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Google Protects Trade Secrets from Department of Justice

The Google vs. the DOJ fallout began when unlike Yahoo, MSN Search, and Ask Jeeves; Google did not hand over search data to the government when issued the subpoena. While the move led to a media frenzied “Google is the hero of privacy” which lasted a good 6 or 7 days, one of the main reasons behind Google not opening up its information to public record has more to do with protecting its trade secrets and search algorithm information.

Nicole Wong, Associate General Counsel at Google, prints part of the response on the Google Blog:

Google users trust that when they enter a search query into a Google search box, not only will they receive back the most relevant results, but that Google will keep private whatever information users communicate absent a compelling reason. The Government’s demand for disclosure of untold millions of search queries submitted by Google users and for production of a million Web page addresses or “URLs” randomly selected from Google’s proprietary index would undermine that trust, unnecessarily burden Google, and do nothing to further the Government’s case in the underlying action.

Fortunately, the Court has multiple, independent bases to reject the Government’s Motion. First, the Government’s presentation falls woefully short of demonstrating that the requested information will lead to admissible evidence. This burden is unquestionably the Government’s. Rather than meet it, the Government concedes that Google’s search queries and URLs are not evidence to be used at trial at all. Instead, the Government says, the data will be “useful” to its purported expert in developing some theory to support the Government’s notion that a law banning materials that are harmful to minors on the Internet will be more effective than a technology filter in eliminating it.

Google is, of course, concerned about the availability of materials harmful to minors on the Internet, but that shared concern does not render the Government’s request acceptable or relevant. In truth, the data demanded tells the Government absolutely nothing about either filters or the effectiveness of laws. Nor will the data tell the Government whether a given search would return any particular URL. Nor will the URL returned, by its name alone, tell the Government whether that URL was a site that contained material harmful to minors.

But, the Government’s request would tell the world much about Google’s trade secrets and proprietary systems. This is the second independent ground upon which the Court should reject the subpoena. Google avidly protects every aspect of its search technology from disclosure, even including the total number of searches conducted on any given day. Moreover, to know whether a given search would return any given URL in Google’s database, a complete knowledge of how Google’s search engine operates is required, inevitably further entangling Google in the underlying litigation. No assurances, no promises, and no confidentiality order, can protect Google’s trade secrets from scrutiny and disclosure during the course of discovery and trial.

Read the entire Google Response to the Department of Justice (25 page PDF).

You're reading Google Protects Trade Secrets From Department Of Justice

Facebook Ads: Success Secrets From A Facebook Insider

Rather than tailoring ad content to concepts or things, such as digital cameras, think of Facebook as targeting people, such as the users of digital cameras, says Tim Kendall, director of monetization for Facebook.

How exactly should you go about that? Kendall shared with us his inside perspective on how a small business can get the most out of Facebook Ads. Here are his tips.

1. Make the Most of Your Facebook Page

Before you even think about Facebook Ads, Kendall recommends building a Facebook presence by launching a page for your business chúng tôi Facebook Help Center steps through the process.

To start, learn what separates a business page from that of a casual, individual user. With a business account, you can’t view other users’ profiles, add friends, or interact with individuals the way an individual Facebook user can.

Even so, the two types of pages have many similarities, such as the capability to post updates. Visitors can become fans of your company and “Like” what you post. You can tweak the page to your preferences, too, first by listing it in a specific category and then by dividing content on your Facebook page among tabs.

2. Create a Username for Your Page

Once you have at least 25 people connected to your page, Kendall says, you should reserve a specific username for your Facebook URL (which appears as chúng tôi This setup makes it easier for visitors to find and remember your Facebook destination.

3. Remember to Have a Two-Way Conversation

Don’t talk “to” your customers; instead, chat “with” them, and engage them on your Facebook page. Think of ways that content can spread virally. Fans of your company may link to cool items from your business page on Facebook, where it appears to their friends via News Feed.

