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Header and footer in excel are part of page settings that are use to make any worksheet or workbook better for printing. We can add Page Number, Heading, Topic and Chapter name, Company name, Logo, Author’s name and version of a publication, etc. To apply Headers and Footers in Excel, go to the Insert menu tab under the Text section; we have the option Headers and Footers. Once we type any text, it will be marked on all the pages. Go to Footer and from the Design menu tab to insert the page numbers and select the Page Number option. There we have different types of formats to apply for a single thing.

How to Add Header and Footer in Excel?

To add a Header and Footer in Excel is very simple and easy. Let’s understand how to add a Header and Footer in Excel with some examples.

You can download this Header and Footer Excel Template here – Header and Footer Excel Template

Example #1

To add a Header and Footer in the Excel sheet, select the Text option from Insert in the Menu bar and select Header and Footer.

Now go down to enter or change Footer. (If the page size is large, which is normally a default set, go down to change footer)

Now to see, how Header and Footer in excel will look like, go to print preview by pressing Ctrl+P or go to Print option in the File menu to see the preview.

Example #2

Here we have Product Sale data of a month in this example.

To add Header and Footer in this Excel sheet, go to the Insert Menu bar and select Header and Footer.

Now you can customize the header by formatting table names, revision numbers, and data types with different fonts and sizes. Below, we can see the main Product Sale in the main header, which is in bold and high in text size; the document revision number and Document type as Sample Data are kept in the corner of the Header.

By escaping edit mode from that footer, page numbers will start forming sequentially, which will be created in all the subsequent pages as below.

Also, in Footer, you can enter the Copyright detail or number, and your company’s name, if the format allows you to do so. Below, we have filled the footer with some data.

As you can see in the above screenshot, we have put the company’s name, ABC Corporation, in a light color to make a watermark impression and kept CopyRight Reserved © in small fonts. You can use your format as well.

There are additional functions in Excel to enhance the appearance and professionalism of Header and Footer sections.

We have seen how Header, Footer, and Page Number work. Now we will see a few more functions, as shown in the below screenshot.

Number of Pages – It shows the total number of pages where complete data are available. (Formula = &[Pages])

Current Date – It gives the current or today’s date. (Formula = &[Date])

Current Time – It gives the current or publishing time. (Formula = &[Time])

Sheet Name –

 It gives the sheet’s name, entered in a sheet to be shown in the Header or Footer. 

(Formula = &[Tab])

File Name – Same as Sheet Name, It also gives the name of the file to be shown in the Header or Footer (Formula = &[File])

Go to Header/Go to Footer – These are used as a shortcut path to go in Header and Footer directly, instead of using a scroll bar to do up and down.

The design menu bar has one Option; we can change the page setting, Margins, Alignments, and Scaling of the document per its own defined standards.

After entering complete data and using all functions available in Excel, we’ll be having our Header and Footer page setup as below;

Pros of Header and Footer in Excel

If you want to present the data in printable form, then Header and Footer in excel make the layout attractive.

Adding Header and Footer in Excel saves time by automatically adding Heading, Page Number, Revisions, Copy Right to all sheets. No need to add them one by one.

It saves time to change the Header and Footer of each sheet by doing it manually.

Things to Remember

Apply header and footer names to all sheets to avoid making changes individually for each sheet.

If a table has no cell borders, it will appear crowded in the print preview without any visible borders.

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This has been a guide to the header and footer in Excel. Here we discuss how to add a header and footer in Excel and print a preview, practical examples, and a downloadable Excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

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How To Add And Create Rails Bootstrap?

Introduction to Rails Bootstrap

The following article provides an outline for Rails Bootstrap. Bootstrap comes into play when there is a need to develop responsive websites. Bootstrap being an open-source framework, the major use of bootstrap is to apply or design responsive applications in the web application world. The latest version of bootstrap is bootstrap 5. First, we need to understand that bootstrap is a CSS-based framework. So all code that is embedded in bootstrap-based applications will revolve around the concept of CSS has been used. The feature of bootstrap helps to develop highly informative web pages. The layouts of bootstrap are the most vital elements in a bootstrap because they are involved with impacts around an entire page. A bootstrap component combines three major items like, CSS declarations and HTML structures, which will also involve javascript code.

