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Provide a cell reference by taking a row and column number

Written by

CFI Team

Published June 19, 2023

Updated July 7, 2023

What is the Cell ADDRESS Function?The cell ADDRESS Function[1] is categorized under Excel Lookup and Reference functions. It will provide a cell reference (its “address”) by taking the row number and column letter. The cell reference will be provided as a string of text. The function can return an address in a relative or absolute format and can be used to construct a cell reference inside a formula.

As a financial analyst, cell ADDRESS can be used to convert a column number to a letter, or vice versa. We can use the function to address the first cell or last cell in a range.

Formula=ADDRESS(row_num, column_num, [abs_num], [a1], [sheet_text])

The formula uses the following arguments:

Row_num (required argument) – This is a numeric value specifying the row number to be used in the cell reference.

Column_num (required argument) – A numeric value specifying the column number to be used in the cell reference.

Abs_num (optional argument) – This is a numeric value specifying the type of reference to return:

Abs_numReturns this type of reference

1 or omittedAbsolute

2Absolute row; relative column

3Absolute column; relative row

4Relative

4. A1(optional argument) – This is a logical value specifying the A1 or R1C1 reference style. In R1C1 reference style, both columns and rows are labeled numerically. It can either be TRUE (reference should be A1) or FALSE (reference should be R1C1).

When omitted, it will take on the default value TRUE (A1 style).

Sheet_text (optional argument) – Specifies the sheet name. If we omit the argument, it will take the current worksheet.

How to use the ADDRESS Function in Excel?To understand the uses of the cell ADDRESS function, let us consider a few examples:

Example 1Suppose we wish to convert the following numbers into Excel column references:

The formula to use will be:

We get the results below:

The ADDRESS function will first construct an address containing the column number. It was done by providing 1 for row number, a column number from B6, and 4 for the abs_num argument.

After that, we use the SUBSTITUTE function to take out the number 1 and replace with “”.

Example 2The ADDRESS function can be used to convert a column letter to a regular number, e.g., 21, 100, 126, etc. We can use a formula based on the INDIRECT and COLUMN functions.

Suppose we are given the following data:

The formula to use will be:

We get the results below:

The INDIRECT function transforms the text into a proper Excel reference and hands the result off to the COLUMN function. Then, the COLUMN function evaluates the reference and returns the column number for the reference.

A few notes about the Cell ADDRESS Function

#VALUE! error – Occurs when any of the arguments are invalid. We would get this argument if:

Any of the supplied row_num, column_num or [abs_num] arguments are non-numeric or the supplied [a1] argument is not recognized as a logical value.

Additional ResourcesThanks for reading CFI’s guide to important Excel functions! By taking the time to learn and master these functions, you’ll significantly speed up your financial analysis. To learn more, check out these additional CFI resources:

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## Rank In Excel (Formula, Examples)

RANK in Excel

The rank function in Excel is used for finding the best sequence position of any selected cell from the given hierarchy or range, which only applies to numbers. And it is because Rank can only be measured in numbers. If we have 5 numbers and want to find the rank (or position) of any number, we simply need to select the range and then choose the order in which rank we want.

RANK Formula in Excel:

Below is the RANK Formula in Excel:

Explanation of RANK Function in ExcelRANK Formula in Excel includes two mandatory arguments and one optional argument.

Number: This is the value or number we want to find the rank.

Ref: This is the list of numbers in a range or in an array you want your “Number” compared to.

[Order]: Whether you want your ranking in Ascending or Descending order. Type 0 for descending and type 1 for ascending order.

Ranking products, people, or services can help you to compare one against another. The best thing is we can see which is at the top, at the average level, and at the bottom.

We can analyze each one of them based on the rank given. If the product or service is at the bottom level, we can study that particular product or service, find the root cause for its poor performance, and take necessary action against it.

