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Table of Contents

Disable Hardware Acceleration in Discord

Discord’s Hardware Acceleration feature uses your computer’s GPU to enhance your app experience. This feature doesn’t always work well, and you should turn it off to see if it prevents Discord from crashing.

Your Discord app experience shouldn’t change for the most part, and you can always re-enable Hardware Acceleration from the settings menu.

    Launch Discord on your computer.

    Select User Settings (a gear icon) at the bottom-left corner.

      Choose Advanced from the sidebar on the left.

      Turn off the Hardware Acceleration option in the panel on the right.

        Relaunch Discord.

        Fix Discord Keeps Crashing by Deleting the AppData

        Discord’s cache files help the app be more efficient. However, these cache files sometimes go corrupt and cause various issues with the app, including causing the app to close unexpectedly.

        Luckily, you can remove these cache files without deleting your data or any of Discord’s features. Discord will rebuild these files as you use the app.

          Open the Run box by pressing Windows + R keys simultaneously.

          Type the following in the Run box and press Enter: %appdata%

            Go back to the discord folder and open the Local Storage folder. Again, select all files by pressing Ctrl + A and press Delete.

              Launch the Discord app as you normally would.

              Enable Legacy Mode in Discord

              Discord could crash if your media equipment is not compatible with the app’s standard audio subsystem mode. Luckily, you can revert to legacy mode, so your equipment works and doesn’t cause Discord to close unexpectedly.

                Access Discord on your computer.

                Select User Settings (a gear icon) at the lower-left corner.

                Choose Voice & Video from the sidebar on the left.

                Select the Audio Subsystem drop-down menu on the right and choose Legacy.

                  Choose Okay in the prompt.

                  Discord will automatically close and relaunch.

                  Delete Discord’s Keybinds

                  Keybinds are custom shortcuts that allow you to perform pre-specified actions in Discord. Sometimes, these binds interfere with your system and Discord, causing the app to freeze up.

                  In this case, toggle off your Discord keybinds and see if that makes the app stable again. Later, you can re-enable these keybinds from within Discord’s settings menu.

                    Open Discord and select User Settings (a gear icon) at the bottom-left corner.

                    Choose Keybinds on the left sidebar.

                    Bring your cursor over your custom keybinds and choose the X icon. Repeat this step to remove each keybind.

                      Reopen Discord when all your keybinds are removed.

                      Update the App to Fix Discord Crashing Issues

                      Discord’s obsolete versions can cause various problems, including leading the app to a total crash. This is why the company regularly pushes app updates, so you always get the smoothest experience possible out of your app.

                      It’s free and easy to check for and install Discord updates on your computer.

                        Wait for the app to find and install the available updates.

                        Launch the Discord app.

                        Reinstall Discord

                        If you’re experiencing crash issues even after updating the Discord app, your app’s core files might have problems. There are many reasons these files go corrupt or become problematic.

                        Luckily, you can repair these files by reinstalling Discord on your computer. Doing so deletes all old app files and brings fresh new files. Your account data is not deleted when you uninstall and reinstall the app.

                          Open Settings on your PC by pressing Windows + I keys simultaneously.

                          Select Apps on the Settings window.

                          Choose Discord on the list, then select Uninstall.

                            Select Uninstall in the prompt to remove Discord from your PC.

                            Open Discord’s official website and download the app for your computer.

                              Launch the downloaded file to install the Discord app on your computer.

                              Switch to Discord’s Browser Version

                              Discord’s desktop app where you’re experiencing issues isn’t the only way to access the platforms’ services. The company offers multiple Discord versions, which means you can use an alternative option when you have problems with a specific app.

                              For example, if your Discord desktop app continues to crash, move to Discord’s browser version. You can use this version from any modern web browser available on your computer. The web version works pretty much the same way as the desktop app.

                              Keep your Discord account logins handy, as you’ll need those to log in to an alternative version.

                                Open your favorite web browser on your computer and launch Discord for the web.

                                Log in to your Discord account in the web app.

                                  You’ll land on the familiar Discord interface allowing you to use all of the platform’s features.

