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Introduction to chúng tôi Grid View

Grid view is one of the very popular views in the current IT industry. This is one of the very common expectations currently by every client for presenting their screen specifically in Grid view. It is basically a table presentation based on the values that came from one data source. It can able to control that specific data source and display in the screen as per the requirement of the client, mainly each column considering as a field in the data source and each row considering as a record of that specific column. This control has various features for multiple types of presentation on the screen, we will cover it in this document in detail.

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Syntax of chúng tôi GridView Gridview is one of the very popular implementations for the specific applications in the current scenario. Grid view mainly handles data sources, controlling the same, display it on the screen as a table. Here every column is mainly representing as a field, and each row in the data source represents a specific record of that corresponding column.

There have multiple features supports by this Grid view, explaining below:

SQLDataSource: Mainly require to maintain binding. Passing data source have huge data which mainly relate to specific fields in the screen. This control helps for binding those fields with data source available data.

Sorting: It has the ability to sorting the data. This Grid view presentation default gives one sorting utility, don’t need to write any additional code for that. Representing data can be sort as ascending or descending order based on the link provided in the screen.

Updating & Deleting: Can update or delete any data from the screen or data source. This ability ensures easy handle of the data from the screen by the end-user. This facility can be given based on some chosen parameters of the grid view presentation.

Pagination: This is also very much requiring features of any of the views presented in the current industry. When huge data came into the data source and Grid view unable to present entire data on the screen, it can default break it with multiple pages and giving this pagination utility to the end-user. It also has searching utility with any text, which helps the user to find out specific data easily.

Row selection: This is also one of the key utilities. Grid view gives the option to end-user for selecting one specific row, modify the required data, and save it. Modified data immediately display on the screen in the proper or expected view.

Key Fields: Grid view provided multiple key fields for presenting or handling big data from the data source.

Hyperlink: Grid view give good utility of handling multiple data source specifically on the hyperlink columns. Hyperlink columns have verities fields which developer can utilize as per their requirement.

Themes & Style: Grid view provides the ability of multiple appearances which can be easily handled by themes & style utilities have given by Grid view.

Example to Implement chúng tôi Grid View

Creating a grid view presentation in chúng tôi application, developer normally needs to use below specific code:

Entire GridView presentation can be done by one behind the ASPX code for handling the dashboard and proper presentation.

Binding data in the GridView dashboard presentation with specific columns.

Edit corresponding data in the grid view.

Delete specific rows from the dashboard.

HTML code:

<asp:GridView runat=”server” AutoGenerateColumns=”False” OnRowEditing=”GridView1_RowEditing” OnRowUpdating=”GridView1_RowUpdating” OnRowCancelingEdit=”GridView1_RowCancelingEdit” <asp:RequiredFieldValidator runat=”server” ControlToValidate=”TextBox2″ <asp:RequiredFieldValidator runat=”server” ControlToValidate=”TextBox4″

Adding Page:


public void BindMyGridview() { if (Session["myDatatable"] != null) { DataTable dt = (DataTable)Session["myDatatable"]; { GridView1.Visible = true; GridView1.DataSource = dt; GridView1.DataBind(); } else { GridView1.Visible = false; } } }

Row Updating:

protected void GridView1_RowUpdating(object sender, GridViewUpdateEventArgs e) { TextBox TextBoxWithID = (TextBox)GridView1.Rows[e.RowIndex].FindControl("TextBox2"); TextBox TextBoxWithName = (TextBox)GridView1.Rows[e.RowIndex].FindControl("TextBox4"); string NewID = TextBoxWithID.Text.ToString(); string NewName = TextBoxWithName.Text.ToString(); DataTable dt = (DataTable)Session["myDatatable"]; DataRow dr = dt.Rows[e.RowIndex] dr["ID"] = NewID; dr["Name"] = NewName; dr.AcceptChanges(); Session["myDatatable"] = dt; GridView1.EditIndex = -1; BindMyGridview(); }

Row Deleting:

protected void GridView1_RowDeleting(object sender, GridViewDeleteEventArgs e) { DataTable dt = (DataTable)Session["myDatatable"]; DataRow dr = dt.Rows[e.RowIndex]; dt.Rows.Remove(dr); GridView1.EditIndex = -1; BindMyGridview(); }

Select DOT NET Framework 3.5 from the drop-down.

