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Operating Principle of Single-phase Induction Motor

A single-phase induction motor consists of a squirrel cage rotor and a stator carrying a single-phase winding. When a single-phase AC supply is fed to the stator winding, a pulsating magnetic field (not the rotating) is produced. Under these conditions, the rotor does not rotate due to inertia. Hence, a single-phase induction motor is inherently not self-starting, but requires some auxiliary starting means.

If the stator winding of a single-phase induction motor is excited and the rotor is rotated by an auxiliary means and the starting device is then removed, the motor continues to rotate in the same direction in which it is started.

The double revolving field theory is suggested to analyse the performance of a single-phase induction motor. It explains why a torque is produced in the rotor once it is turning.

Double Revolving Field Theory

According to the double revolving field theory of single-phase induction motor, a stationary pulsating magnetic field can be resolved into two rotating magnetic fields. Both the magnetic fields are of equal magnitude but rotating in opposite directions. The motor responds to each magnetic field separately and the net torque produced in the motor is equal to the sum of the torques due to each of the two magnetic fields.

Mathematically, an alternating magnetic field whose field axis is fixed in the space is given by,

\$\$mathrm{𝐵(𝜃) = 𝐵_{max}:sin:omega 𝑡:cos:𝜃 … (1)}\$\$

Where, Bmax is the maximum value of magnetic flux density which is sinusoidally distributed in the air-gap of the motor.

This magnetic field is produced by a properly distributed stator winding carrying a current of frequency ω and θ is the space displacement angle measured form the axis of the stator winding.

\$\$mathrm{(∵:sin:𝑋:sin:𝑌 =frac{1}{2}sin(𝑋 − 𝑌) +frac{1}{2}sin(𝑋 + 𝑌)}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{∴:𝐵(𝜃) =frac{1}{2}𝐵_{max}: sin(omega 𝑡 − 𝜃) +frac{1}{2}𝐵_{max}:sin(omega 𝑡 + 𝜃) … (2)}\$\$

The first term of eqn. (2) represents a revolving field which is moving in the positive θ direction and has a maximum value equal to \$frac{1}{2}\$ while the second term represents a revolving magnetic field which is moving in the negative θ direction and has a maximum value also equal to \$frac{1}{2}:B_{max}\$ .

The magnetic field rotating in positive θ direction is known as the forward rotating field, while the magnetic field rotating in the negative θ direction is known as the backward rotating field.

The positive direction is the direction in which the single-phase induction motor is started initially. Both the magnetic fields rotate at synchronous speed in opposite direction. Hence,

\$\$mathrm{Forward:rotating:field =frac{1}{2}𝐵_{max}:sin(omega 𝑡 − 𝜃)}\$\$

And

\$\$mathrm{Backward:rotating:field =frac{1}{2}𝐵_{max}:sin(omega 𝑡 + 𝜃)}\$\$

Therefore, it can be concluded that a stationary magnetic field can be resolved into two rotating magnetic fields, both of equal in magnitude and rotating at synchronous speed in opposite directions at the same frequency as the stationary magnetic field pulsates. Such a theory which is based on a resolution of a stationary pulsating magnetic field into two opposite rotating magnetic fields is known as double-revolving field theory of single-phase induction motors.

When the rotor is stationary, the two torques produced are equal and opposite. Hence, at standstill, the net torque is zero. However, if the rotor is given an initial rotation by some auxiliary means in either directions, then the torque due to the rotating magnetic field acting in the either direction of initial rotation will be more than the torque due to the other rotating magnetic field. Thus, the motor develops a net torque in the same direction as the initial rotation. Therefore, the motor will keep running in the same direction of the initial rotation.

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## Theory Of Constraints: Overview And Its Uses

Organizations have realized that the field of project management provides tried-and-true approaches and instruments to help them complete their tasks and reach their goals more effectively and successfully.

Because it covers such a wide range of topics, project management really uses and incorporates different management philosophies. The theory of limitations is one of these concepts. The principle of constraints can be useful in regulating almost any project.

The Theory of Constraints

According to the notion of limitations, certain restrictions prevent any management or production system from accomplishing more of its objectives. The theory of constraints employs five focusing steps to identify the limitation and then modify it so that it isn’t a bottleneck any longer. There is always at least one constraint or limiting factor that results in trouble and the Theory of constraints is exactly what helps counter it.

Eliyahu Goldratt created the theory of constraints (TOC) in 1984 and introduced it to managers through his book “The Goal.” Consider it to be similar to the proverb “A chain is only as strong as its weakest link.” Finding that link and reducing its susceptibility is the goal of the theory of constraints.