                                  Resolve Discord’s Constant Crash Problems

                                  Discord could stop working and crash for various reasons like all other apps. If this happens to you and you aren’t sure what to do, the guide above should walk you through the possible ways to get around this problem.

                                  Once the underlying issues are fixed, your Discord app will start functioning as before.

                                  You're reading How To Fix Discord’s Crash Issues

                                  This Is How You Can Fix Dangerous Driving Game Issues

                                  This is how you can fix Dangerous Driving game issues





                                  INSTALL BY CLICKING THE DOWNLOAD FILE

                                  Try Outbyte Driver Updater to resolve driver issues entirely:

                                  This software will simplify the process by both searching and updating your drivers to prevent various malfunctions and enhance your PC stability. Check all your drivers now in 3 easy steps:

                                  Download Outbyte Driver Updater.

                                  Launch it on your PC to find all the problematic drivers.

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                                  readers this month.

                                  Here we have it folks, Dangerous Driving is out now. Brought to you by Three Fields Entertainment, a team formed with former members of Criterion Games, popular with their Burnout series.

                                  The racing formula of crash and burn is back, the game being hailed as the spiritual successor of the Burnout games. Takedowns are back, just ram your opponents at full speed and watch them hit the rails. Full Nitro meters favor the bold, and the speedy. Just watch out for that left turn, it’s a doozy.

                                  The game is being released without a multiplayer feature, but it will be added a short time after the original release date. With the game launching on Microsoft Windows and Xbox One, we can expect more from Three Fields.

                                  As we’re familiar, no launch can be truly considered flawless, each having its ups and downs. And Dangerous Driving is no exception.

                                  With instances of traffic glitching out, cars flying into the air, the ocassional crashes here and there.

                                  Low frames per second have been observed as well, not to mention some issues with the game freezing up. We have a list of fixes that can help you out.

                                  Dangerous Driving bugs and errors 1. Installation issues

                                  In the event that this happens, exit Epic Games Launcher and restart your machine. Restart the installation, and see if that works.

                                  2. Graphics issues

                                  A good solution to start with, would be disabling vertical sync, since it can reduce graphical tearing. If after this, you are facing tearing while playing Dangerous Driving, we suggest you toggle vertical sync to back on in your game settings.

                                  Another solution to this, is to open your Nvidia Control Panel and select Manage 3D Settings. And now select the game from the Program Settings and set the Power Management to Prefer Maximum Power.

                                  Always keep in mind to use the latest drivers for your graphics card.

                                  Expert tip:

                                  Head on over to Playback and disable all the sound devices except the internal speaker or the speaker which you wish to use.

                                  Open Nvidia Control Panel and select Manage 3D Settings;

                                  Set Vertical Sync to “Fast” and save your settings.

                                  5. Missing .exe file

                                  To do this, simply Verify the integrity of the game files in Epic Games Launcher. Repeat the steps shown above, in the installation issue section.

                                  It’s more common than you think that your Firewall, which may not let the launcher work is the main suspect.

                                  Add the game launcher to a whitelist in your Windows Firewall, and in the event that the antivirus is the culprit. Add an exception rule to Epic Games Launcher.


                                  Always remember, when running a game, to check the minimum system requirements first.

                                  Operating System: Windows 7 64 bit

                                  Direct X: 11

                                  System Memory: 4GB

                                  Processor: Intel i5 3.2GHz / AMD FX 8350

                                  Graphics Card: nVidia GTX 750ti / AMD Radeon R7 265

                                  Storage: 12 GB available space

                                  RELATED STORIES TO CHECK OUT:

                                  Still experiencing troubles? Fix them with this tool:


                                  Some driver-related issues can be solved faster by using a tailored driver solution. If you’re still having problems with your drivers, simply install OutByte Driver Updater and get it up and running immediately. Thus, let it update all drivers and fix other PC issues in no time!

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                                  Paramount Plus Not Working? Fix Streaming Issues

                                  Paramount+ is a streaming platform with a lot of content, like shows, movies, and live events.  It has a lot of paid subscribers that enjoy the content. However, some users are reporting that Paramount Plus is not working. They are facing streaming issues on Paramount Plus. In this guide, we show you different ways to fix the issues.

