Trending March 2024 # How To Build A Torsion Box Workbench Top (With Pictures) # Suggested April 2024 # Top 7 Popular

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Other elements that make it user friendly are things that relate to your style of woodworking: boat building or just piddling in the shop. Tool tray, bench dogs, bench slave and cabinets or shelves under the bench. One note here: a woodworking workbench is to work wood, so build it to meet that need. If you add shelves or cabinets below the top; be sure you can still use your bench dogs and hold fasts. You should also be able to use a clamp under the top. Tool trays are handy, but get in the way when you need to add a clamp on both sides of the bench to hold your work. Think about how you will use this bench and what you need to make it work with you. Think about your seven “P’s”: “Prior proper planning prevents pee poor performance”.

One word of caution here: don’t build a workbench that is too large for your shop. Be sure you have room to work around the bench. If it is not what works for you, than it’s not going to make you happy or productive.

Understand that it will need to be strong, heavy and durable. All torsion boxes have one thing in common: they have small grids or boxes inside one large box. This grid is what gives the torsion box it’s strength. It is also one that will hold its shape and not twist or bend under normal workbench use. But you have to build it to fit the type of work you do and for its intended use. This will determine the size and shape of your torsion box top.


The 3/4″ plywood or MDF should be slightly over-size to the top you want. This lets you lay out lines for your grid pattern and have room to trim it’s flush with the main inside box. Lay out lines around the bottom plywood or MDF for the top size less the thickness of the outside hardwood trim boards that will rap around the top when done.

Build your outside box frame, use the 1×2 lumber, pre-drill holes or use a brad nailer and glue. Lay out the outside edge lines of the bench top on the MDF or plywood. Fit the frame together on these lines you laid out. Use screws or brad nails only long enough to pass through the width of the 1×2 and about 3/4 of the way into the plywood or MDF. Check the outside frame to ensure its square, measure from corner to corner in a diagonal manner. This outside frame will be glued and screwed or brad nailed to the bottom plywood or MDF. From here all is dependent on the squareness of the outside frame.

Place the short strips at their pre-determined location of the grid against the outside frame along the length of the bench. A carpenters square should be used on each short and long strip to ensure its square. Remove any excess glue, neatness is important to good craftsman like work.

With the short strips in place for the first row, you can now add a long strip in the same manner, glue and screws in pre-drilled holes or brad nails. Place the long strip into place making sure it touches all the short strips and touching the outside frame at each end. Brad nail at the intersections of the short strips and the long strips. You now have one row of your grid done, check to ensure that all remaining rows will be of the same width across the bottom.

You can now place more short strips into place as you did the first row of short strips, glue and screw or brad nail them in place making sure they are square to the long strip. Here you will have to toenail them to the long strip.

Your last row of short strips should fit not too tight but touching the last long strip and outside frame as the first row of short strips. Check to ensure everything is square and the last row does not bow the outside frame member out.

When the glue has dried overnight, get help and turn the bottom and grid over placing it back on the 2x4s you used to make a nice flat level surface. Check to ensure all is still level and square. Lay out lines on the bottom to match the centers lines of the 1×2’s on the underside. On these lines you can add brad nails from the outside. This makes for a very strong box.

Once the new torsion box is together, you can trim the outside edges of the top and bottom plywood or MDF flush with the outside edges of the outside 1×2 frame.

The outside trim is a hardwood of 1″ to 1-1/2′ thick and the width of the thickness of the torsion box. The corners should be mitered or use a nice box joint here. Glue and screw the outside trim into place, do not glue it to the top plywood or MDF. The hardwood outside frame top and bottom outside edges should be rounded over to prevent splintering. Your torsion box is now done and should be about 3″ thick by what ever length and width you have chosen.

After rounding over edges and sanding the entire top, you can put a nice oil finish on the torsion box to keep it looking good and prevent any other problems from water or whatever may come in contact with it. Oil finishes as 1/2 boiled linseed oil and 1/2 tongue oil,about 3 coats.

