeling: 1) Star schema and 2) Snowflake schema.

4) Distinguish between structured and unstructured data

Following is a difference between structured and unstructured data:

Parameter Structured Data Unstructured Data

Storage DBMS Unmanaged file structures

Standard ADO.net, ODBC, and SQL STMP, XML, CSV, and SMS

Integration Tool ELT (Extract, Transform, Load)

scaling Schema scaling is difficult Scaling is very easy.

5) Explain all components of a Hadoop application

Following are the components of Hadoop application:

Hadoop Common: It is a common set of utilities and libraries that are utilized by Hadoop.

HDFS: This Hadoop application relates to the file system in which the Hadoop data is stored. It is a distributed file system having high bandwidth.

Hadoop MapReduce: It is based according to the algorithm for the provision of large-scale data processing.

Hadoop YARN: It is used for resource management within the Hadoop cluster. It can also be used for task scheduling for users.

6) What is NameNode?

It is the centerpiece of HDFS. It stores data of HDFS and tracks various files across the clusters. Here, the actual data is not stored. The data is stored in DataNodes.

It is a utility which allows for the creation of the map and Reduces jobs and submits them to a specific cluster.

8) What is the full form of HDFS?

HDFS stands for Hadoop Distributed File System.

9) Define Block and Block Scanner in HDFS

Blocks are the smallest unit of a data file. Hadoop automatically splits huge files into small pieces.

Block Scanner verifies the list of blocks that are presented on a DataNode.

10) What are the steps that occur when Block Scanner detects a corrupted data block?

Following are the steps that occur when Block Scanner find a corrupted data block:

1) First of all, when Block Scanner find a corrupted data block, DataNode report to NameNode

2) NameNode start the process of creating a new replica using a replica of the corrupted block.

11) Name two messages that NameNode gets from DataNode?

There are two messages which NameNode gets from DataNode. They are 1) Block report and 2) Heartbeat.

12) List out various XML configuration files in Hadoop?

There are five XML configuration files in Hadoop:

Mapred-site

Core-site

HDFS-site

Yarn-site

13) What are four V’s of big data?

Four V’s of big data are:

Velocity

Variety

Volume

Veracity

14) Explain the features of Hadoop

It is an open-source framework that is available freeware.

Hadoop is compatible with the many types of hardware and easy to access new hardware within a specific node.

Hadoop supports faster-distributed processing of data.

It stores the data in the cluster, which is independent of the rest of the operations.

Hadoop allows creating 3 replicas for each block with different nodes.

15) Explain the main methods of Reducer

setup (): It is used for configuring parameters like the size of input data and distributed cache.

cleanup(): This method is used to clean temporary files.

reduce(): It is a heart of the reducer which is called once per key with the associated reduced task

16) What is the abbreviation of COSHH?

The abbreviation of COSHH is Classification and Optimization based Schedule for Heterogeneous Hadoop systems.

17) Explain Star Schema

Star Schema or Star Join Schema is the simplest type of Data Warehouse schema. It is known as star schema because its structure is like a star. In the Star schema, the center of the star may have one fact table and multiple associated dimension table. This schema is used for querying large data sets.

18) How to deploy a big data solution?

Follow the following steps in order to deploy a big data solution.

3) Deploy big data solution using processing frameworks like Pig, Spark, and MapReduce.

19) Explain FSCK

File System Check or FSCK is command used by HDFS. FSCK command is used to check inconsistencies and problem in file.

20) Explain Snowflake Schema

A Snowflake Schema is an extension of a Star Schema, and it adds additional dimensions. It is so-called as snowflake because its diagram looks like a Snowflake. The dimension tables are normalized, that splits data into additional tables.

21) Distinguish between Star and Snowflake Schema

Star SnowFlake Schema

Dimensions hierarchies are stored in dimensional table. Each hierarchy is stored into separate tables.

Chances of data redundancy are high Chances of data redundancy are low.

It has a very simple DB design It has a complex DB design

Provide a faster way for cube processing Cube processing is slow due to the complex join.

22) Explain Hadoop distributed file system

Hadoop works with scalable distributed file systems like S3, HFTP FS, FS, and HDFS. Hadoop Distributed File System is made on the Google File System. This file system is designed in a way that it can easily run on a large cluster of the computer system.