Open the page design page, where all the attribute needs to be designed.

Take one new form for proper design. Inside the form, the table has been designed. ID and Name are there where specific data table data should display.

Choose a specific online template for writing the background logic of the Grid View presentation.

Preparing the code for the application and mapping the corresponding field for further execution.

Choosing specific data sources for using and presenting Grid view data as per requirement.

Designing the dashboard also been executing in the preview page, displaying require information.

Writing the ASPX code for preparing the view presentation. It automatically came based on the page design.

Working with a text box to define the field name, catch with the value, and perform the required tasks.

Set one specific dashboard page as a starting page for running the application.

Add multiple data for generating a proper grid view presentation.

Add another data for the proper grid view dashboard presentation.

Adding one more data for displaying more in the dashboard.

Displaying the main dashboard of grid view, where all the added data properly displayed on the screen including edit and delete link.

After the update, this page again returns back to the dashboard with a proper grid view.

The delete button is there for deleting one specific record from the grid view presentation.

Conclusion Grid view presentation is one of the common and key requirements from any of the clients in the current scenario. This presentation or designing the page is comparatively easy to do for the developer rather than performing normal design. The page has multiple fields to handle and present. Every field is actually bound with corresponding data coming from the backend code.

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How To Work With File In Lua With Example?

Definition of Lua File

File is used to store data, read data, and so on like other programming languages. In Lua, we have a different library that can handle files in Lua. Lua support the various built-in library by the help of which we can handle our file in Lua programming, we can open, close or read from a file by using this library. File I/O library is the most common one to use in Lua. By the use of this, we can export and import the data from a large file into our programming, I/O library provides us several features by which we can handle our files in Lua efficiently. In the coming section, we will discuss more file in Lua in detail and how to use and implement this while programming.

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Syntax:[Your_file_name] [, [your_mode]])

As you can see in the above lines of syntax, this is the basic syntax to open a file using IO in Lua. Inside this, we are mentioning the filename followed by the mode in which we want our file to be handled. let’s take a practice syntax for beginners to understand it in a better way see below;

e.g. : "demo.lua" , "r"] ) How Lua file works?

As we already discussed file is used to store a large amount of data, by the use of a file we can export and import a large amount of data from the file. It is very easy to read large data from the file. In Lua file Io works in the same way like C programming language, it divides it into two basic modes which is as follows;

1) simple mode: Simple mode in Lua deals with the current input and output files. It also provides us some operations which is related to these files only.

2) complete mode: this is also known as Full mode, it uses an external handle to achieve this.

Now we will take look at all the operations that can we perform by using this IO library in Lua see below;

1) Open a file: To open a file we can use io. open() function which takes two parameters as the input param, one is the file name another mode is the mode for the file. In the coming section of the tutorial, we will discuss more the modes of file in detail.

2) to close a file: We can also close an existing file if we do not want to perform any further operation on it. For this IO library provide us io.close() function.



As you can see in the above lines of syntax we can pass the file name inside the close() function so it will close the respective file for us.

3) write to a file: If you want to write to an existing file then we have write() function available for this. Below see the syntax for better understanding;

e.g. :

io.write("Your string")

As you can see in the above lines of code we are passing our string inside the write() function, this will add this string at the end of the file.

4) To read file: Io library also provides our function by the help of which we can read the file content. It provides us read() function for this, we can call this function o IO object. let’s take look at its syntax how it looks;

e.g. :;

Now we will discuss different modes of file in detail see below;

1) “r”: This is the default mode of the file, it enables the ready only mode.

2) “a”: This stands for append mode, to will open the existing file or it will create a new file for us.

3) “w”: This stands for write mode in IO library, it will either create a new file or override the existing one.

4) “r+”: This represents read and write both modes for a file.

5) “a+”: This represents read and append mode on the file. it will either create a new file or it will open the existing one for us.