                                  Paramount Plus not working

                                  If you are facing issues on Paramount Plus and have streaming issues, you can follow the below methods to fix the issue.

                                  Check your internet connection

                                  Update your browser

                                  Disable ad blockers and extensions

                                  Turn off tracking protection on Firefox

                                  Restart your Roku

                                  Check updates for Roku

                                  Power cycle your console

                                  Update or Reinstall the Paramount Plus app

                                  Let’s get into the details of each method and fix the issue.

                                  Fix Paramount Plus streaming issues 1] Check your internet connection

                                  If your internet connection is not working properly, then, you will face issues on Paramount Plus while streaming. You need to make sure your internet connection is fine with good speed by running the speed tests using the online speed test tools. If you find any issues with the internet fix them to stream without any issue on Paramount Plus.

                                  2] Update your browser

                                  If you are streaming on a web browser and facing issues with Paramount Plus even when the internet is fine, you need to update your browser to the latest version. There may be some issues in the previous version that might be causing issues on Paramount Plus. You need to update your browser and see if it helps.

                                  3] Disable ad blockers and extensions 4] Turn off tracking protection on Firefox

                                  Firefox browser by default comes with a tracking protection feature to safeguard user’s privacy. If you are facing streaming issues with Paramount Plus on the Firefox browser, it might be due to that tracking protection. You need to disable it to continue streaming your favorite content on Paramount Plus.

                                  To disable tracking protection on Firefox, you need to change Privacy settings from Strict to Standard. To do that,

                                  Select Privacy & Security

                                  Check the button beside Standard to enable it by disabling Strick automatically

                                  This should fix your issue.

                                  5] Restart your Roku 6] Check updates for Roku 7] Power cycle your console

                                  If you are facing issues streaming on Paramount Plus on the Xbox console, you need to power cycle it and see if it helps fix the issue. The power cycling of the console can help clear the cache, refresh the system, and fix the temporary glitches that occur on it. To power cycle your console, shut down the console, and unplug the power cables from the console as well as the power socket. Wait for a few seconds, reconnect them, and turn on the console.

                                  8] Update or Reinstall the Paramount Plus app

                                  If you are using the Paramount Plus app to stream content on any device, first update the app following the device’s own method to update it. If it does not fix, uninstall the app and reinstall it.

                                  These are the different ways using which you can fix the streaming issues on Paramount Plus.

                                  Read: Fix Error Code 3304 on Paramount Plus

                                  Why does Paramount Plus have streaming issues?

                                  If you have a bad internet connection or do not have the latest version of the apps or browsers you use to stream, you might have streaming issues on Paramount Plus. Also, the privacy protection features and extensions on web browsers might interfere with the content and result in streaming issues.

                                  How do I fix Paramount streaming quality?

                                  Related read: How to cancel Paramount Plus subscription.

                                  Netflix Not Working? Here Are 7 Ways To Fix Netflix Issues

                                  Netflix is one of the most popular streaming services out there, catering to over 200 million users every month. With its collection of exciting movies and TV shows, as well as multiple language options for content, the streaming giant has carved a place for itself in over 190 countries around the world. However, no matter how good it is, there are times when Netflix starts acting erratically. So, if you’re facing Netflix issues, here are 7 ways to fix ‘Netflix not working’ issues on your devices.

                                  Fix “Netflix Not Working” Issues (2024)

                                  Netflix is available on various platforms like smartphones, Windows, web browsers, smart TVs, gaming consoles, and more. Therefore, Netflix has to ensure that their users on every platform have an uninterrupted experience. Most Netflix issues occur because of unstable app performance, internet issues, or corrupted cache memory. Let’s see how to troubleshoot such Netflix issues and fix them for good. 

                                  General Netflix Troubleshooting Guide

                                  Let’s start with the most common problems causing unstable performance on Netflix. These issues commonly occur on web browsers and Netflix apps on smartphones and Windows 11 or Windows 10. If the problem is not from Netflix servers, you can quickly fix the issue by following the troubleshooting guide. 