23) Explain the main responsibilities of a data engineer

Data engineers have many responsibilities. They manage the source system of data. Data engineers simplify complex data structure and prevent the reduplication of data. Many times they also provide ELT and data transformation.

24) What is the full form of YARN?

The full form of YARN is Yet Another Resource Negotiator.

25) List various modes in Hadoop

Modes in Hadoop are 1) Standalone mode 2) Pseudo distributed mode 3) Fully distributed mode.

26) How to achieve security in Hadoop?

Perform the following steps to achieve security in Hadoop:

3) In the last step, the client use service ticket for self-authentication to a specific server.

27) What is Heartbeat in Hadoop?

In Hadoop, NameNode and DataNode communicate with each other. Heartbeat is the signal sent by DataNode to NameNode on a regular basis to show its presence.

28) Distinguish between NAS and DAS in Hadoop

NAS DAS

Storage capacity is 109 to 1012 in byte. Storage capacity is 109 in byte.

Management cost per GB is moderate. Management cost per GB is high.

Transmit data using Ethernet or TCP/IP. Transmit data using IDE/ SCSI

29) List important fields or languages used by data engineer

Here are a few fields or languages used by data engineer:

Probability as well as linear algebra

Machine learning

Trend analysis and regression

Hive QL and SQL databases

30) What is Big Data?

It is a large amount of structured and unstructured data, that cannot be easily processed by traditional data storage methods. Data engineers are using Hadoop to manage big data.

31) What is FIFO scheduling?

It is a Hadoop Job scheduling algorithm. In this FIFO scheduling, a reporter selects jobs from a work queue, the oldest job first.

32) Mention default port numbers on which task tracker, NameNode, and job tracker run in Hadoop

Default port numbers on which task tracker, NameNode, and job tracker run in Hadoop are as follows:

Task tracker runs on 50060 port

NameNode runs on 50070 port

Job Tracker runs on 50030 port

33) How to disable Block Scanner on HDFS Data Node

In order to disable Block Scanner on HDFS Data Node, set dfs.datanode.scan.period.hours to 0.

34) How to define the distance between two nodes in Hadoop?

The distance is equal to the sum of the distance to the closest nodes. The method getDistance() is used to calculate the distance between two nodes.

35) Why use commodity hardware in Hadoop?

Commodity hardware is easy to obtain and affordable. It is a system that is compatible with Windows, MS-DOS, or Linux.

36) Define replication factor in HDFS

Replication factor is a total number of replicas of a file in the system.

37) What data is stored in NameNode?

Namenode stores the metadata for the HDFS like block information, and namespace information.

38) What do you mean by Rack Awareness?

In Haddop cluster, Namenode uses the Datanode to improve the network traffic while reading or writing any file that is closer to the nearby rack to Read or Write request. Namenode maintains the rack id of each DataNode to achieve rack information. This concept is called as Rack Awareness in Hadoop.

39) What are the functions of Secondary NameNode?

Following are the functions of Secondary NameNode:

FsImage which stores a copy of EditLog and FsImage file.

NameNode crash: If the NameNode crashes, then Secondary NameNode’s FsImage can be used to recreate the NameNode.

Checkpoint: It is used by Secondary NameNode to confirm that data is not corrupted in HDFS.

Update: It automatically updates the EditLog and FsImage file. It helps to keep FsImage file on Secondary NameNode updated.

40) What happens when NameNode is down, and the user submits a new job?

41) What are the basic phases of reducer in Hadoop?

There are three basic phases of a reducer in Hadoop:

1. Shuffle: Here, Reducer copies the output from Mapper.

2. Sort: In sort, Hadoop sorts the input to Reducer using the same key.

3. Reduce: In this phase, output values associated with a key are reduced to consolidate the data into the final output.

42) Why Hadoop uses Context object?

Hadoop framework uses Context object with the Mapper class in order to interact with the remaining system. Context object gets the system configuration details and job in its constructor.

We use Context object in order to pass the information in setup(), cleanup() and map() methods. This object makes vital information available during the map operations.