6) “*a”: This mode will help us to get the content of the file but from the current position of the file.

7) “*l”: This also helps us to read the file from the current position, after reading it will move the position to the next line of the file.

We have some methods available by the Io library which are as follows;

e.g. :


2) io.flush(): As it, the name suggests it will clear out the default buffer.

e.g. :


3) io.tmpfile(): As its name suggests it will return us the temporary file. On this file, we can perform two operations that is read and write, once we close or quit the program this file will be removed.

4) io.lines(): This provides us the iterator which will iterator through the complete file.


In this example we are trying to create a file with mode “w”, we are reading and writing to the file and printing the file content using read() function from IO library of Lua. This is a sample example for beginners to understand it better and implement this while programming in Lua.


print("Demo to show file IO functionality in lua !!") myfile ="demo.lua", "w") io.input(myfile) myfile ="demo.lua", "r") print("File created success fully !!") print("print the content of file ::") print( print("writing to the file ::") io.write("This is sample program to show file in lua !!") print( io.close(myfile)



To handle file in any programming language we would require a library which will help us to read, write, close, etc to perform operations on the file. In Lua we have IO library for this, which provide us some methods and mode to handle the file, it is an inbuilt library in Lua which works in the same way like C language.

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What Is Recovery Testing? With Example

Recovery Testing

Recovery Testing is software testing technique which verifies software’s ability to recover from failures like software/hardware crashes, network failures etc. The purpose of Recovery Testing is to determine whether software operations can be continued after disaster or integrity loss. Recovery testing involves reverting back software to the point where integrity was known and reprocessing transactions to the failure point.

Recovery Testing Example

When an application is receiving data from the network, unplug the connecting cable.

After some time, plug the cable back in and analyze the application’s ability to continue receiving data from the point at which the network connection was broken.

Restart the system while a browser has a definite number of sessions open and check whether the browser is able to recover all of them or not

In Software Engineering, Recoverability Testing is a type of Non- Functional Testing. (Non- functional testing refers to aspects of the software that may not be related to a specific function or user action such as scalability or security.)

The time taken to recover depends upon:

The number of restart points

A volume of the applications

Training and skills of people conducting recovery activities and tools available for recovery.

When there are a number of failures then instead of taking care of all failures, the recovery testing should be done in a structured fashion which means recovery testing should be carried out for one segment and then another.

It is done by professional testers. Before recovery testing, adequate backup data is kept in secure locations. This is done to ensure that the operation can be continued even after a disaster.

Life Cycle of Recovery Process

The life cycle of the recovery process can be classified into the following five steps:

Normal operation

Disaster occurrence

Disruption and failure of the operation

Disaster clearance through the recovery process

Reconstruction of all processes and information to bring the whole system to move to normal operation

Let’s discuss these 5 steps in detail-

A system consisting of hardware, software, and firmware integrated to achieve a common goal is made operational for carrying out a well-defined and stated goal. The system is called to perform the normal operation to carry out the designed job without any disruption within a stipulated period of time.

A disruption may occur due to malfunction of the software, due to various reasons like input initiated malfunction, software crashing due to hardware failure, damaged due to fire, theft, and strike.

If a backup plan and risk mitigation processes are at the right place before encountering disaster and disruption, then recovery can be done without much loss of time, effort and energy. A designated individual, along with his team with the assigned role of each of these persons should be defined to fix the responsibility and help the organization to save from long disruption period.

Reconstruction may involve multiple sessions of operation to rebuild all folders along with configuration files. There should be proper documentation and process of reconstruction for correct recovery.

Restoration Strategy

The recovery team should have their unique strategy for retrieving the important code and data to bring the operation of the agency back to normalcy.

The strategy can be unique to each organization based on the criticality of the systems they are handling.

The possible strategy for critical systems can be visualized as follows:

To have a single backup or more than one

To have multiple back-ups at one place or different places

To have an online backup or offline backup

Can the backup is done automatically based on a policy or to have it manually?

To have an independent restoration team or development team itself can be utilized for the work

Each of these strategies has cost factor associated with it and multiple resources required for multiple back-ups may consume more physical resources or may need an independent team.