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How to Add Rails Bootstrap?

Adding rails with bootstrap is a three-step process; with the capabilities of bootstrap considered individually, the bootstrap can perform this operation in a three-step process; the process involves how the packages correspond to the bootstrap have been added. Next, the process may involve how the added bootstrap through packages can be taken further. Post the packages have been added, the next process is the process of bootstrap gem addition. This is a very critical process. This process will be responsible for opening up the various items associated with a bootstrap. The bootstrap-sass and autoprefixer rails are the two major gems that must be added to the bootstrap application. The process of doing this is explained in the below section. For applying all the opened gems, the bundler has to be executed in the background. The bundler process will be responsible for applying all the gems mentioned in the gem file. The process behind this is explained below,

Below are the bootstrap color comparison patterns and their hexadecimal values for reference; all CSS code that is framed in bootstrap will be performed with the below tabular consideration,


Hex Red Green Blue Light Satur. Value



Bootstrap Blue #0D6EFD 5% 43% 99% 52% 95% 99%

Blue #0000FF 0% 0% 100% 50% 100% 100%

Bootstrap Indigo #6610F2 40% 6% 95% 51% 93% 95%

Indigo #4B0082 29% 0% 51% 26% 100% 51%

How to Create Rails Bootstrap?

The first process to perform when bootstrap has to be added to an application is to use a package manager service such as yarn, npm, and pip to ensure the installation of the bootstrap package. In our case, we have installed using the yarn package manager service, and the command for this process has been shared below,


yarn add bootstrap jquery @popperjs/core

The next process involves navigating to the chúng tôi file. In the chúng tôi file, we may need to add the above created or generated bootstrap package to the jquery execution path of the system. For performing this operation, the below-given code has to be added,

Environment.js code addition:

const { environment } = require('@rails/webpacker') const webpack = require("webpack") environment.plugins.append("Provide", new webpack.ProvidePlugin({ $: 'jquery', jQuery: 'jquery', Popper: ['popper.js', 'default'] })) module.exports = environment

Gem addition in Gem file:

Running the bundler is the process explained below in the command prompt the bundler has been executed. The bundler command “Blog$ bundle install” is used for unwrapping and executing the bundler. The process behind this is shown in the below-given screenshot. The bootstrap-sass and autoprefixer rails are the two major gems that must be added to the bootstrap application. The process of doing this is explained in the below section. For applying all the opened gems, the bundler has to be executed in the background. The bundler process will be responsible for applying all the gems mentioned in the gem file.

The next segment is to import the bootstrap library, and the @import command is used for importing the bootstrap library. Very importantly, this import must be placed in the chúng tôi file. The chúng tôi file, like an index file of rails applications, must hold the code for first importing the bootstrap library only if the import is fitted well here, then the required sub-packages can be uncovered. From the application packages, which are uncovered, the corresponding packages such as jquery, rails-ujs, turbolinks, and bootstrap-sprockets can be used further in the application. The code for making the import and uncovering the sub-packages in the chúng tôi file is denoted in the below-given snapshot.

Post the creation of the items mentioned above now; the bootstrap must be ready to be connected to the corresponding system

Rails Bootstrap Directory

The rails bootstrap directory structure has been provided in the below-given snapshot; the snapshot describes what the bootstrap addition process looks like, and the various folders associated with the bootstrap directory structure can be gained from the below section.


The above-given article gives needed details regarding how the bootstrap will be used, the different items in a bootstrap, how the bootstrap can be added to a rails structure, and the various steps involved in this addition process. Also, we discuss the directory structure of the rails bootstrap project in the console.