The Elements of Theory of Constraints

The factors that make up the TOC process are as follows:

Constraints:

A constraint or hindrance that reduces a system’s productivity

Five Steps to Focusing

Managers can identify limitations and enhance systems by examine each of these in more detail.

Key Assumption for the Theory of Constraints

The core tenet of the theory of limitations is that an organization may be managed by tracking these three things:

Throughput: The speed at which the system produces ‘target units’ (or cash) through sales.

Operational Expense: Cash used to produce ‘target units.’

Investment: Every dollar that is put into the system (inventory, machinery, etc.).

But there are prerequisites that must be satisfied before any objective may be attained. These are typically things like safety, quality, legal requirements, and so on. Making money is the primary objective of for-profit corporations, but nonprofit organizations, for those making money is a secondary objective, can also apply the theory of limits.

Positive Aspects of the Theory of Constraints

Decrease in operational costs

Bigger returns on investments and profits

Larger capacity

Higher throughput rate

What Do You Mean by Constraint?

It is essential to comprehend what a constraint is in order to recognize and remove it. Any restriction that prevents you from completing your objective is a constraint, and constraints can manifest themselves in a number of different ways. ToC contends that your project or system will be affected by at least one constraint in a period of time.

Constraints: External & Internal

Internal constraints, like when the market expects more from you than you can deliver, or external constraints, like when you produce more than the market would accept, are both examples of constraints. With the latter, the company must concentrate on finding ways to increase demand for its good or service.

Equipment is one type of internal limitation, in a way that once employed, prevents you from producing more. Another internal barrier is people, which can be seen in personnel shortages, behavioral problems, and skill gaps. Finally, policy—written or unwritten—can impede your ability to increase production or your service offerings.

Always keep in mind that a limitation is a constraint. Therefore, even if it involves tools, personnel, or rules, a problem that arises in a project or organization is not necessarily a constraint. Even if nothing else is wrong, a limitation is anything that keeps you from achieving higher throughput.

What Are the Five Focusing Steps?

Finding the limiting factor is the apparent approach if at least one limitation is preventing a project from succeeding. Even if all restrictions are lifted, the project can still fail. There are always additional dangers and restrictions at work. But if restrictions can be lifted, the road to achievement becomes much smoother.

Constraints can be discovered and consequently dealt with using the focusing method. The five concentrating steps give ToC a project management roadmap to handle the constraint after it has been identified.

Determine the limitation

Finding the weak link in the chain is the first step to strengthening it.

Utilize the resources

Utilize the resources at hand to quickly improve.

Take decisions wisely

Ensure that the resolution of the limitation is aligned with all other process actions.

Reduce the restraint

Consider other options to address the issue, such as adding resources, if it persists.

Repeat as necessary

This ToC is an ongoing process, thus it’s important to be on the lookout for constraints at all times.

To ensure that there are constant improvements and that those efforts are focused on the project limits, TOC uses these five concentrating phases.

The notion of limits is one more sub-project, among many others, that you will have to oversee when managing a project. It is, in a sense, a project with the goal of enhancing productivity, but it is organized exactly like any other project that operates, is planned, and is carried out. Award-winning software like ProjectManager groups tasks, teams, and projects to increase your project management efficiency.

How Lean Manufacturing Works with the Theory of Constraints?

Lean manufacturing and TOC are techniques to increase the efficiency of your project. However, they use a spectrum of strategies to achieve their goals.

Lean manufacturing is more concerned with eliminating waste from the process and cutting costs, whereas the theory of constraints focuses on identifying and removing constraints that restrict project throughput with the primary goal of boosting throughput rate and production capacity.

Concentrate on What Matters

Due to limited resources, for instance, not every restriction is worthwhile addressing. Therefore the idea of constraints can help you prioritize while lean manufacturing provides tools and procedures to make improvements.

Lean project management technologies, such as value stream mapping, which involves teams in problem-solving, and Gemba, which promotes comprehension of real-world situations, can also assist in identifying the limiting factor. The ToC constraint can be utilized, subordinated, and evaluated with the aid of lean project management technologies.

Conclusion

Not only is it natural to divide work into smaller projects or chunks, but doing so also makes the work easier to manage and carry out. To manage projects successfully, you must use every tool in your arsenal, which is why project management is so crucial.

## Healthcare.gov To Double Capacity By End Of Month

HealthCare.gov, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ troubled insurance-shopping website, will double its user capacity by the end of the month in an effort to eliminate sluggish response times when thousands of people are on the site at the same time, officials said.