Many companies may be affected due to their data and code dependency on the concerned developer agency. For instance, if Amazon AWS goes down its shuts 25 of the internet. Independent Restoration is crucial in such cases.

How to do Recovery Testing

While performing recovery testing following things should be considered.

We must create a test bed as close to actual conditions of deployment as possible. Changes in interfacing, protocol, firmware, hardware, and software should be as close to the actual condition as possible if not the same condition.

Through exhaustive testing may be time-consuming and a costly affair, identical configuration, and complete check should be performed.

If possible, testing should be performed on the hardware we are finally going to restore. This is especially true if we are restoring to a different machine than the one that created the backup.

Some backup systems expect the hard drive to be exactly the same size as the one the backup was taken from.

Online backup systems are not an exception for testing. Most online backup service providers protect us from being directly exposed to media problems by the way they use fault-tolerant storage systems.

While online backup systems are extremely reliable, we must test the restore side of the system to make sure there are no problems with the retrieval functionality, security or encryption.

Testing procedure after restoration

Most large corporations have independent auditors to perform recovery test exercises periodically.

The expense of maintaining and testing a comprehensive disaster recovery plan can be substantial, and it may be prohibitive for smaller businesses.

Smaller risks may rely on their data backups and off-site storage plans to save them in the case of a catastrophe.

After folders and files are restored, following checks can be done to assure that files are recovered properly:

Rename the corrupted document folder

Count the files in the restored folders and match with it with an existing folder.

Open a few of the files and make sure they are accessible. Be sure to open them with the application that normally uses them. And make sure you can browse the data, update the data or whatever you normally do.

It is best to open several files of different types, pictures, mp3s, documents and some large and some small.

Most operating systems have utilities that you can use to compare files and directories.


In this tutorial, we have learned a various aspect of recovery testing that helps to understand whether the system or program meets its requirements after a failure.

Data Types In R With Example

In this tutorial, you will learn:

What are the Data Types in R?

Following are the Data Types or Data Structures in R Programming:


Vectors (numerical, character, logical)


Data frames


Basics types

4.5 is a decimal value called numerics.

4 is a natural value called integers. Integers are also numerics.

TRUE or FALSE is a Boolean value called logical binary operators in R.

The value inside ” ” or ‘ ‘ are text (string). They are called characters.

We can check the type of a variable with the class function

Example 1: # Declare variables of different types # Numeric x <- 28 class(x)


## [1] "numeric" Example 2: # String y <- "R is Fantastic" class(y)


## [1] "character" Example 3: # Boolean z <- TRUE class(z)


## [1] "logical" Variables

Variables are one of the basic data types in R that store values and are an important component in R programming, especially for a data scientist. A variable in R data types can store a number, an object, a statistical result, vector, dataset, a model prediction basically anything R outputs. We can use that variable later simply by calling the name of the variable.

To declare variable data structures in R, we need to assign a variable name. The name should not have space. We can use _ to connect to words.

To add a value to the variable in data types in R programming, use <- or =.

Here is the syntax:

# First way to declare a variable: use the `<-` name_of_variable <- value # Second way to declare a variable: use the `=` name_of_variable = value

In the command line, we can write the following codes to see what happens:

Example 1: # Print variable x x <- 42 x


## [1] 42 Example 2: y <- 10 y


## [1] 10 Example 3: # We call x and y and apply a subtraction x-y


## [1] 32 Vectors

A vector is a one-dimensional array. We can create a vector with all the basic R data types we learnt before. The simplest way to build vector data structures in R, is to use the c command.

Example 1: # Numerical vec_num <- c(1, 10, 49) vec_num


## [1] 1 10 49 Example 2: # Character vec_chr <- c("a", "b", "c") vec_chr


## [1] "a" "b" "c" Example 3: # Boolean vec_bool <- c(TRUE, FALSE, TRUE) vec_bool



We can do arithmetic calculations on vector binary operators in R.