Recommended Articles

We hope that this EDUCBA information on “Rails Bootstrap” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

How To Create Header Slideshow In Free Weebly Site? – Webnots

Header slideshow is a wonderful feature which gives a professional look to your site. This is a pro feature in Weebly and available only for non-responsive themes. Free users can also use alternate methods to modify HTML/CSS and achieve this. In this article we explain how to add Nivo header slideshow in your free Weebly site.

Nivo Header Slideshow How to Add Header Slideshow in Free Weebly Site?

In this example, we have used four images. The second image (up.jpg) is linked to a webpage and has a simple text caption. The fourth image (nemo.jpg) has text caption with a hyperlink.

Step 1 – Ready with Your Images

The above demos are using the responsive “Ace Soccer – Birdseye” Weebly theme and the images are used with the size 618 x 246 px. We recommend to use higher resolution images with similar width and height ratio for better quality.

Step 2 – Download and Upload Slider Files

Creating New Folder in Weebly Code Editor

Upload all slider files into the “nivo” folder. Remember there are four demo images part of the archive file, you can always replace the images with your own images.

Uploading Files in Weebly

Step 3 – Create a New Header Type

Creating New Header Type

Copy all the content from “no-header.html” and paste inside “Nivo-Bar.html” header type.

New Header Type for Slideshow

 Step 4 – Modifying chúng tôi Header Type

There are three parts to be added in the “Nivo-Bar.html” layout – CSS, Scripts and HTML. Insert the below CSS inside the head section of the layout.

It should look like below in the editor:

Inserting CSS in Header Type

Insert the below scripts just before the closure of body tag.

It should look like below in the editor:

Inserting Scripts in Header Type

The final part is to insert the below HTML code just above the “main-wrap” section. Ensure to replace the image and hyperlink URLs with your own.

It should look like below in the editor:

Inserting HTML in Header Type

The final code of “Nivo-Bar.html” header type should be like below. Remember this is on a free Weebly site and the theme we have used is “Ace Soccer – Birdseye”.

{{#sections}} {{/sections}} {menu}

Save the changes and publish your site.

Step 5 – Choosing the Slider Header Type

When you want the header slideshow on a page then choose “Nivo-Bar” header type under “Pages” tab for that specific page.

Choosing Header Type for Specific Page

Customizing Header Slideshow

The slideshow is offered with 4 different themes and 12 image transition effects. The theme can be changed by changing the CSS class in the HTML code. In the above example, we have user bar theme with the CSS class “theme-bar”, you can alternatively use “theme-default”, “theme-dark” or “theme-light”. You can also create four different header types and choose the required theme style for different pages.

By default random transition effect will be applied to each image. You can mention the specific transition type for each image using “data-transition” function in the HTML. Below is an example HTML code using different transition effect for each image with default theme.

You can read the complete customization options for modifying transition effect, theme, animation speed, navigation controls and adding thumbnails.

Looking for accordion style slider as shown below? Learn how to add accordion slider to your Weebly site.

How To Add And Rearrange Apps In Apple Tv

So you got a brand new Apple TV 4K, and now that you’re done setting up the basics, you might be looking to get some of your favourite apps. Well, it’s really quite easy to add apps in Apple TV, and there are many ways that you can install apps, and even rearrange apps on the Apple TV 4K easily. So, whether you’re looking to play some amazing Apple TV games, or install your favourite streaming services like Netflix, here is how to add apps in Apple TV.

Install Apps in Apple TV (tvOS) in 2023

Whether you’re trying to find and install a new app, re-download a previously used app, or rearrange your tvOS home screen to look the way you want it to, we will be covering all of it in this guide. As always, you can use the table of contents below to skip ahead to any section that you want to learn about.

How to Add Apps in Apple TV

First, let’s take a look at how to install new (and previously used) apps on your Apple TV. We will take a look at downloading new apps, and re-downloading apps on Apple TV.

Install New Apps on Apple TV

On your Apple TV, open the App Store.