The site should be able to handle 50,000 concurrent users by the end of November, and the tech team working on the site expects about 800,000 visits a day by then, said Jeffrey Zients, a former acting director at the White House Office of Management and Budget overseeing fixes to the site.

The site now can handle about 25,000 users at a time before it slows down, although it was unstable at lower volumes in past weeks, he said Friday during a press briefing on the website’s progress.

The site was originally intended to handle about 50,000 concurrent users, but fell short in the first weeks of operation, Zients said. “It’s important to keep in mind here that this is not a simple website,” he added. “It’s a complex system doing complicated work. This is much more than a website for browsing or conducting routine transactions.”

“We realize that many consumers who are seeking coverage in January may have experienced frustration with the site.”

The site must process “millions upon millions of unique circumstances” that users have, including different insurance needs, plan options and eligibility for insurance subsidies, he said.

In addition to the added capacity, the site will include a user-friendly waiting queue when there are spikes in user volumes, and it will give users an option of getting an email notification of a better time to come back, Zients said. Those features will be available by the end of the month, he said.

HHS announced Friday that it is extending the deadline for U.S. residents to sign up for insurance if they want coverage by Jan. 1, due to the widespread site problems after it launched Oct. 1. The new application deadline for Jan. 1 coverage is Dec. 23, eight days later than the original deadline, said Julie Bataille, communications director for the HHS Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.

“We realize that many consumers who are seeking coverage in January may have experienced frustration with the site,” Bataille said. “We understand that technical challenges have made comparing plans more difficult in the first months, and we want to give consumers as much time as possible.”

The site still crashed twice during the past week, for about three hours on Wednesday and about 10 minutes on Tuesday.

HealthCare.gov experienced major crashes and sluggish performance in the weeks after its launch, but Zients said Friday the tech team is on track to meet the HHS goal of having it work well for most users by the end of the month. “The system will not work perfectly, but it will operate smoothly for the vast majority of users,” he said. “While there will not be a magic moment at the end of the month when our work will be complete, users coming to the site today are already having a greatly improved experience.”

The site’s error rate when users land on a page was .75 percent this week, down from about 1 percent a week ago and 6 percent just after the site’s launch, he said. Page response times were under one second this week, similar to the response in recent weeks, but much lower than eight seconds in the first weeks after launch.

However, the site still crashed twice during the past week, for about three hours on Wednesday and about 10 minutes on Tuesday, not including scheduled overnight outages used for upgrades.

The tech team working on the site has made more than 300 bug fixes and improvements since mid-October, Zients said. The team has 50 priority fixes to work on next week, he said.

## Gravitational Waves Detected Albert Einstein Theory Of Relativity

Einstein Really Was a Genius: Gravitational Waves Detected First direct spotting of space phenomenon predicted by relativity theory

One billion-plus years ago, two black holes merged, tossing off gravitational waves detected on Earth last September. Photo courtesy of the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) project

Normally, we try to tell you new things (that’s what “news” is about). But this event happened 1.3 billion years ago, when two black holes collided and formed one big monster hole. That crash sent ripples, called gravitational waves, through space-time that were detected directly for the first time last September and publicly announced last week.

It was September 14, 2023, at 5:51 a.m., to be exact, a date worth remembering given this monumental find, which confirmed yet another part of Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. Einstein predicted the existence of such waves a century ago. Two high-tech detectors in Louisiana and Washington state, collectively known as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), operated by Caltech and MIT, picked up the waves.

Why did the discovery light up the world of astronomy like a supernova? BU Today discussed it with Alan Marscher, a College of Arts & Sciences professor and acting chair of astronomy.

BU Today: In lay terms, what are gravitational waves? Can they be produced in other ways besides the collision of black holes, as occurred in this case?

Marscher: Gravitational waves are gravity’s equivalent to light, which is an electromagnetic phenomenon. Light is created when there is a disturbance in an electric/magnetic field, which means when a charged particle like an electron changes its speed or direction of motion. Gravitational waves are generated by changes in the locations of masses. In order for the gravitational waves to occur and to be strong, the changes need to be asymmetric. That is, a spherical body, which is symmetric about its center, won’t produce the waves. The phenomenon in the universe that we think should produce the strongest gravitational waves is when two black holes orbit each other so closely that they end up merging into a single, more massive black hole. That is what the LIGO team thinks that they detected last September.

Why is finding these waves so important? What will it allow astronomers to learn that they might not have learned otherwise?