One success story comes from Baton Rouge, Louisiana-based Community Coffee, which asked users to share their childhood memories of drinking coffee milk. The company found that the question led to all sorts of engagement, helping its fan base grow at a rate of 1000 people per week. Community Coffee counts Facebook as one of its top five sources of revenue, Kendall says. Another example might be a restaurant that posts videos of the chef explaining a recipe.

Remember that these first three steps aren’t a must, and it’s natural that Facebook would encourage business users to maintain a presence within its ecosystem. It’s fine if you’d prefer not to build a Facebook page for your business, driving traffic to a separate Website instead. Nevertheless, the interactivity that Facebook provides–and its tie-ins to Ads–make setting up a Facebook page worth considering.

4. Use Facebook Ads to Drive Traffic to Your Page or Website 5. Refine Your Targeting by Profile Information

Among the examples that Facebook touts is a photography studio that reaped $40,000 in revenue from one $600 ad campaign that targeted users who identified as being engaged. And a bakery in Virginia targeted people within a 10-mile radius who ran marathons and liked gluten-free foods.

The Likes & Interests settings provide a multitude of choices as diverse as the expressions of Facebook users. These options aren’t as inclusive as you might prefer. You can’t target, say, users who like both ice cream and Android; instead, you can target users who like ice cream or Android. This limitation is to prevent your making the target too narrow. Facebook suggests other interests based on the first item that you type inside the field; at this point, though, the first three topics tend to be the most relevant.

Even with all the controls for targeting types of people, however, the possibilities are not endless. Facebook admits that it is still working to expand options for targeting people over the age of 64. The offerings have other limitations, as well, such as the inability to reach people (intentionally) who have the “It’s Complicated” relationship status. Facebook claims that the capability doesn’t exist because there’s no evident purpose for reaching such people. However, it’s not hard to imagine any number of products or services–dubious or not–for people whose relationships may be either nontraditional or in turmoil. (Therapy sessions? Marital aids?)

More geographic controls would be nice, too. You can target a city plus other communities up to 50 miles away, but you can’t necessarily extend that range by more miles without getting as broad as the state, nor can you include a specific county.

6. Experiment With Different Ad Combinations

Once you run an ad, Facebook returns detailed metrics about how it performed, which can reveal what works and what flops.

7. Keep an Eye on Your Ad Campaign and Keep It Fresh

Finally, don’t get discouraged if you don’t see spectacular results from the get-go. With Facebook’s minimum ad expense of just $1, you can probably afford to try new things.

Ranjan Gogoi: Former Chief Justice Of India

The Indian jurist and former barrister Ranjan Gogoi (born on November 18, 1954) spent seven years on the Supreme Court of India, first as a judge from 2012 to 2023 and then for 13 months as the 46th Chief Justice of India from 2023 to 2023. On March 16, 2023, President Ram Nath Kovind nominated him to be a member of the Rajya Sabha. Gogoi was a judge on the Gauhati High Court before moving on to the Punjab and Haryana High Courts, where he later rose to the position of chief justice. He is currently a Rajya Sabha member of the Committee on External Affairs.

Personal Details

Gogoi was an Ahom dynasty descendant who was born and raised in Dibrugarh and comes from a political family. His grandmother, Padma Kumari Gohain, was one of the first female MLAs and one of the first female ministers in Assam. His maternal grandparents were also state lawmakers. For two months in 1982, his father, Kesab Chandra Gogoi, led Assam as Chief Minister. The only Chief Justice who is also a Chief Minister’s son is Gogoi. Shanti Priya Gogoi, his mother, was a well-known social activist who started an NGO called SEWA in 2000, two years after Kesab Chandra Gogoi passed away in 1998. Four of Gogoi’s five siblings also achieved success in their separate fields of work.


Gogoi attended Cotton University for his undergraduate studies before completing his higher education at the University of Delhi’s Faculty of Law. He became a member of the bar in 1978 and worked for JP Bhattacharjee at the Gauhati High Court. In 1991, he started his own practice, and in 1999, he was appointed senior counsel by the court. From 2001 to 2010, he presided over the Gauhati High Court, and from 2010 to 2011, the Punjab and Haryana High Court. He served as the Punjab and Haryana High Court’s Chief Justice from 2011 to 2012.