Example 4: # Create the vectors vect_1 <- c(1, 3, 5) vect_2 <- c(2, 4, 6) # Take the sum of A_vector and B_vector sum_vect <- vect_1 + vect_2 # Print out total_vector sum_vect


[1] 3 7 11 Example 5:

In R, it is possible to slice a vector. In some occasion, we are interested in only the first five rows of a vector. We can use the [1:5] command to extract the value 1 to 5.

# Slice the first five rows of the vector slice_vector <- c(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10) slice_vector[1:5]


## [1] 1 2 3 4 5 Example 6:

The shortest way to create a range of values is to use the: between two numbers. For instance, from the above example, we can write c(1:10) to create a vector of value from one to ten.

# Faster way to create adjacent values c(1:10)


## [1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 R Arithmetic Operators

We will first see the basic arithmetic operators in R data types. Following are the arithmetic and boolean operators in R programming which stand for:

Operator Description

+ Addition

– Subtraction

* Multiplication

/ Division

^ or ** Exponentiation

Example 1: # An addition 3 + 4


## [1] 7

You can easily copy and paste the above R code into Rstudio Console. The output is displayed after the character #. For instance, we write the code print(‘Guru99’) the output will be ##[1] Guru99.

The ## means we print output and the number in the square bracket ([1]) is the number of the display

Example 2: # A multiplication 3*5


## [1] 15 Example 3: # A division (5+5)/2


## [1] 5 Example 4: # Exponentiation 2^5


Example 5: ## [1] 32 # Modulo 28%%6


## [1] 4 R Logical Operators

With logical operators, we want to return values inside the vector based on logical conditions. Following is a detailed list of logical operators of data types in R programming

Logical Operators in R

The logical statements in R are wrapped inside the []. We can add as many conditional statements as we like but we need to include them in a parenthesis. We can follow this structure to create a conditional statement:

variable_name[(conditional_statement)] Example 1: # Create a vector from 1 to 10 logical_vector <- c(1:10)



In the example below, we want to extract the values that only meet the condition ‘is strictly superior to five’. For that, we can wrap the condition inside a square bracket precede by the vector containing the values.

# Print value strictly above 5


## [1] 6 7 8 9 10 Example 3: # Print 5 and 6 logical_vector <- c(1:10)


## [1] 5 6

Complete Guide To What Is Laravel Artisan With Example

Introduction to Laravel Artisan

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What is Laravel Artisan?

Laravel Artisan is one of the three command line interfaces found in the Laravel framework.

It is a helpful command line interface, assisting developers into developing applications though the numerous easy to read commands. One can also create custom codes in order to increase the efficiency of the applications.

But the efficacy of Artisan does not end here.

Developers can generate migrations, publish assets of packages and many similar tasks. Artisan has a whole lot of built in command which are a boon to the developer.

Though a whole lot generally work on custom commands, there are many who prefer the inbuilt ones.

php artisan list

This query will give a list of commands which certainly increases the efficiency of the entire process and saves a whole lot of time.

With these commands one can go ahead and create a plethora of functions, namely, controller, migration, create, mail, et al.

Laravel 3.7 was the initial offering from PHP and it was quite basic in its code structure. Though in spite of that, it had some excellent features to boot.

With the release of Laravel 5.7, added on to the newer sets of commands, some existing packages too are available.

Laravel 4, is primarily dependent on the Symfony framework.

How does Laravel Artisan work?

The Laravel Artisan serve command helps run application on the PHP Development Server.

A developer has the option to use Laravel Artisan serve for a variety of roles.

There are other two functions that the Laravel Artisan serve support. The change of application address by using the host and port.

The application’s port can be changed by using the port option.

The Laravel Artisan works in two ways, through the inbuilt commands and custom commands.

The Laravel Artisan has a robust set of inbuilt commands that can help one create a variety of functions.

On the other hand, developers also have the option of creating their custom made commands.