You should build a nice strong 2x frame with 3 layers of 2×6 material for legs. This new torsion box top is not just strong, stiff and durable but heavy and should have a heavy frame to hold it.

The frame for your top can be very inexpensive and still look like a million dollars. At your local lumberyard, pick out the best 2×6’s and 2×8’s you can find. The grade and quality of these depend on your budget. Yellow pine is really good for this and still much less than any hardwood.

Cut the 2×6’s to length for the legs, this is up to you as to how high you want your bench top. It should be high enough that you don’t have to bend over to work and not so high that you have to reach up.

With the 2×6’s cut to length and trimmed to width, glue and screw them together making sure you leave the right amount of space for the foot at the bottom and right amount at the top for the top rail. You can use scrap pieces for this to ensure proper location of the short leg lamination.

The next piece to add is the top rail, this should be just the length of the width of the bottom of your base frame. As with the foot piece it should also be glued and lag screwed into place. This to should give you an inletted look.

Now that the leg assembly is complete, you can attach the long trimmed 2×8 side rails with glue and lag screws. These should be the length of your bench less the amount of overhang used for mounting vises. The long side rails should overlap the end rails at the corners of the legs.

A stretcher between the foot pieces can be added if wanted. Two trimmed 2×4’s attached to the top edge of the foot will also make a good base to build shelves or storage cabinets under your new workbench.

This inexpensive workbench can have lots of extras as, tool tray added to one side of the torsion box. It can also have vises attached to the overhang end as in a face vise and an end vise. You can add bench dog holes, these should be decided on before building the top torsion box. To have bench dogs in a torsion box, you need to install a trimmed 2×6 one row from the outside edge. This trimmed 2×6 is glued and screwed to the bottom inside and out. Placing screws at locations that will not interfere with the drilling of dog holes.

More features as built in cabinets or shelves under the center section of the base frame.


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How To Join Up With A Horse (With Pictures)

Remember that the horse will almost always mimic you. If you’re jumping everywhere and shouting, the horse will respond by running and acting aggressively.

Maintain relaxed body language and don’t show fear. If you show fear or hesitation, then the horse will take this as a sign of submission from you, and it will take a lot longer to join up.

A horse may take fright at objects perceived as being waved around, so presenting a uniform silhouette poses less of a threat.

Use a calm voice. Use a sing-song, happy, calm tone of voice. As soon as you shout or berate the horse, you have broken the Join Up because the horse understands your attitude as well as the tone and timbre of your voice.

Bring your horse to an enclosed paddock or ring on a 30 feet (9.1 m) line. Your aim at this stage is to familiarize the horse with the arena, so the animal can see it holds no surprises. You also want to show the horse you are calm and not a threat.

You may also want to talk to the horse in a gentle voice as you do this to help calm the animal.

The process of moving the horse away presents you as lead mare.

Work the horse in circles around you. Continue to push the horse on gently, working in circles around you. As the horse becomes familiar with what’s expected, you will see its body language start to change. The horse may angle its head toward you and twitch the inside ear (the one closest to you) toward you as if awaiting instructions. This is a sign that the horse is ready to negotiate his position and do what you want.

After 5 or 6 circuits (if using a 50-foot diameter pen), change direction by blocking the horse using body language, but not actually getting in the way. After another 5 or 6 circuits change direction again, and start to coil the line and maybe drop eye contact down to the neck/shoulder.

The fact that the horse is relaxed but looking to you for instruction means the horse has started to trust you. Now you are both ready to move onto the next phase and test that trust.

If everything goes according to plan, when you turn your back and walk away, the horse will step toward you and follow. This is the same way a foal follows the mother when she moves off. You want to reward this behavior so that the horse is more likely to repeat it in future.[2]

If things don’t go to plan and the horse ignores you, start working the animal in a circle again and go back to the beginning. However, if the horse is starting to tire, stop and try again another day.