It is an optional step between Map and Reduce. Combiner takes the output from Map function, creates key value pairs, and submit to Hadoop Reducer. Combiner’s task is to summarize the final result from Map into summary records with an identical key.

44) What is the default replication factor available in HDFS What it indicates?

Default replication factor in available in HDFS is three. Default replication factor indicates that there will be three replicas of each data.

45) What do you mean Data Locality in Hadoop?

In a Big Data system, the size of data is huge, and that is why it does not make sense to move data across the network. Now, Hadoop tries to move computation closer to data. This way, the data remains local to the stored location.

46) Define Balancer in HDFS

In HDFS, the balancer is an administrative used by admin staff to rebalance data across DataNodes and moves blocks from overutilized to underutilized nodes.

47) Explain Safe mode in HDFS

It is a read-only mode of NameNode in a cluster. Initially, NameNode is in Safemode. It prevents writing to file-system in Safemode. At this time, it collects data and statistics from all the DataNodes.

48) What is the importance of Distributed Cache in Apache Hadoop?

Hadoop has a useful utility feature so-called Distributed Cache which improves the performance of jobs by caching the files utilized by applications. An application can specify a file for the cache using JobConf configuration.

Hadoop framework makes replica of these files to the nodes one which a task has to be executed. This is done before the execution of task starts. Distributed Cache supports the distribution of read only files as well as zips, and jars files.

49) What is Metastore in Hive?

It stores schema as well as the Hive table location.

Hive table defines, mappings, and metadata that are stored in Metastore. This can be stored in RDBMS supported by JPOX.

50) What do mean by SerDe in Hive?

SerDe is a short name for Serializer or Deserializer. In Hive, SerDe allows to read data from table to and write to a specific field in any format you want.

51) List components available in Hive data model

There are the following components in the Hive data model:

Tables

Partitions

Buckets

52) Explain the use of Hive in Hadoop eco-system.

Hive provides an interface to manage data stored in Hadoop eco-system. Hive is used for mapping and working with HBase tables. Hive queries are converted into MapReduce jobs in order to hide the complexity associated with creating and running MapReduce jobs.

53) List various complex data types/collection are supported by Hive

Hive supports the following complex data types:

Map

Struct

Array

Union

54) Explain how .hiverc file in Hive is used?

In Hive, .hiverc is the initialization file. This file is initially loaded when we start Command Line Interface (CLI) for Hive. We can set the initial values of parameters in .hiverc file.

55) Is it possible to create more than one table in Hive for a single data file?

Yes, we can create more than one table schemas for a data file. Hive saves schema in Hive Metastore. Based on this schema, we can retrieve dissimilar results from same Data.

56) Explain different SerDe implementations available in Hive

There are many SerDe implementations available in Hive. You can also write your own custom SerDe implementation. Following are some famous SerDe implementations:

OpenCSVSerde

RegexSerDe

DelimitedJSONSerDe

ByteStreamTypedSerDe

57) List table generating functions available in Hive

Following is a list of table generating functions:

Explode(array)

JSON_tuple()

Stack()

Explode(map)

58) What is a Skewed table in Hive?

A Skewed table is a table that contains column values more often. In Hive, when we specify a table as SKEWED during creation, skewed values are written into separate files, and remaining values go to another file.

59) List out objects created by create statement in MySQL.

Objects created by create statement in MySQL are as follows:

Database

Index

Table

User

Procedure

Trigger

Event

View

Function

60) How to see the database structure in MySQL?

In order to see database structure in MySQL, you can use

DESCRIBE command. Syntax of this command is DESCRIBE Table name;.

61) How to search for a specific String in MySQL table column?

Use regex operator to search for a String in MySQL column. Here, we can also define various types of regular expression and search for using regex.

62) Explain how data analytics and big data can increase company revenue?

Following are the ways how data analytics and big data can increase company revenue:

Use data efficiently to make sure that business growth.

Increase customer value.

Turning analytical to improve staffing levels forecasts.

Cutting down the production cost of the organizations.

These interview questions will also help in your viva(orals)

Cloud Computing Interview Questions And Answers

The scope of Cloud computing is huge. If you are looking for a cloud-related job, consider learning these cloud computing skills. Cloud computing interview questions will also be based on one or more of those skills.