Three Different Types of RANK Functions in Excel

If you start typing the RANK function in Excel, it will show you 3 types of RANK functions.

chúng tôi

chúng tôi

RANK

In Excel 2007 and earlier versions, only the RANK Function was available. However, later on, a RANK Function has been replaced by a chúng tôi and chúng tôi functions.

Though the RANK Function still works in recent versions, it may not be available in future versions.

How to Use the RANK Function in Excel?The RANK Function in Excel is very simple and easy to use. Let us understand the working of the RANK Function in Excel by a RANK Formula example.

You can download this RANK Function Excel Template here – RANK Function Excel Template

Example #1I have 12 teams that recently participated in the Kabaddi tournament and have team names and their total points in the first two columns.

I had to rank each team when I compared it to other teams on the list.

Since RANK works only for compatibility with earlier versions, I am using chúng tôi function instead of a RANK Function here.

Note: Both work the same way.

Apply the chúng tôi function in cell C2.

So the output will be :

Note: I have not mentioned the order reference. Therefore, excel, by default, ranks in descending order.

=RANK.EQ (B2, $B$2:$B$13) returned a number (rank) of 12. In this list, I have a total of 12 teams. This team scored 12 points, the lowest among all the 12 teams we have considered. Therefore, the formula ranked it as 12, i.e. the last rank.

=RANK.EQ (B3, $B$2:$B$13) returned a number (rank) of 1. This team scored 105 points, the highest among all the 12 teams we have considered. Therefore, the formula ranked it as 1, i.e. first rank.

This is how RANK or chúng tôi function helps us find out each team’s rank when we compare against each other in the same group.

Example #2One common problem with chúng tôi function is if there are two same values, then it gives the same ranking to both the values.

Consider the below data for this example. I have a batsmen’s name and their career average data.

Apply the chúng tôi function in cell C2, and the formula should be like the below one.

=RANK.EQ(B2,$B$2:$B$6)

So the output will be :

If I apply a RANK formula to this data, Sachin and Dravid get the rank 1.

If the formula finds two duplicate values, it must show 1 for the first-ever value found and the next for the other number.

There are many ways we can find the unique ranks in these cases. In this example, I am using chúng tôi with COUNTIF function.

So the output will be :

The formula I have used here is

=RANK.EQ (B2, $B$2:$B$6) will find the rank for this set.

COUNTIF ($B$2:B2, B2) – 1. The COUNTIF formula will do the magic here. For the first cell, I have mentioned $B$2:B2 means at this range, what is the total count of the B2 value, then deduct that value from 1.

The first RANK returns 1, and COUNTIF returns 1, but since we mentioned -1, it becomes zero; therefore, 1+0 = 1. For Sachin, RANK remains 1.

For Dravid, we got the Rank of 2. Here RANK returns 1, but COUNTIF returns 2, but since we mentioned -1, it becomes 1; therefore, 1 + 1 = 2. The rank for Dravid is 2, not 1.

This is how we can get unique ranks in case of duplicate values.

Things to Remember

RANK replaces a RANK chúng tôi in 2010 and later versions.

A RANK Function in Excel can accept only numerical values. Anything other than numerical values, we will get an error as #VALUE!

If the number you are testing is not present in the list of numbers, we will get #N/A! Error.

The RANK function in Excel gives the same ranking in the case of duplicate values. Anyhow, we can get unique ranks by using the COUNTIF function.

Data need not sort in ascending or descending order to get the results.

Recommended ArticlesThis has been a guide to RANK in Excel. Here we discuss the RANK Formula in Excel and How to use a RANK Function in Exel, along with practical examples and a downloadable Excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

## Cell Phones A Dangerous Distraction At Night

Cell Phones a Dangerous Distraction at Night Muggers target iPhones in recent attacks on students

Earlier this month, two female students were robbed and roughed up in separate incidents near the Shaw’s supermarket on Comm Ave. In both cases, the women were walking alone after midnight, talking on their cell phones. The suspect in each robbery was described as a college-age black male wearing a ball cap.