Here, you can check out the best apps according to Apple in the ‘Discover’ tab, or head over to any of the other tabs to see apps, games, Apple Arcade games for Apple TV, and more.

Head over to the ‘Search’ icon in the Apple TV.

You can now type to search the app you want, or press and hold the ‘mic’ icon in the Apple TV remote to dictate the app you are searching for. In this example, we will search and install ‘Just Watch’.

Once you’ve typed (or spoken) the name of the app, select it from the results below.

Note: Your Apple TV might ask you to confirm your Apple ID password before downloading the app. You can use your iPhone to enter the password easily. You can also use your iPhone to control your Apple TV as well.

How to Re-download Apps Re-download apps by searching

Open the App Store, and head to the search tab.

Here, search for the app you want to download again. For this example, I will be reinstalling the Prime Video app.

Find purchased apps in the App Store

If you don’t remember the name of the app you want to reinstall, you can find all your previously used, downloaded, or purchased apps pretty easily. The best part is that if you’ve used the app on a different Apple TV connected to your Apple ID, it will show up on any Apple TVs that are connected with the same Apple ID as well.

Open the App Store, and head to the ‘Purchased’ tab.

Here, you can use the filters on the left of the screen to easily find the app you’re looking for.

Recently Purchased: these are apps you’ve recently downloaded, regardless of whether they are currently installed or not.

Not on This TV: these are the apps that are in your library, but have not been installed.

All Apps: these are all the apps you have ever purchased or downloaded on any Apple TV connected with your Apple ID, regardless of whether they are currently installed or not.

Find the app you want to install by navigating through the ‘Purchased’ section, and open its App Store listing.

That’s it, the app will now be installed on your Apple TV, and you can find it on your home screen.

How to Rearrange Apps on Home Screen in tvOS 15

Now that you’ve installed a bunch of your favourite Apple TV apps, your home screen might be looking a little cluttered. Maybe you want to arrange your apps in a particular order by frequency of use, or maybe you simply want to update your top row so your favourite apps can show content suggestions. Either way, here’s how you can rearrange apps on the tvOS 15 home screen.

Select the app you want to move and long press the center button on your Apple TV remote. The app will start jiggling.

You can now move the app around on the home screen and place it wherever you like.

How to Create Folders in Apple TV Home Screen

For even better organisation, you can create folders on the home screen of your Apple TV. Here’s how to do this.

Long press on an app to enter jiggle mode.

Move the app such that it hovers over another app on the home screen. In a second or two, tvOS will create a folder as you can see in the GIF below.

Simply press the center button on the remote to add the app to the folder, and that’s it.

Bonus: Switch Between Open Apps and Force Quit Apps on Apple TV

Double press the TV button on the Apple TV remote. This will open up the recent apps screen on your Apple TV.

The tvOS Recent Apps Screen

You can now swipe through the app cards to switch to a different app.

What’s more, you can select an app in the recents app screen and then swipe up on your Apple TV remote trackpad, and it will quit the app. This is similar to how it works on an iPhone, so it’s quite intuitive.

Get Your Favourite Apple TV Apps Right Now

How To Install Android Add

Magisk’s module system isn’t just convenient for flashing these extras – it also helps you keep them updated and manage them.

Install Magisk and Root Your Device

Before you can use Magisk Manager, you’re going to need to install it. Begin by following our Magisk install guide to get set up.

Install a Magisk Module

Open the Magisk Manager app on your Android device. The icon is the Magisk mask logo.

When you first arrive on the home screen, you’ll see your current version of Magisk and the Magisk Manager listed. Make sure there aren’t any updates for it either. If there are, install them first.

Scroll through the absolutely massive list, and take a look around. There are a lot of modules available, and the list is constantly growing. If there’s something specific that you want, use the search icon (magnifying glass) in the upper-right corner of the screen to search directly.

When you find something you like, press the download icon to the right of it. Magisk will ask you if you want to cancel (No Thanks), download, or install the package. Choose “Install” to download and automatically install the module.