In this article, I have compiled the most asked Cloud Computing interview questions and answers involving Microsoft Azure. Though AWS is the most used cloud service as of now, Microsoft Azure is catching up and is already the backbone of many organizations. Check out the interview questions on Microsoft Azure among the most asked cloud computing interview questions below. Note that the wording of these questions may vary so you can tweak answers to suit the tone of questions.

Cloud Computing interview questions and answers

This section includes cloud computing interview questions that are generic and apply to all platforms like AWS, Microsoft Azure, or Google Apps, etc.

Q1: How do you explain cloud to a layperson? Or What is cloud computing?

A1: Cloud is the extension of local or on-premise computing. When we say we use cloud computing, we are using someone else’s (generally a cloud service provider’s) resources. These resources can be anything from just external storage space to remote infrastructure. The service provider charges users based on the usage of resources.

Q2: What are the basic traits of cloud computing? -OR- When do you call a service, cloud computing?

A2:  The cloud computing vendor should provide the following basic features that are essential for the service to be called cloud computing service. The service should be scalable. That is, when required, the cloud service provider should able to increase the resources and when the demand reduces, the cloud service provider should be able to release the resources for other customers so that the user is not overcharged. Other features are real-time backup, high uptime, and security. Logs are also essential, but they are presented on-demand only. These logs contain who accessed what service at what time etc. information.

Q3: What is grid computing? Is it the same as cloud computing? What are the differences between grid computing and cloud computing?

Q4: How many types of clouds are there in practice? -OR- Explain cloud deployment models in use today.

A4: There are three cloud deployment types. First is the public cloud that hosts several tenants’ data. An example of a public cloud is OneDrive as the same servers host many accounts on each. The second deployment model is a private cloud. In this, the resources are hosted on a dedicated cloud. An example of a private cloud could be website hosting with a particular hosting provider. The third and last deployment model is the hybrid cloud. In this, parts of the resources are hosted on the public cloud, and some of them are used exclusively from a private cloud. An example of a hybrid network can be an online store. Part of the website is hosted on the public cloud, and other important artifacts are hosted locally so that they are not compromised. Read the details on cloud computing deployment.

Q5: What are the three service models of cloud computing?

A5: Software as Service, Platform as a service, IaaS (Infrastructure as a service). Please read this article on cloud service models for more details on each type of service model.

Q6: What do you mean by the term “Eucalyptus” in cloud computing?

A6: Eucalyptus stands for “Elastic Utility Computing Architecture for Linking your Programs to useful Systems”. It is basically for AWS (Amazon Web Services).

Q7: What is OpenStack? OR What is the use of OpenStack?

A7: OpenStack is an open-source cloud computing element serving IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service). For more details, check out OpenStack.org.

Q8: What are the benefits of cloud computing over in-premise computing?

A8: On-Premise computing requires a lot of preparation – in terms of both money and time. If an organization chooses to go for the cloud, it saves much on the initial setup cost. In cloud computing, maintenance is taken care of by the service provider. In On-Premise computing, we’ll need at least one dedicated IT technician to take care of troubleshooting. Cloud provides upgrade and scalability as and when required. One can increase the number of resources or reduce them according to the usage. On-premise computing, on the other hand, will require procurement of more hardware and software and these purchases are permanent so in a way, the cloud saves money while providing back-ups, etc. features.

Q9: What is IaaS? What does it do? Give some examples of IaaS

A9: IaaS stands for Infrastructure as a Service. When a cloud offers an infrastructure for hire/rental, it is called IaaS. Examples of IaaS are AWS (Amazon Web Services), Microsoft Azure, Google Computer Engine, and CISCO Metapod.

Q10: Explain AWS and its components

A10: AWS stands for Amazon Web Services. It is basically infrastructure as a service. The main components of AWS are as follows:

DNS – It offers a service platform that is based on a domain name server; also called route-53

E-mail Service Simple: Other than SMTP (Simple Main Transfer Protocol), the email can also be sent using API calls local to AWS.

Azure cloud computing interview questions

This section covers basic but most asked cloud computing interview questions related to Microsoft Azure, which is Infrastructure as a Service platform.