“Both victims had an iPhone,” says Scott Pare, BU’s deputy director of public safety. “They are attractive pieces of equipment. One of the victims lost her pocketbook, as well.”

University campuses and surrounding neighborhoods are prime targets for criminals, especially thieves, day or night. While property theft is the most common crime reported, more serious offenses take place, as well. From January 2010 to July 25, 2010, according to BUPD, two sexual assaults, eight assaults, one aggravated assault, and three robberies were reported on campus. Some of those numbers may be higher, as police acknowledge that crimes like rape and indecent assault tend to be underreported. The two recent robberies technically occurred off campus and are being handled by the Boston Police Department.

BU Today caught up with Pare to ask how students can better protect themselves when they are out and about.

Pare: Walking around talking on your cell phone after midnight probably isn’t the best way to keep your wits about you. You want to be aware of your surroundings, especially at night when your senses should be more keen. Your cell phone is a huge distraction. I know I’ve been places where you’re on your cell phone and you go from point A to point B and forget what happened in between. You arrive at your destination and say, “How did I get here?” The same with headphones. You can’t hear anything around because you have the music blaring. You can’t hear traffic, trains, someone on a bike. You’d never hear someone running up behind you.

The crime rate is very low on this campus. With that you have this feeling of comfort, which is great, but you do end up letting your guard down. It’s a double-edged sword.

BU is certainly an appealing place. The university environment, in general, is. The population is large. Thieves know students have laptops and other electronic devices. Unfortunately, kids leave them unattended. Ninety to 95 percent of theft reports we review are “unattendeds,” meaning leaving your laptop or iPhone at your desk while you go for a break or a coffee. The same with leaving your room and offices unlocked. It’s not just students. It’s faculty and staff, too. You go down the hall for five minutes and something’s missing from your office. Larceny is the highest crime on campus, on all campuses. Unfortunately, every once in a while we have assaults like the ones reported [this month].

These items aren’t worth your safety, so why risk getting injured or worse? If you’re physically attacked all bets are off, and you have to fight back and defend yourself. We do offer RAD (Rape Aggression Defense) classes, and if a group wants to have a RAD class, they can contact us directly. We’ll do a class anywhere, anytime.

We do free laptop and bike registration. This doesn’t prevent theft, but we can put [a report] in a national crime database, and if the items are located anywhere and the numbers are run, at least there’s a chance of getting them back.

It’s not real common. So the best plan is prevention.

BU is extremely safe, but don’t let your guard down. This is a large city and it certainly changes when it gets dark. It’s best if you can walk with someone else. If you can’t, we do have an escort security service on campus. Stay off your cell phone. If you need to make a call, be conscious of what’s around you.

BUPD urges students, faculty, and staff to report suspicious people and activity on or near campus by calling 617-353-2121 or text messaging tip411 (847411), keyword: BU. The BUPD phone number is located on the back of every Terrier ID Card.

The Escort Security Service can be reached at 617-353-4877.

Caleb Daniloff can be reached at [email protected].

Explore Related Topics:

## Advanced Cell Phone Tracker For Modern Parents

Frequently asked questions Does uMobix cell phone tracker work in real-time?

Yes, uMobix tracking app logs everything users do and sends reports directly to your user account. It usually takes up to 5 minutes to synchronize all data from a monitored device. In case of iOS, data synchronization depends on the backup perfomance (in some cases can take up to 24 hours).

How does uMobix work?Our tracking app monitors and obtains information from target devices in stealth mode. All recorded data is sent to your userspace where it appears in the form of comprehensive dashboards. To start using mobile tracker, you have to purchase the app, log in to your account, install uMobix on an Android device, or provide iCloud credentials of a target iOS device.

Is it legal to use cell phone tracker?It is absolutely legal to use uMobix if:

– You own the device you’re going to monitor;

– You’ve informed the designated users that their activities are being watched.

How often will it update from the target device?By default, data is updated each 5 minutes for Android devices. You can adjust intervals depending on cell phone settings and internet connection. In case of iOS, data synchronization depends solely on the backup perfomance (in some cases can take up to 24 hours).