                                  1. Check if Netflix is Down

                                  First and foremost, it is essential to check if the Netflix server is working correctly before checking other issues. Check the official Netflix status page (visit), where the company updates if there is an issue with the service. Netflix actively updates the user if they face any problem with server management. If everything is working fine, you should see the following screen when you visit the page.

                                  2. Check Your Internet Connection

                                  Netflix requires a stable internet connection to stream your favorite shows without interruptions. Without it, Netflix will cause issues on every device. Usually, Netflix buffers if you have slow internet. Or, Netflix will prompt “you are not connected to the internet” on Netflix apps if you have an improper internet connection. So, you should check if you have a working internet connection with the preferred speed. I find chúng tôi (visit) easy to use and see if my internet is working properly. What’s more, it’s powered by Netflix so it’s a definitive way to ensure your internet speed is up to mark for streaming services like Netflix.

                                  To stream online shows, Netflix recommends having a minimum of 3 Mbps internet for Standard definition (SD), 5 Mbps for High definition (HD), and 25 Mbps connection for 4K/Ultra HD (UHD).

                                  3. Restart Your Device

                                  4. Sign-out and Login Again on Netflix

                                  It might sound like a cliché step. Well, not as cliché as restarting your device. However, what surprises me is the efficiency of this method working for people. Signing out and logging in again restarts your Netflix session on the device, and can resolve any minor errors causing Netflix to work abruptly.

                                  Remember, you must be at the Netflix home screen for the above steps to work. After that, press the Sign-in button on the next page and log in again by entering your credentials.

                                  5. Clear Cached Data on your Browser

                                  Clearing your browser data will reset the browser for good and resolve any issue due to bad cached memory. Your browser might lag for several reasons, and removing all unnecessary data will surely improve your browser performance and thus stop lagging issues on Netflix. However, it will clear all your data, and you will need to log in to each website again. Well, it will result in improved security, so it’s a win-win situation. Here’s how to clear cache data on your web browser.

                                  Open your web browser and press Ctrl+Shift+Delete at once (Shift+Command+Delete for Mac). It will open the option for clearing browsing data.

                                  Now, go to Advanced and select “All time” under the Time range option. Check all boxes as well.

                                  Now, log in to Netflix again and see if it’s still lagging. If yes, try using another browser if you think your browser isn’t working correctly. Or, update your browser if the problem persists.

                                  6. Clear Netflix App Data on Smartphone

                                  From the home screen on your device, navigate to Settings.

                                  Select General. If you don’t see General, continue to the next step.

                                  Select Apps or Applications.

                                  Select Manage Applications, Application Manager, or Manage All Apps. If you don’t see these selections, continue to the next step.

                                  Scroll down and select Netflix. If you don’t see Netflix, check the Downloaded tab.

                                  Select Storage. If you don’t see Storage, continue to the next step.

                                  Select Clear Data or Clear Storage, then OK.

                                  This method will remove all your Netflix data, and you can start fresh. Note that it will remove any shows you downloaded inside Netflix as well. Though it shouldn’t mess up any subtitle settings in your profile, if it does, you can turn off subtitles on Netflix again after logging in.

                                  7. Reinstall Netflix on your Device

                                  If you can’t find the option to delete Netflix app data, it’s better to reinstall the app. It will work similar to the last method, and you will get the latest version of the app. Now, each device has a different approach to removing the apps. We will see how to remove Netflix on Windows OS, Android, and iOS devices. 

                                  On Android, you can reinstall Netflix by doing the following: 

                                  Open your device’s application drawer and find Netflix from the list. 

                                  For iOS users, follow the guide below to remove Netflix: 

                                  On your home screen, find the Netflix app from the list. If it’s not on the home screen, check your App Library.

                                  Lastly, confirm your choice by tapping the Delete app option.

                                  Common Netflix Error Codes and Solutions

                                  Most often, when your device is not connected to the internet, Netflix shows us the pop-up mentioning you are not connected to the internet. However, some specific error codes appear on smart TVs or streaming devices like the Fire TV stick or Roku, which describes a particular issue with Netflix. Here are a few error codes Netflix shows and how to fix the problem.