Example of Laravel Artisan

Example which will exemplify how a custom command can be created:

Create the custom command:

Execute the command on the terminal:

php artisan make:command CreateEmployeeName

A file is now created in the directory: app/console/Commands

The name of the file would be: CreateEmployeeName

The complete code would be:

<?php namespace AppConsoleCommands; use IlluminateConsoleCommand; class CreateEmployeeName extends Command { /** * The name and signature of the console command. * * @var string */ protected $user = 'command:name'; /** * The console command description. * * @var string */ protected $description = 'Command description'; /** * Create a new command instance. * * @return void */ public function __construct() { parent::__construct(); } /** * Execute the console command. * * @return mixed */ public function handle() { } }

The immediate next step is to go ahead and update the Laravel command which we have just created.

While doing that a few queries have to defined for the command structure to properly function:

$user: Create admin

$description: Create the account of the user which would be having admin role.

The role field which is located in the user table also needs to be updated.

protected $commands = [ CommandsCreateEmployeeName::class, ];

Once the chúng tôi has been updated, the custom command can now be run since it has become a part of the list. You can check the same by using the list command. However, if you still think this will work, you are wrong. It won’t. Commands work on logic, which has to be built.

Once the migration table is created update the model array:

protected $fillable = [ 'name', 'email', 'password', 'role' ];

Now you can go ahead and update the handle() as per your wish:

Few quick examples to look at:

1. To begin a Laravel Artisan project


php artisan serve


2. To enable the caching mechanism


php artisan route:cache

3. To view help, options and arguments


php artisan help serve

4. Generating a new command class


php artisan make:console GoCommand Conclusion

PHP Artisan has all the elements which will help the developer build a complete application. And as we have discussed, it is not simply limited to building of applications. One can do a host of other activities taking the help of the list of commands, that PHP Artisan holds. Also, with custom coding, the example of which we encountered above, this entire process of development becomes a lot more customized and personal. Needless to say, there is a rapid increase in the efficiency level too.

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C++ Dynamic Allocation Of Arrays With Example

What is a Dynamic Array?

A dynamic array is quite similar to a regular array, but its size is modifiable during program runtime. DynamArray elements occupy a contiguous block of memory.

Once an array has been created, its size cannot be changed. However, a dynamic array is different. A dynamic array can expand its size even after it has been filled.

During the creation of an array, it is allocated a predetermined amount of memory. This is not the case with a dynamic array as it grows its memory size by a certain factor when there is a need.

In this C++ tutorial, you will learn

Factors impacting performance of Dynamic Arrays

The array’s initial size and its growth factor determine its performance. Note the following points:

If an array has a small size and a small growth factor, it will keep on reallocating memory more often. This will reduce the performance of the array.

If an array has a large size and a large growth factor, it will have a huge chunk of unused memory. Due to this, resize operations may take longer. This will reduce the performance of the array.

The new Keyword

In C++, we can create a dynamic array using the new keyword. The number of items to be allocated is specified within a pair of square brackets. The type name should precede this. The requested number of items will be allocated.


The new keyword takes the following syntax:

pointer_variable = new data_type;

The pointer_variable is the name of the pointer variable.

The data_type must be a valid C++ data type.

The keyword then returns a pointer to the first item. After creating the dynamic array, we can delete it using the delete keyword.

Example 1:

using namespace std; int main() { int x, n; cout << “Enter the number of items:” << “n”; int *arr = new int(n); cout << “Enter ” << n << ” items” << endl; for (x = 0; x < n; x++) { } cout << “You entered: “; for (x = 0; x < n; x++) { cout << arr[x] << ” “; } return 0; }


Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Include the iostream header file into our program to use its functions.

Include the std namespace in our program in order to use its classes without calling it.

Call the main() function. The program logic should be added within the body of the function.

Declare two integer variables x and n.

Print some text on the console prompting the user to enter the value of variable n.

Read user input from the keyboard and assigning it to variable n.

Declare an array to hold a total of n integers and assigning it to pointer variable *arr.

Print a message prompting the user to enter n number of items.

Use a for loop to create a loop variable x to iterate over the items entered by the user.

Read the elements entered by the user and storing them in the array arr.

End of the body of the for loop.

Print some text on the console.

Use a for loop to create a loop variable x to iterate over the items of the array.

Print out the values contained in the array named arr on the console.

End of the body of the for loop.