Reward the horse. You can rub between the eyes or offer a nice stroke on the neck. This is how horses naturally groom each other or assure a lower status horse. They do not approach the lead mare unless she is very relaxed and not exerting her authority.

Get the horse to follow. Stand next to the horse on the near side, facing forward. Walk off and circle around the horse’s nose to the right. The horse will follow when you have established that you are the leader. Complete a small circle and reward the horse. Do this in both directions.


How To Play True American (With Pictures)

Article Summary


To play True American, the drinking and obstacle course game from the tv show New Girl, you’ll need 4 or more players, furniture to stand on, a bottle of liquor, and a lot of cans of beer. Start by placing a small stand or table in the center of a wide-open room. This will be the castle. Put a bottle of liquor in the center of the castle and arrange 4 lines containing at least 5 beers each branching off of the liquor bottle. The bottle is the king of the castle, the beers are the pawns, and the spaces between the lines of pawns are the 4 zones. Imagine the 4 zones extend all the way out into the room, and fill each zone with 5 pieces of furniture that players can stand on. If you don’t have furniture, you can use pillows, blankets, or even sheets of paper. The important thing is that players have something to stand on since the floor in this game is lava. Arrange the furniture in each zone in a circle, and make sure the spaces are close enough for players to jump from one space to the next. Make sure one space is within reaching distance of the castle. If you want to play the game in teams to make it more competitive, have every player hold up a number between 1 and 5 on their forehead at the same time. Whoever has the same number is on the same team. Keep doing this until the teams are even. To start the game, every player shotguns a beer at the same time. Whoever finishes first goes first, whoever finishes second goes second, and so on. The first player yells “One, two, three, JFK,” then everyone else yells “FDR.” All of the players grab a pawn from the castle and run to a random space in one of the 4 zones. Players can move one space on their turn, and they move clockwise around the circle in the zone they’re in. Once a player reaches the space closest to the castle, they get another pawn and move on to the next zone to the left. Players must always have at least 1 pawn in their hand and no more than 3 pawns. If a player finishes their last pawn, they’re out of the game. A player is also out of the game if they accidentally touch the lava. A player can open and finish a non-pawn beer to re-enter the game at any time. On a player’s turn, they can give the other players a chance to move in one of three ways. First, they can call out “One, two, three,” at which point the rest of the players put a number between 1 and 5 on their forehead. Whoever is holding up a number that no one else has moves forward 1 space. Second, the player can say a quote and ask the other players to finish it. Whoever finishes the quote first moves forward 2 spaces. Third, the player can say two people, places, or things and let the other players guess what the two nouns have in common. Whoever guesses first moves forward 3 spaces. Players continue to take turns until all of the pawns have been removed from the castle. At that point, the first player to finish the pawns in their hands, land on a space next to the castle, and take a swig from the king wins the game! For tips on making up rules, strategizing, and winning the game, scroll down!

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How To Play Super Mario 64 Ds (With Pictures)

If you want to clear an old save file, select “File Options” at the bottom the files screen, and then select “Delete”, and choose which file you would like to delete.

If you want to copy a save file to another file, select “File Options” once again at the bottom of the files screen, and select one file. Then select which file you would like to copy the first file to.

Allow the opening cutscene to play. The cutscene is officially complete once Yoshi wakes up from his nap on the ground, so when you see that, you’re free to start the game.

Enter Peach’s Castle. A brief message from Bowser will pop up, but nothing will happen. If you’d like, you can speak to the Toad near the door, and he’ll give you some backstory of the game.

Enter the room leading to Bob-Omb Battlefield. This is the door to the left that has a star on it, but no number. Jump inside of the painting to be taken to the level-select screen.