The Book of His Autobiography

Fact Detail NameRanjan Gogoi Date of Birth18th November 1954, Dibrugarh, Assam Alma MaterSt Stephens’s College, Delhi (Graduation), Delhi University (LLB) Official Tenure28th February 2001 – 17th March 2023 PresidentRam Nath Kovind Preceded byDipak Misra Succeeded bySharad Arvind Bobde As Judge

Judge of the Gauhati High Court

Judge of the Punjab and Haryana High Court

Chief Justice of the Punjab and Haryana High Court

Judge of the Supreme Court of India

Chief Justice of India

Ranjan Gogoi-Related Controversy

Ranjan Gogoi, a Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, has experienced controversy frequently throughout his professional life. Ranjan Gogoi initially attracted attention when he overturned a High Court ruling in the 2011 death of a woman who was raped by a train in Kerala, for which the High Court rendered a death sentence judgment. A woman was raped in Kerala and then tossed into a train.

However, the sentence was amended to life in prison by Ranjan Gogoi’s bench. He received criticism from numerous social organizations as a result. He was also chastised for authoring an article at the same time by former judge Markandeyu Katju.

Sexual Harassment Allegations

A former Supreme Court employee accused Gogoi of sexual harassment in April 2023. In papers, the woman claimed that on October 10–11, 2023, the Chief Justice forced his body against hers without her consent. Gogoi denied the accusations and called them a plot to undermine the independence of the court.

A month later, a three-judge internal investigative committee exonerated him. Several activists, prominent members of the legal community, and two retired Supreme Court justices also voiced their criticism of the procedures.

Major Case Laws

Markandey Katju ‘‘Provocation’’case − Former Supreme Court justice Markandey Katju publicly expressed his disgust with the Gogoi-led bench’s decision to exonerate the accused of attempted murder in the Soumya rape and murder case, which was the subject of significant opposition and criticism. Justice Gogoi served Katju with a contempt notice, which was later overturned after Katju consented to submit a written apology, but it was determined that his words were sufficient to constitute contempt of court.

M Siddiq (D) Thr Lrs v. Mahant Suresh Das & ors − The Ayodhya Dispute Case is the common name for this situation. CJI Ranjan Gogoi and other judges rendered a decision in this matter. In this instance, the group speaking for the Hindu faction claimed that a temple had once stood on the contested territory but had been destroyed by Babur, a Mughal ruler.

The Muslim side, however, asserted that the disputed site cannot be claimed by Hindus because a mosque known as the Babri Masjid was constructed there. In this case, the court determined that a temple had been there before the Babri Masjid was constructed. The archaeological investigation that claimed to have discovered the ruins of a massive temple-like building beneath the Babri Masjid served as the foundation for the court’s ruling. As a result, the court granted Shri Ram Virajman’s deity the title to the land. The court also allocated 5 acres of land in Ayodhya for the construction of a mosque. In this case, the court also determined that Ram Janmabhoomi is not a legal person.


Q1. Who had appointed Ranjan Gogoi as the chief justice of India?

Ans. Former President Ram Nath Kovind appointed Ranjan Gogoi as the chief justice of India.

Q2. How many courts justice Ranjan Gogoi served before being appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court?

Ans. Before being appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court, justice Gogoi served two high courts namely, Gauhati High Court and Punjab and Haryana High Court.

How To Remove Google+ Birthdays From Google Calendar

If you have been a Google Calendar user, as well as a Google+ user, you will notice that additional Birthday entries are showing up in your calendar. The worst thing is most of them are from your Google+ contacts which you probably aren’t interested in knowing which days their birthdays fall on. It seems that Google has taken a drastic approach to integrate Google+ into all its services with no options to disable them.