Question 11: What is Microsoft Azure -OR- What do you know about Microsoft Azure?

Answer 11: Microsoft Azure is a cloud offering from Microsoft. It offers services such as content delivery networks (CDNs), Virtual Machines (VM), and some really good proprietary software that makes it perfect as an IaaS. RemoteApp, for example, helps in using virtual machines to deploy Windows programs. Then there is Active Directory service and SQL server. It also supports open technologies such as Linux distributions that can be contained in virtual machines.

Q12: What is the name of the service in Azure that helps you manage resources?

A12: Azure Resource Manager

Q13: Name some web applications that can be deployed with Azure

A13: Many web applications including open source can be deployed on Azure. Some examples are PHP, WCF, and ASP.NET.

Q14: What are the three types of roles in Microsoft Azure? -OR- What are Roles in Microsoft Azure?

A14:  There are three types of roles in Microsoft Azure. These roles are Web Role, Worker Role, and VM Role. Web Roles help in deploying websites. It is good for running web applications. Worker Role assists Web Role. It runs background processes to support Web Role. The VM Role lets the users customize the servers on which the Web Role and Worker Roles are running.

Q15: What is Azure Active Directory service?

A15: Azure Active Directory Service is a Multi-Tenant Cloud-based directory and identity management service that combines core directory services, application access management, and identity protection.  In other words, it is an identity and access management system. It helps in granting access privileges to users to different resources on the network. It is also used for maintaining information about the network and related resources.

A16: No. Active Directory in Windows is an on-premise directory that stores information about the network. Most people confuse Azure AD to be an online version of Windows AD. But that’s not the case. Azure AD is a cloud configuration helper while AD is for local networks

A16: Windows AD is a system created for local networks whereas Azure AD is a separate system created only for the cloud. Both keep information about networks, network resources, and help in providing accessing or restricting privileges to different users for different resources on the network. Azure AD is scalable which has been built to support global-scale resource allotments. Azure AD also helps you when you move your on-premise computing to the cloud.

Q18: Is Azure IaaS or PaaS?

A18: Azure offers all three types of services – SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS. But it is mostly used as a PaaS. While many developers prefer to deploy their apps on Azure (PaaS model), some are keen on both developing the whole app and hosting it on Azure instead of using local computers (IaaS model). Thus, it serves both as IaaS and PaaS.

Q19: What are Azure Storage Queues?

A19: Azure Queue storage is an Azure service that allows messages to be retrieved and accessed from anywhere on the planet. The service uses simple Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP or HTTPS).

Q20: What is Poison in Azure Storage Queues?

A20: Messages that have exceeded the max number of delivery attempts to the application is called poison in the language of Microsoft Azure. There can be many reasons why this happens.

The above are some most asked cloud computing interview questions and answers. I wrote the answers with my limited knowledge. Since you may have taken a proper course to learn cloud computing, you can always answer better. I’ve simply given pointers. It is up to the readers to improve upon the pointers using whatever resources they have.

TIP: This Microsoft Azure Interview Questions & Answers PDF released by Microsoft MVPs will interest you.

All the best!

Interview Questions On Support Vector Machines

Introduction

Support vector machines are one of the most widely used machine learning algorithms known for their accuracy and excellent performance on any dataset. SVM is one of the algorithms that people try on almost any kind of dataset, and due to the nature and working mechanism of the algorithm, it learns from the data as well, no matter how the data is and what type it is.

This article will discuss and answer the intervention on support vector machines with proper explanations and reasons behind them. This will help one to answer these questions efficiently and accurately in the interview and will also enhance the knowledge on the same.

Learning Objectives

Kernal tricks and margin concepts in SVM

A proper answer to why SVM needs longer training duration and why it is nonparametric

An efficient way to answer questions related to SVM

How interview questions can be tackled in an appropriate manner

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

How would you explain SVM to a nontechnical person?

What are the Assumptions of SVM?

Why is SVM a nonparametric algorithm?

When do we consider SVM as a Parametric algorithm?

What are Support vectors in SVM?

What are hard and soft-margin SVMs?

What are Slack variables in SVM?

What could be the minimum number of support vectors in N-dimensional data?