                                  Netflix Error 0041

                                  The Netflix error code 0041 usually appears on Android phones or Amazon’s Kindle Fire tablet. The error occurs due to internet connectivity issues or if the data on your device needs to be refreshed. Use the following troubleshooting steps to resolve Netflix’s 0041 error.

                                  Switch to another internet connection if possible.

                                  Move around your house to get a better signal.

                                  Try refreshing your internet connection by putting your phone in airplane mode. Then turn off airplane mode after a few minutes.

                                  Clear the Netflix app data on your device. 

                                  Restart your wi-fi router or modem.

                                  A few more error codes similar to Error 0041 are Error tvq-st-120, Error UI-400, Error AIP-704, Error 12001, Error 11853, Error 5403, Error 1011, Error 1016, Error 1012, Error -11800

                                  Netflix Error 100

                                  If you’re using an Apple TV, here is how to sign out of Netflix on Apple TV, or restart your Apple TV.

                                  Sign Out On Apple TV

                                  Start from the Netflix home screen.

                                  Select Switch Profiles. If your account does not have profiles, you can continue to the following step.

                                  Select Sign Out.

                                  Sign back in and try Netflix again.

                                  Restart your Apple TV

                                  Unplug your Apple TV and the TV it’s connected to from power for at least 2 minutes.

                                  Plug both devices back in.

                                  Turn both devices back on.

                                  Try Netflix again.

                                  Netflix Error 10023-5009

                                  The Netflix error 10023-5009 is related to troubles with downloading content. It is usually accompanied by a message, “There was a problem with this download. Please check your network connection and try again. (10023-5009)” Sign out of Netflix from your device and Sign in again or restart your internet connection to resolve this issue. 

                                  Netflix Error NQL.2303 Netflix Error NQM.407

                                  The error code NQM.407 often appears on Android phones or tablets and is accompanied by the “Account Payment Issue. Your account is on hold because of a problem with your past payment. Go to chúng tôi to update.” The problem might occur due to one of the following reasons.

                                  The payment method on Netflix’s database is no longer valid or has expired.

                                  Your financial institution, such as the bank or a third-party service, did not approve the monthly charge.

                                  US Only: Mismatch in your credit card zip code on Netflix and the one listed with your bank.

                                  Frequently Asked Questions Why is Netflix not working on Smart TV?

                                  Netflix might show buggy behavior on a smart TV due to a slow internet connection, or you need to refresh the data on your TV. Try rebooting your wi-fi modem or internet connection, or reinstall the Netflix app on your TV. Otherwise, you can clear the Netflix app data on your smart TV if the option is available.

                                  Why is Netflix not working with NordVPN?

                                  NordVPN allows you to open your Netflix account using a different location. However, cached data can cause trouble while loading Netflix via a VPN. Therefore, clear your Netflix app and browser data to fix the issue. Lastly, you can change the VPN server from NordVPN if you still can’t connect to Netflix.

                                  How do you unfreeze Netflix? How to Fix Netflix Issues

                                  Five Issues Microsoft Must Fix In Office Web Apps

                                  I’m all in with Microsoft. I’ve got Windows 8 running on my primary work machine, I subscribe to Office 365 Home Premium , and I use almost every online consumer service that the company offers.

                                  So when it comes time to create a document using Web apps, there is of course only one choice: Google Docs.

                                  Despite Microsoft’s wide array of great software, Office Web Apps simply aren’t good enough to trust with critical documents. That may change in the next year.

                                  (Office Web Apps is made up of Word, PowerPoint, Excel and OneNote, as part of Microsoft’s SkyDrive cloud storage service for consumers. It’s also included with Office 365, the broader email and collaboration suite that has free and fee-based editions.)

                                  Microsoft recently said it plans to roll out new features to Office Web Apps that would allow you to “create polished Office documents from start to finish, all from the Web.”

                                  New features planned for Office include real-time document co-authoring, faster launch times for apps, improved file management, and Chrome for Android support.

                                  It’s great to see Microsoft making Office for the Web into a more full-featured version, especially while we wait for rumored Office apps for Android and iOS. Before Microsoft straps on a bunch of new features to its online Office suite, however, the company needs to make some improvements to the current version first.