The program must return value upon successful completion.

End of the body of the main() function.

NOTE: In the above example, the user is allowed to specify any size for the array during run time. This means the array’s size is determined during runtime.

Initializing dynamically allocated arrays

It’s easy to initialize a dynamic array to 0.


int *array{ new int[length]{} };

In the above syntax, the length denotes the number of elements to be added to the array. Since we need to initialize the array to 0, this should be left empty.

Example 2:

using namespace std;

int main(void) {

int x;

int *array{ new int[5]{ 10, 7, 15, 3, 11 } };

cout << “Array elements: ” << endl;

for (x = 0; x < 5; x++) {

cout << array[x] << endl; }

return 0; }


Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Include the iostream header file into our program to use its functions.

Include the std namespace in our program to use its classes without calling it.

Call the main() function. The program logic should be added within the body of the function.

Declare an integer variable named x.

Declare a dynamic array named array using an initializer list. The array will hold 5 integer elements. Note that we’ve not used the “=” operator between the array length and the initializer list.

Print some text on the console. The endl is a C++ keyword that means end line. It moves the cursor to the next sentence.

Use a for loop to iterate over the array elements.

Print the contents of the array named array on the console.

End of the body of the for loop.

The program must return value upon successful completion.

End of the body of the main() function.

Resizing Arrays

The length of a dynamic array is set during the allocation time.

However, C++ doesn’t have a built-in mechanism of resizing an array once it has been allocated.

You can, however, overcome this challenge by allocating a new array dynamically, copying over the elements, then erasing the old array.

Note: that this technique is prone to errors, hence, try to avoid it.

Dynamically Deleting Arrays

A dynamic array should be deleted from the computer memory once its purpose is fulfilled. The delete statement can help you accomplish this. The released memory space can then be used to hold another set of data. However, even if you do not delete the dynamic array from the computer memory, it will be deleted automatically once the program terminates.


To delete a dynamic array from the computer memory, you should use delete[], instead of delete. The [] instructs the CPU to delete multiple variables rather than one variable. The use of delete instead of delete[] when dealing with a dynamic array may result in problems. Examples of such problems include memory leaks, data corruption, crashes, etc.

Example 3:

using namespace std; int main() { int x, n; cout << “How many numbers will you type?” << “n”; int *arr = new int(n); cout << “Enter ” << n << ” numbers” << endl; for (x = 0; x < n; x++) { } cout << “You typed: “; for (x = 0; x < n; x++) { cout << arr[x] << ” “; } cout << endl; delete [] arr; return 0; }


Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Include the iostream header file in our program in order to use its functions.

Include the std namespace in our program in order to use its classes without calling it.

Call the main() function. The program logic should be added within the body of the function.

Declare two variables x and n of the integer data type.

Print some text on the console. The text will ask the user to state the number of numbers they will enter.

Read user input from the keyboard. The input value will be assigned to variable n.

Declare a pointer variable *arr. The array arr will reserve some memory to store a total of n integers.

Print a message on the console prompting the user to enter n numbers.

Create a for loop and the loop variable x to iterate over the numbers entered by the user.

Read the numbers entered by the user and storing them in the array arr.

End of the body of the for loop.

Print some text on the console.

Use a for loop and the loop variable x to iterate over the contents of array arr.

Print out the values of the array arr on the console.

End of the body of the for loop.

Print an empty line on the console.

Free up the memory of the array arr.

The program will return value when it completes successfully.

End of the body of the main() function.


Regular arrays have a fixed size. You cannot modify their size once declared.

With these types of arrays, the memory size is determined during compile time.

Dynamic arrays are different. Their sizes can be changed during runtime.

In dynamic arrays, the size is determined during runtime.

Dynamic arrays in C++ are declared using the new keyword.

We use square brackets to specify the number of items to be stored in the dynamic array.

Once done with the array, we can free up the memory using the delete operator.

Use the delete operator with [] to free the memory of all array elements.

A delete without [] frees the memory of only a single element.

There is no built-in mechanism to resize C++ arrays.

To initialize an array using a list initializer, we don’t use the “=” operator.

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