The merging of black holes is a phenomenon that cannot generally be observed with light, since black holes don’t allow light to escape, although in some black-hole systems we can see light from matter falling toward the black hole. In the case of the LIGO detection, the signal matches that expected from two black holes with masses near 30 times the mass of our sun, orbiting very close to each other, and then merging. The energy released in gravitational waves from such an event corresponds to what one expects if the event occurred in a galaxy about 1.3 billion light-years from us. So, with LIGO we see the emergence of a new sort of telescope that uses gravitational waves instead of light to explore extreme events in the cosmos.

Now that we’ve confirmed the waves, what’s the next step in this field of astronomical research?

Although this is the first direct detection of gravitational waves, they were confirmed indirectly in the 1980s when Joseph Taylor and Russell Hulse [winners of the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics] observed the “decaying” orbits of two pulsars (spinning neutron stars) that lose energy to the emission of gravitational waves. The next step is to continue to refine LIGO’s sensitivity and to send a more sensitive NASA detector, LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), into space. This should allow observations of less extreme and more distance events than the one reported last week, and probably to observe these events frequently enough to study them systematically.

Will the discovery guide any research being done by BU, such as our work with the Discovery Channel Telescope?

Not at this stage. My own research group observes radiation from high-speed jets of particles seen at the centers of galaxies that contain black holes with masses about a billion times our sun’s mass. While there are some theories that many of these black holes are really pairs of black holes, the gravitational wave detectors won’t be sensitive enough to detect these systems in the near future.

The name Einstein has long been synonymous with genius. What effect will this confirmation of one of his theories have on this appraisal of him? Explore Related Topics:

## Latest Trends In The Field Of Artificial Intelligence

Featuring Top Applications of Artificial Intelligence in 2023 and Ahead

To appraise the trends of Artificial Intelligence (AI) 2023, we have to recall that 2023 and 2023 saw a large number of platforms, applications, and devices that depend on

More Devices

As the hardware and skill expected to deploy AI become less expensive and progressively accessible, we will begin to see it utilized in an increasing number of tools, gadgets, and devices. In 2023 we’re already used to running applications that give us AI-fueled predictions on our PCs, phones and watches. As the following decade draws near and the expense of hardware and software keeps on falling, AI devices will progressively be embedded into our vehicles, household appliances, and workplace tools. Augmented by innovation, for example, augmented reality displays, and paradigms like the cloud and Internet of Things, this year we will see an ever increasing number of devices of each shape and size beginning to think and learn for themselves.

Digital Marketing

Artificial intelligence for digital marketing takes into account uncommon change via social media. It forecasts all day, every day chatbots, analyzes data and patterns, oversees custom feeds to produce content, looks for content points, makes custom based personalized content and makes recommendations when required.

Real-time Personalization

This trend is driven by the success of web giants like Amazon, Alibaba, and Google, and their capacity to provide personalized experiences and recommendations. Artificial intelligence permits suppliers of products and enterprises to rapidly and precisely project a 360-degree view on clients in real-time as they cooperate through online portals and mobile applications, rapidly figuring out how their predictions can accommodate our needs and wants with ever-increasing accuracy. Similarly, as pizza delivery companies like Dominos will realize when we are well on the way to want pizza, and ensure the “Order  Now” button is before us at the right time, each other industry will turn out solutions planned for offering personalized customer experiences at scale.

Track Human Motion

The AI-based Deep Learning innovation detects signs of the perplexing five finger movements in real-time. The sensor fix is joined to the client’s wrist. This single stranded electronic skin sensor tracks human development from a distance in real-time with a virtual 3D hand that reflects the original movement.

AI will Recognize Humans

Maybe considerably more unsettlingly, the rollout of facial recognition technology is just prone to escalate as we move into the next decade. Not simply in China (where the government is taking a look at methods of making facial recognition obligatory for accessing services like communication networks and public transport) yet around the globe. Enterprises and governments are progressively putting resources into these techniques for telling what our identity is and deciphering our movement and behaviour. There’s some pushback against this – this year, San Francisco turned into the first significant city to boycott the utilization of facial recognition technology by the police and civil organizations, and others are probably going to follow in 2023. However, the topic of whether individuals will at last start to acknowledge this interruption into their lives, in return for the increased security and convenience it will bring, is probably going to be a hotly discussed subject of this year.

As the AI system is surmising, it can intensify the carbon impression. A variant range of data sets can be utilized from cell phone location information to estimate electrical load. This engineering can consider information from the geographical area and beat conventional forecasting methods by more than 2 times.