How can I track the location of a cell phone?With the help of our cell phone tracker, you can locate a phone on the map. The technology also allows seeing where a user has been by using the location history feature. All information is displayed on the interactive map. You only have to log in to your account and open the needed page.

Can I track a cell phone with just a number? Can you track someone’s location through their phone?Yes, you can access a person’s phone location by using a cell phone tracker. You have to install the tracking app on a target device to be able to see user location in real-time.

How many devices can I track?One subscription gives you access to one device. You can unlink and link as many devices as you wish but only one at a time.

Where can I view data from target device?All data is delivered to your personal account. You can access your dashboard from any device or computer with your login credentials.

Is the icon visible?After installation on an Android device, you can remove the icon from the menu. We know that tech-savvy kids can spot the icon right away. For iOS devices, the installation process does not include downloading the app on the device, so there won’t be any icon in the menu.

Can I install uMobix remotely?To install cell phone tracking app on any Android device, physical access is required (for less than 1 minute). For iOS devices (iPhone or iPad), you only have to provide iCloud credentials and be ready to approve 2 FA code.

## Book Value Per Share Formula

Book Value Per Share Formula (Table of Contents)

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Book Value Per Share Formula

Total liabilities

Total liabilities are the total debt and financial obligations payable by the company to organizations or individuals at any defined period of time. Total liabilities are stated on the balance sheet by the company.

Total Assets

Total Assets are the total amount of assets owned by an entity or an individual. Assets are items of monetary value used over time to produce a benefit for the asset’s holder. If a company owns assets, it includes them in the balance sheet to maintain accurate accounting records.

Examples of Book Value Per Share FormulaLet’s take an example to find out the Book Value Per Share for a company: –

You can download this Book Value per Share Template here – Book Value per Share Template

Example #1Let’s assume Company Anand Pvt Ltd have worth $25,000,000 of stockholders’ equity, $5,000,000 preferred stock, and total outstanding shares of $10,000,000 shares outstanding. We need to calculate the book value per share for the Anand Group of companies.

Now, we can calculate Book Value Per Share for Anand Pvt Ltd by using the Book Value Per Share Formula:

Stockholder’s Equity = $25,000,000

Preferred Equity = $5,000,000

Total Outstanding Common Shares = $10,000,000

By using the Book Value per Share Formula

Book Value per Share = (Shareholders’ Equity – Preferred Equity) / Total Outstanding Common Shares

Book Value per Share = $(25,000,000- $5,000,000) / $10,000,000

Book Value per Share = $2

This shows Anand Group of the company has a book value per share of $2.

Example #2Jagriti Group of Companies has the following details as per its financials for the year ended 2023-18:

Total assets = $200,000

Total liabilities = $50,000

Preferred shares = $25,000

Number of outstanding common shares = 5000 shares

Therefore,

We need to calculate the Book Value Per Share of Jagriti Group of Companies.

As we can see in the above case, the Shareholder’s Equity is not provided, then we have to calculate Shareholder’s Equity by using the below formula:

Total assets = $200,000

Total liabilities = $50,000

Shareholder’s Equity Formula

Shareholder’s Equity =Total assets – Total Liabilities

Shareholder’s equity = $200,000 – $50,000

Shareholder’s Equity = $1,50,000

Now, we have to calculate how much common shareholders will be getting from the shareholders’ equity. So, we must deduct the Preferred stocks from the Shareholders’ equity.