Beat the first level of Bob-Omb Battlefield. To do this, make your way to the top of the mountain in this level. A battle with King Bob-Omb will then start up. To beat him, as Yoshi simply eat the Bob-Ombs that he throws at you, and quickly spit them out back at him. Once you do this three times, he will finally cough up your first star.

Recognize that you have a lot more choices for what to do now that you have your first star. You can either go in and obtain the second star of Bob-Omb Battlefield, or you can move on to the second level, Whomp’s Fortress. You can also attempt a secret star level, the Princess’s Secret Slide, if you’d like.

Continue getting more power stars. As you get more stars in levels, more levels should open up, and you’ll have a lot more freedom for what you can do. However, note that some stars require certain characters, so if you don’t have that character, then you won’t be able to get that particular star.

Know what door that the key he gave you opens. This key will open the door to the basement, which is through the brown door in the castle, with nothing on it, not even a star, and down the stairs that are in there. This will open up multiple new levels for you to try.

Play the next levels that are down in the basement. There are multiple to choose from, with multiple different themes, so play as many of them as you’d like. Once you have achieved 30 stars, you’re able to tackle the second boss battle of the game.

Beat the second Bowser boss battle. As said above you need 30 stars to open this door, which looks the same as the door to the first Bowser battle. In case you missed it, when you first walk into the basement, go to the left and you should notice the door. You must again also must be playing as Mario. When the door opens, you should notice a blue portal. In order to officially unlock the second Bowser boss battle, you must get the first star this course, Dire Dire Docks. The first star is pretty easy, and all you have to do is travel through a tunnel that can be found once you go underwater, and find a sub with a Bowser logo on it at the other side of the tunnel. Once you’ve found it, climb on the sub and obtain the star. Once you have it, you should notice the portal moved back and a hole appeared, jump in this hole to enter the level. Navigate this tricky course until you get to a green funnel looking thing, jump in it and enter the battle with Bowser. The procedure to beat him is the exact same, except now Bowser has added teleportation and moving the arena to his list of tricks. Beat him and he’ll give you another key.

Know what this key opens. This key opens that door with a keyhole that you probably noticed at the top of the first castle staircase. This will lead to another room with stairs. Walk up those stairs and enter to find even more levels for you to play through.

Play the new levels until you reach 50 stars. Once you’ve reached 50 stars, you will be able to open yet another big star door that you may have noticed upon entering the new area. It is slightly to the right and up another staircase. You don’t need Mario for this door to open, however.

Notice the few new levels that are available to you. These are the last levels in the game, and you don’t need to jump into typical paintings for any of them. One of the levels, Tick Tock Clock, is found when you jump into a clock that you should see when you first walk into the room, and the two others, Rainbow Ride and a secret star (explained later) level, are found by jumping into holes that you’ll find in the two alcove-like areas at the sides of the room. Accessing them might be easier with Luigi or Yoshi because of their flutter jump ability.

Collect at least 80 stars. To do this, you may need to go back to previous levels, but these new levels will also provide you with stars. Once you have 80 stars, you’ll be able to open the door to the final Bowser boss battle, which will mean you’re one step closer to saving the princess.

Beat the final Bowser boss battle. As stated above, you must have 80 stars, and yet again be playing as Mario. Walk up to the door, and watch the cutscene for a third time, and enter. Begin the ascent up the stairs and you’ll see a painting of Bowser, and a hole in front of it. Go in the hole, and you’ll be in the final battle. This course is very tricky, but navigate it the best you can, even though it may take you a couple tries. Keep going until you reach the final green warp pipe. Enter it, and you’ll be in the final boss battle of the game. Scroll through Bowser’s message again and start the battle. The procedure is almost the same, but now he has more tricks, such as jumping and producing electric shock waves, and new fire breathing techniques. Also, you must hit him into spikes three times instead of the usual one. After the second time, he will break the arena into a star, so be prepared. Once you’ve beat him, collect the final star, and you’ll automatically have a wing cap, and fly out of the level and outside the castle. Congratulations, you’ve beaten Super Mario 64 DS!


