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A histogram is a type of chart you can generate from data in Excel. It makes it easy to summarize the frequency of particular values in your dataset. Excel makes it simple to create a histogram, assuming that a histogram is actually what you need!

What Is a Histogram?

A histogram is a type of chart that uses vertical bars to summarize ranges of data. While it may look like a bar chart, there are significant differences. Bar charts show the differences among variables, whereas histograms are generally used to show the differences among variables in terms of another variable.

To illustrate, a histogram may be used to show us how common ranges of IQ scores are. Each bar represents a “bin” or range of scores. So something like 0-10,11-20, etc.

The vertical Y-axis shows us how many measurements of that variable fall within each bin range. So if you have 100 people write an IQ test, every person whose score falls within a particular bin is counted towards the frequency score of that bin.

With a bar chart, you might want to compare something like average IQ scores between countries. In this case, each bar might represent a country and the vertical Y-axis would represent the average IQ of that country.

When Should You Use a Histogram?

HIstograms are a visualization of frequency distribution. It can help you see, at a glance, what sort of distribution your data has. For example, the “Normal Distribution” has the distinctive bell-curve look. A bimodal distribution will have two bumps. You can also see if score frequencies are skewed one way or another.

Of course, if you really want to determine whether your frequency distribution is normal or not, you’d run a normality test in Excel on your data. Those tests still use histograms as a basis though and creating and observing a histogram is a crucial first step in showing you roughly what sort of distribution you may be dealing with.

What You Need To Make a Histogram

In order to make a histogram, you need a few things:

A set of measurements for a single variable.

Defined “bins” of value ranges.

The first requirement is fairly straightforward. For example, if you have the weights of a group of people, you’d have each measured weight recorded in your dataset. Be careful not to mix the data from groups you don’t want to measure together into one histogram. For example, if you only wanted to look at the weight distribution of a certain age group or gender, you should only include data for that group.

If you wanted to compare the frequency distributions between two groups on a single variable, you’d need multiple histograms. One for each population group.

The next requirement is the trickiest. You need to decide on the “bins” that your frequency counts will be sorted into. The problem is that these may be arbitrary. If you’re going to look at the frequency of scores between 0 and 100, you could have 100 bins, one for each possible score. However, that means 100 bars in your histogram.

That’s a finely-grained distribution, but it’s probably not all that useful. In the case of test scores, you’re in luck since there are already “bins” in the form of grade symbols. So you could arrange your bins to coincide with those. However, for other types of data you have to invent the bin ranges.

Spend some time considering how you’d like to divide scores into bins and whether the histogram will paint the picture you’re looking for if you decide on a particular “bin width”.

You can also choose to leave it to an automatic function in Excel, where it will try to decide on a bin width that’s best suited to your data. In Excel, you can also specify the number of bins, which includes optional so-called overflow- and underflow- bins. These capture all scores over and under a specified value.

Creating a Histogram in Excel: Step-by-Step Create the Histogram

Assuming you’ve entered all the values for your dataset, select all the values that should be included in the histogram.

Next, switch to the Insert tab.

Now, under the chart section, select on the picture that looks like a histogram/bar chart.

From the popup menu, select histogram.

Customize the Horizontal Axis

Now your histogram is in the sheet, but it probably doesn’t look the way you want it to. So next, we’re going to customize the horizontal axis:

The format axis pane will now be open. There are a number of important options here that you can use to tune your histogram so that it looks exactly like you need it to.

Under Axis Options, you can customize the bins we discussed earlier. The two most important settings here are bin width and the number of bins. These options are mutually exclusive. If you specify a bin width in numbers, the number of bins will change automatically and vice versa. You can choose to activate overflow and underflow bins here as well.