AI in Movies, Video Games

A few things, even in 2023, are likely best left to people. Any individual who has seen the present state-of-the-art in AI-generated music, poetry or storytelling is probably going to concur that the most refined machines despite everything have some best approach until their output will be as charming to us as the best that humans can produce. Notwithstanding, the impact of AI on entertainment media is probably going to increase. This year we saw Robert De Niro de-aged before our eyes with the help of AI, in Martin Scorsese’s epic The Irishman, and the utilization of AI in making brand new visual effects and trickery is probably going to turn out to be progressively normal.

## What Is Double Extortion Ransomware?

What is Ransomware?

A hostage situation exists due to ransomware. It is a form of malicious software or malware that takes data, encrypts it, and then prevents the rightful owners from accessing it until the attacker receives the ransom demanded by the attacker. The ransom cost can range widely, from a few hundred dollars to millions of dollars. Most of the time, a cryptocurrency like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Tether, etc., is required as payment. The victim is required to satisfy the attacker’s deadline, which is specified.

It Is important to realize that it might not just be compromised files and data. Users’ access to any or all of their systems may be restricted, and they may be locked out.

What Exactly is a Double Ransomware Attack?

In double extortion, however, the attackers go one step further and threaten to sell the confidential information to the highest bidder, post it on the dark web, or destroy it if the ransom is not paid by the due date. Backups are excellent for restoring data, but they cannot lessen the impact of stolen data.

The key is that the malicious hacker has more power to guarantee payment is made. Numerous institutions, such as law firms, hospitals, and schools, to name a few, keep enormous volumes of sensitive data that, if compromised, may be disastrous for both the institution and the persons involved. The effectiveness and danger of double extortion ransomware attacks are due to this.

The Sequence of Double Extortion Ransomware Attacks

The common steps that cybercriminals take while launching a double extortion ransomware attack are as follows −

By any means required, the threat actor gets initial access to the victim’s system.

The hacker then searches the network for all the important information.

The data is then exfiltrated by the attacker or ransomware gang.

The system is subsequently infected with the ransomware that the attacker has chosen.

Data encryption is used.

The ransom is requested, and what will happen if it is not paid is made clear.

The information should be returned and access provided if the ransom is paid.

How to Stop Ransomware Attacks That Use Double Extortion

Attacks using double extortion ransomware are very risky, expensive, and have no assurance of success. As to make matters worse, attacks are happening more frequently and are getting more vicious and aggressive in nature. The good news is that you may take preventative measures to safeguard your business from double extortion ransomware assaults.

Architecture with Zero Trust

When it comes to trust, your organization should have a zero-trust policy. Applications, websites, emails, and links shouldn’t be automatically trusted; rather, they should require a thorough authentication procedure before access is given. This calls for the implementation of the following three principles −

Cut down on the attack surface by using a proxy-based brokered exchange to hide users and network applications from the Internet.

Reduce the capacity to move laterally. − If the information is hidden, hackers can’t steal it. In order to decrease the likelihood that an attacker will be able to move laterally through your servers, steal more data, and cause more damage, it is important to conceal data from view appropriately.

Monitor all incoming and outgoing communications continuously for signs of a potential data breach. This covers both encrypted and unencrypted data.

Make sure security policies are applied uniformly

It can be challenging for larger businesses to ensure that safety procedures and rules are constantly followed. However, making sure users always take the proper security precautions is worth the effort and money. Implementing a secure access service edge (SASE) architecture is the most effective approach to do this. No matter who uses the system or where it is located, this technology ensures that security regulations are followed.

Update security programs and protocols

The most susceptible software to cyberattacks is out-of-date software. A priority should always be given to security updates. Your IT team must conduct routine scans to look for updated software and install it as soon as feasible.

Make sure the following is established −

A few recovery strategies to prevent data loss

A number of data backups

Dual-factor or multiple-factor authentication (makes it harder for cybercriminals to crack).

Educate the users

Provide users with in-depth training on double extortion ransomware attacks so they are aware of what they are and the terrible consequences they can have on the business or even specific employees inside the business. Employees must be aware of the warning signs and the precautions they might take to avoid aiding one of these attacks. All new hires should receive training, and it should be followed up with more training after a certain amount of time (e.g., three years).

Implement protective measures

Although taking preventative measures is unquestionably beneficial, they do not offer complete protection from double extortion ransomware assaults. Even well-known businesses are susceptible to ransomware assaults. Adopting trustworthy attack surface management software gives your business’s network the highest level of security. You have a much higher chance of spotting possible threats before they develop into full-fledged attacks with a 360-degree perspective.

Implement a solution to manage attack surfaces

Continuous monitoring ensures that merging cyber threats are immediately alerted, keeping you safe from double extortion ransomware assaults.

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