How To Build A Hyperfast WordPress Website

Do you have a WordPress website? Would you like it to be faster?

Website performance is an important factor that can impact your search rankings and bottom line.

In this article, you’ll learn why performance matters and how to build a hyperfast WordPress website.

Why Performance Matters

Your website’s performance affects two crucial areas of your business:

Your search engine rankings.

Your revenue.


Page speed has been a Google ranking factor for desktop searches since 2010 and mobile searches since 2023.

In 2023, Google announced that page experience signals in rankings would roll out in 2023:

“The new page experience signals combine Core Web Vitals with our existing search signals including mobile-friendliness, safe-browsing, HTTPS-security, and intrusive interstitial guidelines.”

In addition to performance signals becoming ranking factors in Google’s search algorithm, performance affects visitor behavior and conversions as well.

In 2023, Google studied page load speed in relation to bounce rate – the rate at which people leave your website without interacting. Google found that when page load time goes from:

1 to 3 seconds, bounce rate increases by 32%.

1 to 5 seconds, bounce rate increases by 90%.

1 to 6 seconds, bounce rate increases by 106%.

1 to 10 seconds, bounce rate increases by 123%.

WordPress Statistics

WordPress dominates as the most used content management system.

In 2023, WordPress announced that they powered one-third of the web. BuiltWith shows that 43% of websites now use WordPress out of a sample size of over 64 million websites.

In terms of performance, we can compare WordPress websites against those running Joomla and Magento, thanks to HTTP Archive. Their State of the Web report gives the following analysis about websites running each respective platform.

Over 2 million WordPress websites, 52,000 Magento websites, and 133,000 Drupal websites were sampled from July 2023 to July 2023. They found the following.

WordPress websites had a median total page weight of 2437.7 KB on desktop browsers and 2275.6 KB on mobile browsers.

Magento websites had a median total page weight of 3178.8 KB on desktop browsers and 3039.5 KB on mobile browsers.

Drupal websites had a median total page weight of 2192.1 KB on desktop browsers and 2061.6 KB on mobile browsers.

According to Google, the total size of a webpage should be under 500 KB. WordPress websites fall in the middle of the road on page weight, but still well over the Google suggested maximum page size.

WordPress websites had a median total number of 85 requests on desktop browsers and 81 requests on mobile browsers.

Magento websites had a median total number of 182 requests on desktop browsers and 176 requests on mobile browsers.

Drupal websites had a median total number of 75 requests on desktop and on mobile browsers.

Google suggests a maximum of 50 requests (individual pieces of content) needed to load a webpage. Again, WordPress websites fall in the middle of the road on page requests, but over the Google recommendation.

What does this information tell us?

To meet Google’s website performance goals, your WordPress website needs the best optimization possible.

How to Speed Up a WordPress Website Choose Hyperfast Hosting

In a Q&A with John Mueller, Google Search Advocate discusses shared hosting versus dedicated hosting. When it comes to servers, he says the following.

How To Build A Pc For Photographers

Meet the Photographer

Every photographer shoots a little differently, has varying workflow needs, and takes a unique attitude toward their photos. In this article, I’m going to talk about a PC as it meets my photo-editing needs and my workflow, which may not be the same as yours. Consider this a rough guide, with rules of thumb that apply to most photographic applications.

Currently I use a Nikon D800 DSLR, and I almost always shoot in raw mode. Raw mode captures the pure sensor data, performing no compression or modification on the data it collects. That translates to large files, and the need to have a photo editor that works well with Nikon’s RAW format. In the past I’ve shot with D7000 and D300 bodies. (I’ll discuss software in more detail shortly.)

I shoot a variety of subjects, ranging from flowers to landscape to sports action. I’ve taken the liberty of sprucing this article up with some of my shots to illustrate what a good production rig allows a user to do.