Previously, the “Birthday” calendar was an additional calendar which you had to manually add to have it displayed in your calendar. However, a recent update by Google seems to push the “Birthday” calendar to the main calendar app and there is no way to disable it. For those who are not aware, the “Birthday” calendar grabs the birthdays of all your contacts, including Google+ contacts, and displays them on your calendar. For those who want to get the Google+ Birthdays off their calendar, here is a workaround:

3. Now, uncheck the box beside the circle of the contacts whose birthdays you don’t want to see on your calendar. This also means that when you share posts, photos, profile data and other things with “Your circles,” they won’t see it.

As mentioned above, this is a workaround rather than a fix to the issue. Until Google provides the option to disable it, this is the only way to prevent Google+ Birthdays from showing up in your calendar.

Let us know if this is useful to you.

Update: To remove the Google+ birthdays from your Android phone, you first have to open the G+ app, make sure you are sign in, and get it to refresh. This will make sure it syncs with the settings you configure on your desktop. Lastly, run the Google sync and all the Google+ birthdays will be removed from your mobile calendar.


Damien Oh started writing tech articles since 2007 and has over 10 years of experience in the tech industry. He is proficient in Windows, Linux, Mac, Android and iOS, and worked as a part time WordPress Developer. He is currently the owner and Editor-in-Chief of Make Tech Easier.

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How To Remove Content From Google

Sharing content early or deleted pages still indexing can affect your site rankings. Here’s how to remove your content from Google

Having written a lot of blogs around how to get your website rank higher on Google, we’re not surprised when we are asked this question:

“How can I remove my site, or a part of it, from Google?”

If you’re scratching your head trying to get yourself to rank higher, this question might puzzle you. Although, your being here implies you’re actually scratching your head for the opposite reason.

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For the uninitiated, there are a number of reasons why you might want to delist your content from Google, including:

Some information has leaked to the search engine too soon, like details about a new service or products that are yet to be launched.

The page is actually deleted, but its information is still available, for example mistakenly published information.

The website’s information is updated, but the search engine still displays the old version.

Now, let’s get to the question at hand.

How to remove information from Google?

If you control the website that contains the information you wish to delete, make sure you have access to your Webmasters Tools account. If you’ve got that, you can simply delete the unwanted page.

This process works precisely like getting your website listed on Google – by using the Webmasters tools. All in all, there are broadly two preconditions for removing any content from Google:

The page that Google indexed is deleted or its address has been changed.

The website on which the page is located has been verified with the Webmasters tool.

Removing your brand new website from Google

Building fresh web content takes a considerable amount of time and effort. You need to be entirely sure that it remains off the radar of search engines – at least till the time you’re ready to get it live. But with just a minor misstep, the half baked info of your website can leak to Google, resulting in your unfinished website getting indexed and ending up under the scrutiny of the public.

Such a “leak” can appear if you share the link to your unfinished website on Facebook, whether in chats or groups. The links might also end up getting indexed if you share it via email or Skype. Basically, if the link travels to any platform monitored by Google, your website might end up under Google’s eyes.

However, before you request the removal of your website from Google Webmaster Tools, you should ensure that the problematic page has been renamed or removed. Even when you rename it, make doubly sure that it doesn’t get scrutinized by Google too soon.

In the next screen, select ‘Create a new removal request’ and simply enter the exact URL of the page you wish to delete.

After this, Google will ask you to choose your reason for removal. Don’t forget to check ‘Remove page from search results and cache’.

Once you’ve performed the above-discussed steps, it might take up to a couple of days for your request to be fulfilled by Google. You can check the status of your request from the same dashboard where you made the request.

The same method can also be used to remove an outdated page, i.e. a page that contains outdated information about your products. 

Leaked information while updating your site

Unintended premature information might also slip into Google’s purview if you’re updating just some parts of your website. Ensure your site is ready and is already indexed by Google, and you’re willing to launch a new section.

It’s a good idea to hide the new section from the menus, but this doesn’t cover it all. Once you add a single link to the newer section in any part of the website that’s indexed by Google, the new page will automatically be crawled and indexed, albeit prematurely.

Again, you need to ensure that your content isn’t available in the public domain. In addition to just renaming the page, you can take one additional step – removing premature content from your page, publishing it and then re-entering the information.