                                  Here are a few suggestions, with an admitted bias towards Word.

                                  Thanks for the flashback to Office 2003, Microsoft, but the Word Web app would be better with an auto-save feature instead of a document recovery feature that works only half the time.

                                  Saving in the Word web app is dicey.

                                  Google Docs has auto-save and is one of the best reasons to rely on the search giant’s service over Office Web apps. The Excel Office Web app already has auto-save. Even OneNote 2013 on the desktop has it, why isn’t this in the Word Web app?

                                  Has this ever happened to you? You’re typing up a document in Word when suddenly you get a notification that the spell checker is down.


                                  Even worse, sometimes Word documents won’t save because there’s a problem connecting to Microsoft’s servers.

                                  Google Docs in my experience rarely has connectivity issues, but when it does it’s not a huge deal. You know why? That’s right, auto-save.

                                  Don’t be so stingy with new lines

                                  When you get towards the end of a document in the Word Web app, Microsoft gets really stingy about creating new lines. That means after typing about 300 words, you’re stuck in the bottom area of your PC’s display as Word doles out a few new lines at a time.

                                  After a few minutes of more or less staring down at your taskbar, you end up straining your neck. Yes, you can hit return a bunch of times to create new lines and then scroll back, but that’s a hack, not a solution.

                                  Google Docs does not have this issue. After you get close to the bottom of your display, Google Docs adds a new page and automatically scrolls you up a bit, but not so much that you lose your place. If you want to get closer to the center of the doc, all you have to do is scroll the browser page a little more.

                                  The Office Web apps let you maximize your workspace by collapsing the Office Ribbon into a simplified menu, just like on the desktop.

                                  Unless you’re a longtime Office user, you’ll miss out on this benefit since the collapse button is a tiny little arrow in the far right-hand corner of the screen. This should be bigger and more prominent so it’s easier to find.

                                  Admittedly, this is a small gripe, but it’s the little details that make the difference between a good application and a great one.

                                  So what’s the problem? There’s no easy way to open a new SkyDrive tab when you’re inside a Web app. Sometimes you might have data in a different document you need to check out in another tab. Right now, if you want to go back to SkyDrive you have to open a new tab and navigate to the site.

                                  For the most part Office on the Web works fairly well. I even created this article using the online suite without losing any of my work, a not-so-frequent occurrence.

                                  Battling Ebola: The Ethical Issues

                                  Battling Ebola: The Ethical Issues Experimental drug use treatment at heart of the debate, says BU’s Annas On August 2, the first of two sickened American health care workers was flown from Africa to a special containment unit at Emory University. Despite the risk of infection, medical personnel continue to travel to West Africa to help bring under control the worst Ebola outbreak on record, which according to the World Health Organization (WHO) has killed more than 1000 as of August 13. WHO plans to spend $100 million to fight the outbreak, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will send 50 more disease control workers. In this weeklong Special Report, BU Today talks to Boston University researchers in several fields about why medical personnel confront the risks; the ethical and political dilemmas presented by the outbreak; how the virus kills; efforts to design effective therapies; and other aspects of this unprecedented outbreak of Ebola.

                                  As West Africa experiences the largest and most severe outbreak of Ebola virus disease in history, the World Health Organization convened a panel of ethics experts to weigh some of the complex questions around access to treatment. The group reached consensus: it is ethical to offer “unproven interventions,” even if effectiveness or complications are unknown.

                                  An experimental serum called ZMapp, never tested on humans, initially was given to two stricken American aid workers and later to a Spanish priest (who died), while hundreds of victims in Africa have gone untreated. The issue of whether medicine untested on humans should be used on people—and if so, who should get it—is just one of many ethical questions stirred by the Ebola crisis.

                                  George Annas, a renowned ethicist and the William Fairfield Warren Distinguished Professor and chair of the department of health law, bioethics, and human rights at the School of Public Health and a professor at the Schools of Medicine and Law, sees the hype over drug availability as expected, but misplaced. He offers his thoughts on ethical considerations:

                                  BU Today: What do you make of all the focus on who has gotten ZMapp?