Magisk will spring into action, downloading your module. Then, it’ll display a terminal window where it’s flashing your device. When it’s finished, you’ll see a Reboot button pop up in the lower-right of your screen. Tap to restart your device.

Once your device restarts, your new module will be loaded. Depending on what you picked, it may or may not be obvious. The example used appears as an app on your system.

Updating Modules

Magisk Manager also provides the option to update your modules when a new version arrives. If you’ve ever managed custom-flashed modules on Android before, you know that this one is a major lifesaver.

Press the download icon next to your module with an available update. Magisk will ask again if you want to install the update.

Magisk will get to work downloading and flashing your update. When it’s done, you’ll see the “Reboot” button again. Reboot to apply your update.

As you can see, Magisk is a fantastic tool to gain access to some of Android’s most powerful features. With these modules, you can seriously tailor Android to your needs, adding the functionality and extras that you want most.

Nick Congleton

Nick is a freelance tech. journalist, Linux enthusiast, and a long time PC gamer.

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How To Add Textual Watermarks To The Images With Opencv And Pil!

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon

Photo by Markus Spiske on Unsplash

This post will assist you in acquiring knowledge regarding computer vision techniques employing Python programming. Here I will explain how to execute computer vision functions and implement them in different aspects, practicing some prominent examples. Then we will reflect the output along with the illustrations.

Lastly, we will also address the fundamental image processing and implement a specific description of computer vision functions.

Aims: The aim is to explain how to draw logos or watermark on photographs applying two different approaches in computer vision working with python – OpenCV and PIL.

Points Included In This Article:

Producing watermark from text utilizing OpenCV

Producing watermark from text utilizing PIL

What Is A Digital Watermark?

Watermark is information that may be a logo, trademark, or stamp applied to identify the creator’s ownership. It reflects the logo without interpreting the clarity of the photograph. Before distributing their content on public platforms, most companies and professionals restrict other people from copying it by practicing Watermarks.

Purpose Of Watermarking

People may implement digital watermarking on countless applications, such as:

Copyright iD

User authentication or fingerprint

Tamper detection

Image protection

Difference Between Pillow & OpenCV For Computer Vision Tasks

Both OpenCV & Pillow are one of the best in their terms. Both provide a comprehensive set of methods to work with your videos, photos and many more. Let us learn the essential contrast between the two:

Type: Pillow is an image manipulation & processing library, whereas OpenCV is a computer vision library.

Runtime: Pillow is slow in comparison to OpenCV, which is much faster in runtime.

Method To Open An Image: In pillow we use wherein OpenCV we use cv2.imread(file_path).

Image Type Supported: In pillow PIL format & in OpenCV numpy.ndarray type format is preferred.

How To Display Images: In pillow we use whereas in OpenCV we use cv2.imshow(“Name_OF_Image”, image).

How To Save Images: In the pillow we use, “JPEG”) whereas in OpenCV we use cv2.imwrite(“output_img.png”, image).

Converting Image To Array: In pillow, we can apply image.fromarray() to convert an input image to an array of features, whereas in OpenCV, the input image is already in NumPy array format.

How To Resize: In pillow we can resize an image by using image.resize((256, 256), Image.CUBIC), in OpenCV do the same as follows: cv2.resize(image, dsize=(256, 256), interpolation=cv2.INTER_CUBIC).

How To Flip An Image: To flip an image, we use image.transpose(Image.FLIP_LEFT_RIGHT) in pillow whereas in OpenCV we do the same by cv2.flip(image, flipCode=1).

How To Blur An Image: To blur an image, we use ImageOps.box_blur(image, radius=2) in pillow whereas in OpenCV we do the same by cv2.blur(image, ksize=(3, 3)).

OpenCV incorporates most of everything PIL offers and more extra. If you only require any library for image processing and straightforward tasks, exercise PIL; otherwise, OpenCV should be your prime choice.