Therefore,

Common shareholders’ equity = Shareholder’s equity – Preferred Share

Common shareholder’s equity = $1,50,000- $25,000

Common shareholder’s equity = $1,25,000

Now by using the below formula, we can calculate Book Value Per Share:

Book Value per Share = (Shareholders’ Equity – Preferred Equity) / Total Outstanding Common Shares

Book Value per share = $1,50,000- $25,000/ 5,000

Book Value per share = $1,25,000/ 5,000

Book Value per share = $25

Example #3Calculate the Book Value per share for Anand Group of Companies using the following extracts available:

Current Assets = $70,000

Non-current Assets = $230,000

Current Liabilities = $60,000

Non-Current Liabilities = $30,000

Preferred shares = $45,000

Number of outstanding common shares = 3500 shares

For calculating Book Value Per Share, we need Shareholders’ Equity which can be calculated as below:

Total assets = Current Assets + Non-current Assets

Total Liabilities = Current Liabilities + Non-Current Liabilities

Shareholder’s Equity =Total assets – Total Liabilities

Shareholder’s Equity = (Current Assets + Non-current Assets) – (Current Liabilities + Non-Liabilities)

Shareholder’s Equity = ($70,000 + $230,000) – ($60,000 + $30,000)

Shareholder’s Equity = $3,00,000 – $90,000

Shareholder’s Equity = $2,10,000

Now by using the below formula, we can calculate Book Value Per Share:

Book Value per Share = (Shareholder’s Equity – Preferred Equity) / Total Outstanding Common Shares

Book Value per share = ($2,10,000- $45,000)/3500

Book Value per share = $47.14

The book Value per share of Jagriti Group of Companies is $47.14.

ExplanationYou can calculate the book value per share to determine the value of a company per share. The calculation is based on the equity available to common shareholders after paying off the debts and preferred shareholders for which the company is legally obliged. When calculating Book Value Per Share, one must subtract preferred shares from Shareholder’s Equity.

The “Book Value” of a company, also referred to as Shareholder’s Equity or Owner’s Equity, can be calculated by subtracting Total Liabilities from Total Assets.

Therefore, Shareholder’s Equity =Total assets – Total Liabilities

And, Book Value per Share = (Shareholders’ Equity – Preferred Equity) / Total Outstanding Common Shares. The data mentioned above can be found on the company’s balance sheet.

Significance and Use of Book Value Per ShareThe investors can use Book Value per share to determine the equity in a company compared to the current market value of the company, that is, the current price of the stock. For example, Let’s assume Anand Ltd is currently trading for $30. But it has a book value of $15. This shows the stock of Anand Ltd is selling at the double, I.e., two times its equity. The above example is used in valuation methodology, i.e., Multiple Valuation (price to book value or P/B) or relative valuation; in this formula, book value per share is used in the denominator.

To compute the return on equity formula, investors can use the book value per share, which abbreviates as ROE. In this scenario, one calculates ROE on a per-share basis.

Simply divide the stockholder’s equity by the net income to calculate the ROE. ROE per share = (Net Income Per share or EPS)/Book Value per share. Per share basis of Net income is referred to as Earnings per share or EPS. As the article demonstrates, the book value per share represents the stockholder’s equity on a per-share basis.

Book Value Per Share CalculatorYou can use the following Book Value per Share Calculator

Shareholder’s Equity Preferred Equity Total Outstanding Common Share’s Book Value per Share Formula = Book Value per Share Formula = Shareholder’s Equity − Preferred Equity = Total Outstanding Common Share’s

0

–

0

= 0

0

Book Value Per Share Formula in Excel (With Excel Template)

Here we will do the same example of the Book Value per Share in Excel. It is very easy and simple. You need to provide the two inputs, i.e., Shareholders’ Equity and Preferred Equity

You can easily calculate the Book Value per Share using the formula in the template provided.

In this template, we have to solve the Book Value per Share Formula

Hence first, we are calculating the Shareholder’s Equity by using the Shareholder’s Equity Formula.

Now, we will calculate the Book Value per Share by using the formula.

Recommended ArticlesThis has been a guide to Book Value per Share Formula; here, we discuss its uses and practical examples. We also provide a Book Value per Share calculator and a downloadable Excel template.

## Return On Average Assets Formula

Return on Average Assets Formula

The Formula of Return on Average Assets can be calculated by dividing Company’s Annual Net Income to its Average Total Assets.