                                  Annas: The most important point to make about Ebola drugs is that the Ebola epidemic will not be solved by any existing drug, no matter how effective. The Ebola epidemic is a public health disaster that requires a heavy-duty public health response, complete with the establishment and maintenance of clean, well-supplied, and professionally staffed clinics to care for patients with the disease, and a clear plan to identify and monitor those they have been in close contact with for symptoms of the disease.

                                  Is it acceptable to skip the normal drug-testing pathway in a crisis like this?

                                  Yes. In both law and ethics, exceptions to general rules can be made in emergency situations. In this regard, not only does the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have rules that provide for individual patients to obtain “expanded access” to investigational drugs outside of a clinical trial, the FDA also has an “emergency” procedure which permits physicians to apply to use such drugs for patients with “a serious or immediately life-threatening disease” for which there is no satisfactory alternative. Under these circumstances, the FDA can—and did, in this instance—act quickly. Of course, there are legal and ethical rules that do NOT change in emergencies. The drug must be expected to provide benefit and not cause harm, and the patient must give his or her informed consent, which would include having an appreciation of the risks and how little is known about the drug.

                                  Can the use of experimental drugs on Americans, and not Africans, be justified here?

                                  It could be justified, on the basis that these two patients were the only ones whose physicians requested access to ZMapp, and that their physicians had no obligations to put other patients before their own. Closely related to this would be the very limited supply of the drug—perhaps only enough for these two. This, of course, begs the question: what if there was only enough for one of them, how would you choose—i.e., the sickest, the youngest, the one most likely to benefit, the first patient? We have no generally agreed-upon ethical rules for this, but the fairest way is always to use a lottery method, assuming all in the pool of potential recipients have a reasonable chance to benefit from the drug.

                                  Even in a public health emergency, however, fundamental human rights precepts cannot be violated. For example, we cannot base an allocation decision on race: we must treat all human beings as equal in dignity and not discriminate against individuals on the basis of race, religion, or ethnicity.

                                  Should experimental drugs being developed in the US simply be rolled out in Africa?

                                  The fact that there is no approved treatment for Ebola does not justify trying out whatever we have that might work because there is an epidemic of convenience. On the other hand, if the drugs we are currently working on have been shown to be reasonably safe, and if there is realistic and robust African review and the recipients’ informed, voluntary consent, use of American-developed drugs in Africa could be justified. They could be made available as treatment under some form of expanded access/compassionate use program. Nonetheless, it would be critical to keep detailed records on all people who got the drugs so that we could learn from this experience. We have already failed to adequately respond to the current epidemic; what we are doing now is, in many ways, preparing to handle the next one better.

                                  Does the situation have any parallels in history?

                                  Yes, at the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, for example, ACT-UP demanded access to all sorts of investigational drugs, as well as the use of existing drugs for new purposes. One infamous drug that did not work was the French drug HPA-23, which Rock Hudson flew to Paris to obtain in 1984. Another was Suranim, which had been widely used to treat African sleeping sickness and was touted as “promising” for treating HIV infection. Still other researchers announced that they had cured AIDS using cyclosporine. Perhaps the closest parallel was when a Zairian scientist announced at a press conference that he had a “possible” cure for AIDS. Following that, the number of men in Zaire who believed AIDS could be cured doubled, and educational efforts aimed at prevention were set back.

                                  The same could happen here—unrealistic beliefs in a “cure” for Ebola could set back the absolutely essential public health messages of disease containment and control. I also think that any strategy we in the US adopt that is centered on a new or miracle drug cure for Ebola will do little or nothing for those suffering from the disease in Africa, but could provide us with a comforting illusion that we are doing something to help.

                                  How different would the government response to Ebola be, in your view, if the outbreak was in Europe instead of Africa?

                                  You have to ask? Night and day. The very first patients would have been isolated immediately, their contacts monitored closely, and the disease effectively dealt with before it could spread.

                                  Lisa Chedekel can be reached at [email protected].

                                  A version of this story originally appeared on Boston University’s School of Public Health website on August 12, 2014.

                                  Read all stories in our series “Battling Ebola” here.

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