Requirements & Specifications:

Numpy library (pip install numpy)

OpenCV library (pip install opencv-python)

Python (Link to install python)

matplotlib library (pip install matplotlib)

PIL library (pip install Pillow)

Before moving to understand how to attach a watermark text to your photographs; let’s see how it will look like on pictures:

Main idea: ‘mrinal.jpg’

Adding a watermark text “MW”, the photograph will look like:

Producing watermark Text Utilizibg a picture #1. Applying OpenCV:

OpenCV is a free open source library practiced in real-time image processing. It’s used to process images, videos, and live streams, but we will only prepare pictures as direct action in this tutorial.


First importing all essential libraries and then loading the picture you would wish to watermark. We store the picture applying cv2.imread(). OpenCV renders images as BGR. So we require to transform it into an RGB channel. Unless the Blue and Red channels will be viewed as exchanged when you run plt.imshow().

import cv2 import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt img = cv2.imread('a.jpg' ) img_rgb = cv2.cvtColor(img, cv2.COLOR_BGR2RGB) plt.imshow(img_rgb);

First, we will practice NumPy to generate a blank image of the identical size to the image we desire to watermark. Following, we accept the OpenCV’s putText function to print our decided text, mentioning font specifications on this blank image. The org attribute is origin coordinates x, y of the source of the text. Mark the flip of x and y with the picture shape when deciding the ranges of text position.

blank = np.zeros(shape=(img_rgb.shape[0],img_rgb.shape[1],3), dtype=np.uint8) font = cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX cv2.putText(blank, text='M W', org=(img_rgb.shape[1]//8, img_rgb.shape[0]//2), fontFace=font, fontScale= 2,color=(163,163,163), thickness=11, lineType=cv2.LINE_4)


With OpenCV drawing functions, you can produce multiple different watermarks – your creativity is the boundary. Next, blend the images applying cv2.addWeighted() function that exerts the latter format: image1 * alpha + image2 * beta + gamma

At last, we demonstrate the picture applying cv2.imshow()

blend = cv2.addWeighted(src1=img_rgb,alpha=0.7,src2=blank,beta=1, gamma = 0) plt.imshow(blend); #2. Applying PIL:

Applying the PIL library, we will provide our picture as input and a text to present as a watermark on the photograph. By specifying a value to the margin, we can modify the location of the text in the photo.


First, we import the needed PIL library and packages. Then we load the input picture we want to paint the watermark. Then we get the width and height of the input picture. Dimensions are used to place the text later in the code.

from PIL import Image, ImageDraw, ImageFont orig_img ='a.jpg') w, h = orig_img.size

Apply any text you desire to add as a watermark, and we practice the ImageDraw module to produces simple 2D graphics for Drawing objects. We are applying PIL.ImageDraw.Draw() function to generate a thing that can be employed to draw in the given picture.

draw = ImageDraw.Draw(orig_img) txt = "MRINAL WALIA - MACHINE LEARNING ENGINEER AND A BLOGGER" txtw, txth = draw.textsize(txt) margin = 10

Set the x & y coordinates of the text you desire to attach and draw the text on the primary image and practice to represent the output image and to store the picture locally.

x = w - txtw - margin y = h - txth - margin draw.text((x, y), txt)'RESULT.png') EndNotes

The above article explained how to combine text as a watermark to our photographs employing Python’s OpenCV library & PIL library. Understanding image watermarking is necessary for every CV developer and researcher because it assists as a central element for fulfilling numerous image processing tasks. Furthermore, there are countless different applications where we can implement a visible watermarking system for real-world problems. Now it’s up to you to develop the method for your future applications, and I cannot abide to hear from you.

About Author

Mrinal Walia is a professional Python Developer with a computer science background specializing in Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence and Computer Vision. In addition to this, Mrinal is an interactive blogger, author, and geek with over four years of experience in his work. With a background working through most areas of computer science, Mrinal currently works as a Testing and Automation Engineer at Versa Networks, India. My aim to reach my creative goals one step at a time, and I believe in doing everything with a smile.

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