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Average Total Assets is calculated using the below formula

In every case, it is not mandatory to have average total assets. In most of the cases return on asset is also used. It is given below.

Generally, banks and other financial institutions utilize a return on average assets to evaluate their performance. It is calculated at period ends, like quarters, years, etc. The return on average assets does not show all the lows and highs. It is, rather, just an average of the period under consideration.

Explanation of Return on Average AssetsA return on average assets ratio is shown as a percentage of all average assets. The return on Average assets ratio often called the return on total assets, is a profitability ratio that calculates the net income produced by total assets during a given period by comparing the net income to the average total assets of the company. In simple words, the ROA or return on assets ratio calculates how efficiently a firm or management of a company can manage its assets to produce profits during a given period. In short, the return on Average assets ratio measures how profitable a firm’s assets are.

Examples of Return on Average Assets FormulaSuppose ABC Company earns $ 4,000 as annual net income while average assets are $40,000.

You can download this Return on Average Assets Template here – Return on Average Assets Template

Return on Average Asset can be calculated as:

Return on Average Asset = (Net income)/(Total Average Asset)

Return on Average Asset = ($ 4,000)/($ 40,000)

Return on Average Asset = 10 %

This indicates that the ABC Company has $0.1 of net income for every dollar of invested assets. Return on assets should be compared with peers in the same industry as a return on assets has stark differences in different industries. So it is wise to compare the return on assets with its peer for a good comparison.

Assume that XYZ company earns a total annual Net Income of $ 100,000 while beginning total assets are $600,000 and ending total assets are $500,000 to calculate Return on Average Assets,

Average Total Assets=(Beginning Total Assets+ Ending Total Assets)/2

The average total assets = ($ 600,000 + $ 500,000) / 2

The average total assets = $ 550,000

According to the Return on Average Assets formula, we get

Return on Average Assets = Net Income / Average Total Assets

Return on Average Assets = $ 100,000 / $ 550,000

Return on Average Assets = 18.18 %

Company XYZ earns 18.18 % on its total assets.

Suppose company ABC & XYZ operates in the same industry. If we compare company ABC & company XYZ, company XYZ utilizes its assets more efficiently than company ABC. As company XYZ has more earnings on assets than company ABC. As an investment analyst, investing in a company that utilizes its assets efficiently makes more sense.

Significance and Use of Return on Average Assets FormulaThe return on Average Assets formula is an indicator that helps to assess how profitable a company is relative to its total annual assets. Return on Average Assets is a type of Return on investments, so it helps to indicate a company’s performance. Return on Average Assets gives an idea to an analyst, investors, and managers of how efficiently management uses its assets to improve earnings. It generates the profitability of a business in relation to its total annual assets.

Return on Average Assets shows how efficiently management or a company can convert the money used to purchase total assets into profits or net income. It makes sense that a higher ratio is more favorable to the management and investors because it shows that the firm is more effectively operating its assets to produce greater amounts of net profit. For the management, the return on Average Assets ratio is also important because the ratio can tell a lot about the firm’s performance; and by comparing the ratio with similar companies under one industry, management should be able to understand how well the firm is doing.

Return on Average Assets CalculatorYou can use the following Return on Average Assets Calculator

Annual Total Income Average Total Assets Return on Average Assets Formula Return on Average Assets Formula = Annual Total Income =

Average Total Assets

0

= 0

0

Return on Average Assets Formula in Excel (With Excel Template)

Here we will do the same example of the Return on Average Assets formula in Excel. It is very easy and simple. You need to provide the three inputs i.e. Net Income and Total Average Asset.

In the First Example, We calculate the Return on Average Assets using Formula

In the Second Example

first, we calculate the Average total assets.

Then, we calculate the Return on Average Assets using Formula

Recommended ArticlesThis has been a guide to a Return on Average Assets formula. Here we discuss its uses along with practical examples. We also provide you with Return on Average Assets Calculator with a downloadable Excel template. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

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