I prefer shooting with ambient light whenever possible, but I do use flash when necessary. I also own a lighting kit for shooting product photos in my home studio. Here’s a quick look at the gear I carry.

Rather than discuss a lot of hypotheticals, let’s take a look at a real-world system: my own production PC. Bear in mind that I don’t use this computer only for digital photography–I also use it for some light video editing and PC gaming. I’ll break it down by each major component type, and I’ll suggest alternatives as appropriate.

CPU and Memory

Right now, my production PC carries a Core i7-3930K CPU. The 3930K is a six-core CPU built on Intel’s 32nm manufacturing process, so it isn’t using the latest-generation Ivy Bridge architecture. It costs about $560, and requires a motherboard that supports an LGA 2011 socket. Such motherboards can be pricey–particularly if you’re into heavy-duty overclocking–but I’m content to run the 3930K at its default settings, so in my system the CPU lives in a Gigabyte GA-X79-UD3 motherboard, which is available for under $240.


In addition to supporting Hyper-Threading, the Core i7 CPUs offer large L3 caches, which improve performance in most editing applications. If you’re eyeing a laptop, ideally you’ll want a Core i7 CPU, mostly because i7 processors have larger caches than their Core i5 and i3 siblings.

Storage…and More Storage

If you’re at all like me, you’re shooting a ton of raw images. You may not be using a Nikon D800, but even 12-megapixel raw images consume at least 10MB of disk space each, while 12-bit, 16-megapixel images eat up 14MB to 16MB.

Storage begins with the flash memory cards you use in your camera. Recent developments in flash memory storage technology have afforded us products with very high-speed data rates. The fastest 1000x CompactFlash cards can move data off the card at roughly 120MB per second. The fastest SD Cards are now capable of read speeds up to 95 MBps. Write speeds are slower–closer to 70 MBps for the fastest CompactFlash cards, and only in those cameras with high-speed controllers.

But let’s not get too concerned about the write speeds of flash memory cards for our photographer’s PC. It’s moving data from the card to your PC that can become a bottleneck in the workflow. If you have a 32GB flash memory card packed with 350 45MB RAW images, moving them off the card is an exercise in patience with a USB 2.0 reader. Ideally, you’ll want a USB 3.0 reader connected to a USB 3.0 port. I own a US Robotics USB 3.0 reader that works reasonably well.

PC Storage Guidelines

Where do you put all those photographs? Whatever you do, don’t store them on the boot drive if you can avoid it. At a minimum, you’ll want two drives in your PC. Currently, I have a single, 512GB solid-state drive as my boot drive. A half-terabyte is enough to hold all my applications, as well. My secondary drive is a single 2TB, 7200-rpm Seagate Barracuda XT. If you’re concerned about data integrity, you might want a RAID 1 array for your secondary drive, which holds all the Windows user folders, including photo storage. (RAID mirrors two physical drives. You get only half the space, but each volume is a duplicate of the other, preserving your data if one drive fails. Remember, though, that even RAID 1 is no substitute for a good backup plan.)

I need to hammer home two key points when it comes to desktop PC storage for photographers:

Have more than one physical drive. A good combination consists of an SSD for a boot drive and a large-capacity hard drive or RAID 1 array as secondary storage. Even if you’re using standard rotating storage, having two physical drives will improve performance. By keeping applications on the primary drive and photo storage on the secondary drive, you help to increase data throughput. More-sophisticated users can put scratch files on the secondary drive as well, also improving performance.

Develop a good backup strategy. Even if you’re running a RAID 1 array, you aren’t completely safe from disaster, since a catastrophic PC failure can kill the array. Making regularly scheduled backups of your photos is critical.

For laptops, try to avoid 5400-rpm or slower hard drives. It’s great to have a lot of capacity, but most photo applications create a large scratch file on the storage device, and waiting for a slow drive to grind through your editing chores is no fun.

What About the Cloud?

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