Why SVM needs a long training duration?

What is the kernel trick in SVM?

Conclusion

Q1. How Would You Explain SVM to a Nontechnical Person?

As we can see in the above image, there are a total of three lines that are present on the road; the middle line divides the route into two parts, which can be understood as a line dividing for positive and negative values, and the left and right bar are them which signifies the limit of the road, means that after this line, there will be no driving area.

Same way, the support vector machine classifies the data points which the help of regression and support vector lines, here the upper and lower or the left and suitable vectors are limited for the positive and negative values, and any data point lying after these lines are considered as a positive and negative data point.

Q2. What are the Assumptions of SVM?

There are no certain assumptions about the SVM algorithm. Instead, the algorithm learns from the data and its patterns. If any data is fed to the algorithm, the algorithm will take time to learn the patterns of the data, and then it will result accordingly to the data and its behavior.

Q3. Why Support Vector Machine is a Nonparametric Algorithm?

Nonparametric machine learning algorithms assume any assumption during the model’s training. In these types o n and function that will be used during the training and testing phase of the model; instead, the model trains on the patterns of the. Instead returns an output.

Q4. When do we consider SVM as a Parametric Algorithm?

In the case of linear SVM, the algorithm tries to fit the data linearly and produces a linear boundary to split the data; here, as the regression line or the boundary line is linear, its principle is the same as the linear regression, and hence the direct function can be applied to solve the problem, which makes the algorithm parametric.

Q5. What are Support Vectors in SVM

Support vectors in SVM are data points, or we can call them regression line, which divides or classifies the data. The data points or the observations that fall below or above the support vectors are then classified accordingly to their category.

In SVMs, the support vector is considered for classifying the data observations, and they are only responsible for the accuracy and,d the performance of the model. Here the distance between the vectors should be maximized to increase the model’s accuracy. The points should fall after the support vector; some data points can lie before or between support vectors.

Q6. What is Hard and Soft margin SVMs?

As shown in the below image, some of the data points in soft margin SVM are not precisely lying inside their margin limits. Instead, they are crossing the boundary and lying a. Instead. Rather, instead. Instead, such a distance from their respective vector line.

Whereas the hard margin SVM are those in which the data points are restricted to lie after their respective vector and are not allowed to cross the margin limit, which can be seen in the above image.

Q7. What are Slack Variables in SVM?

Slack variables in SVM are defined in so if margin algorithm that how much a particular data observation is allowed to violet the limit of the support vector and go beyond or above it. Here note that the more the slack variable, the violation of the support vector. To get an optimum model, we need to reduce the slack variable as much as possible.

Q8. What Could be the Minimum Number of Support Vectors in “N” Dimensional Data?

To classify the data points into their respective classes, there could be a minimum of two support vectors in the algorithm. Here, the data’s time or size will not affect the number of vectors, as per the general understanding of the algorithm. Theds a minimum of two support vectors to classify the data (in case of binary classification).

Q9. Why SVM needs a Longer Training Duration?

As we mentioned, SVMs are a nonparametric machine learning algorithm that does not rely on any specified function; instead, they learn the data patterns and then return an output. Due to this, the model needs time to analyze and sklearn from the data, unlike the parametric model, which implements the function to train on data.

Q10. What are Kernel Tricks in SVMs?

The support vectors in SVMs are one of the best approaches to solving data patterns and can classify the linearly separable data set. Still, in the case of nonlinear data, the same decision boundary can not be used as it will perform inferior, and that is where the kernel trick comes into action.

The kernel trick allows the support vector to separate between nonlinear data classes and classify nonlinear data with the exact working mechanism.

Here, several functions are kernel tricks, and some popular kernel functions are linear, nonfunctions linear, polynomial, and sigmoid.

Conclusion

Support Vector Machines are one of the best-performing machine learning algorithms which use its support vector to classify the data and its classes.

Complex margin support vectors do not allow data points to cross their respective vectors, whereas, in soft margin SVM, there are no complicated rules, and some of the data points travel the margin.

A support vector machine is a nonparametric model that takes more time for training, but the algorithm’s learning is not limited.

In the case of nonlinear data, the kernel function can be used in SVM to solve the data patterns.

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