You should follow the steps explained in the previous section, too. Find the troublesome page, get its URL, and request the removal using Webmasters Tools. 

Cached content and search engines

What we have discussed so far is Google showing unwanted results that you want to be removed. But what if the search results were correct but the cached pages still provide outdated data?

In this case, you should ensure that your updated website is indexed.

How do I cancel the request for removal?

Once Google confirms your removal request, the site or page won’t appear in search results for at least one and a half months. However, if the same page is still accessible even after those 90 days, Google might index it again.

But, if you want the page to show up before 90 days have passed (if you’ve finished adding fresh content to it, for example), you can get it listed simply by removing the removal request in the Google Webmasters Tools.

When to not use the URL removal tool

A guide on how to remove content from Google is incomplete without discussing this point. Even Google has listed some cases where they don’t recommend using the removal tool, such as:

When search displays results that link to already deleted pages. Google removes these pages automatically on regular updates.

When you want a fresh start and the domain you’re working on was previously held by another organization. For this purpose, Google recommends you submit a separate request.

Good to know

With that, we come to the end of this guide. Evidently, knowing how to remove your content from Google is as important as knowing how to get yourself to rank higher. Knowing all we discussed, you’ll find yourself in a comfortable position when dealing with unwanted content that you wish to remove.

Google May Withhold Taxes From Non

Google will soon be required to withhold taxes on YouTube earnings generated from viewers in the United States.

This change is going into effect as early as June. How much tax is withheld from YouTube creators depends on a few factors.

If you live outside the United States and have a revenue-earning YouTube channel with a US-based audience, this applies to you.

Here’s everything we know about the situation so far.

What’s Changing?

If you’re a YouTube creator outside of the United States you may begin to have taxes deducted from your US earnings later this year.

Google says it has a responsibility under Chapter 3 of the US Internal Revenue Code to collect tax information from all monetizing creators outside of the United States.

In certain circumstances, Google will also be required to deduct taxes when YouTube creators’ earnings come from viewers in the United States.

YouTube creators can be taxed on US earnings from ad views, YouTube Premium, Super Chat, Super Stickers, and channel memberships.

What Will Creators Need to Do?

Over the next few weeks, YouTube creators outside the United States will be asked to submit their tax information in AdSense.

Here’s how to find that information:

Login to AdSense

Go to Payments

Go to Manage Settings

Channels that partner with a multichannel network (MCN) will still need to provide US tax information in the AdSense account linked to their channel. If any taxes apply they will be deducted from the payment made to the MCN.

Google is asking YouTube creators to submit relevant tax information in AdSense by May 31, 2023.

Tax information is required in order for Google to determine the correct amount of taxes to deduct, if any apply.

Google will start deducing taxes on US earnings as early as June. Taxes will be deducted from with each monthly payment.

How Much Will Creators Be Taxed?

How much YouTube creators will be taxed depends on a few things:

Whether their tax information has been submitted.

How much revenue the channel earns from viewers in the United States.

Whether the creator’s country has a tax treaty with the United States.

It’s possible that a non-US YouTube creator will not be taxed by Google if none of their viewers live in the United States.

Here’s to calculate US earnings from YouTube:

Go to YouTube Analytics

Select a date range

A drop-down menu will allow you to add a secondary metric. Choose Your estimated revenue.

Look for United States in the list of countries below the graph.

There you can see how much revenue is subject to US taxes.

What Happens if I Don’t Submit Tax Information?

If a creator’s tax information isn’t provided by May 31, Google may be required to apply the default withholding rate of up to 24% of their total earnings worldwide.

Without providing tax information Google will be required to assume the creator is a resident of the United States and will tax all their earnings. Not just revenue earned from US viewers.

That’s a situation YouTube creators are going to want to avoid, so it’s best to get that tax information submitted sooner than later.

What if I’m a Resident of the United States?

Google says most YouTube creators in the United States have submitted their tax information because they’re required to do so when they first joined the YouTube Partnership Program.

No additional taxes will be withheld from creators in the United States when this change rolls out.

For more information see this YouTube help article.

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