From Hysteriagram to Histogram

Hopefully you can now make a histogram easily, but if you need to review basic Excel concepts, try reading Microsoft Excel Basics Tutorial – Learning How to Use Excel

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How To Make A Call In Android

android:layout_width = “match_parent”    android:gravity = “center”    <ListView       android:id = “@+id/list”       android:layout_width = “wrap_content”       android:textSize = “30sp”       android:layout_height = “wrap_content” import android.annotation.TargetApi; import android.app.Activity; import android.content.ContentResolver; import android.content.Context; import android.content.Intent; import android.content.pm.PackageManager; import android.database.Cursor; import android.net.Uri; import android.os.Build; import android.os.Bundle; import android.provider.ContactsContract; import android.support.annotation.NonNull; import android.support.v4.app.ActivityCompat; import android.support.v7.app.AppCompatActivity; import android.view.View; import android.widget.AdapterView; import android.widget.ArrayAdapter; import android.widget.ListView; import android.widget.Toast; import java.util.ArrayList;

How To Make A Stonecutter In Minecraft

Make a Stonecutter in Minecraft (2023)

Before we craft a stonecutter in Minecraft, we need to collect the items required for its recipe. But if you already have the ingredients, use the table below to directly skip to the crafting recipe.

How to Find a Stonecutter in Minecraft

If you get lucky, you can find a stonecutter in Minecraft villages. They are a job site block responsible for the stone mason’s job among all Minecraft villager jobs. So, if a village has a stonemason, it will definitely have a stonecutter too. Our best Minecraft village seeds can help you find such a village in no time.

Other than villages, there is no other place where stonecutters spawn naturally in the game. So, instead of looking for it, you have to craft one manually.

Ingredients Required to Make a Stonecutter

An iron ingot

3 stone blocks

Do note that in the Bedrock edition, you can also use variants of stone blocks to make a stone cutter.

How to Get Iron

Iron is one of the most versatile ores in the game. You only need one iron ingot to make a stonecutter, so follow these steps to get that iron ingot:

1. First, use our Minecraft ore distribution guide to find iron ore in Minecraft caves. Then, use a stone pickaxe to mine it.

2. Once you have the ore, you need to find or craft a furnace to smelt the iron. You can use any flammable item as its fuel. For faster results, you can also make a blast furnace in Minecraft. Each iron ore block smelts to form one iron ingot, and there you have it. An iron ingot.

How to Get Stone

1. First, find a stone block and mine it using a pickaxe. When mined, instead of dropping stone, the game will drop cobblestone. You can counter this by using a silk touch pickaxe enchantment. But we don’t have to go that far.

2. Once you have 3 cobblestone blocks, you simply need to smelt them in a furnace. Doing so will convert the cobblestone into stone blocks.

Crafting Recipe of Stonecutter in Minecraft

Now that you have all the ingredients, you only need to open the crafting table and place them together. To craft a stonecutter in Minecraft, you first need to place the iron ingot in the center cell of the top row of the 3×3 crafting area. Then, place three stone blocks – one in each cell of the middle row.

This placement will give you a stonecutter that you can place anywhere you want. Unlike a crafting table, it can’t even be destroyed by lava or fire.

How to Use a Stonecutter in Minecraft

2. Then, place a stone or similar block in the left-side cell. We have also covered the complete list of compatible stone blocks in the next section.

3. Finally, pick one of the various block variants that the stonecutter offers. The placed block will be cut into that variant, and you can pick it up from the right side cell.

Which Blocks Work with a Stonecutter

You can use the following blocks as ingredients for a stonecutter:

Stone

Smooth Stone

Stone Bricks

Mossy Stone Bricks

Grantite

Polished Granite

Diorite

Polished Diorite

Andesite

Polished Andesite

Cobblestone

Mossy Cobblestone

Sandstone

Cut Sandstone*

Smooth Sandstone

Red Sandtone

Cut Red Sandstone*

Prismarine

Prismarine Bricks

Dark Prismarine

Block of Quartz

Smooth Quartz

Purpur Block

Bricks

Nether Bricks

Red Nether Bricks

Basalt

End Stone

End Stone Bricks

Blackstone

Polished Blackstone

Block of Copper

Exposed Copper

Weathered Copper

Oxidized Copper

Waxed Copper

Waxed Exposed Copper

Waxed Weathered Copper

Waxed Oxidized Copper

Cut Copper

Exposed Cut Copper

Weathered Cut Copper

Oxidized Cut Copper

Mud Bricks

*Out of these, cut sandstone and cut red sandstone work as ingredients only on the Java edition.

In terms of results, a stonecutter is similar to a crafting table. Both of them use ingredients to craft different items. However, in the case of a stonecutter, you only need one ingredient and no recipe to form a variety of variant blocks. Some of its recipes are even more efficient than the crafting table. For example, it takes just 6 stone blocks to craft 4 stairs on a crafting table. Meanwhile, you can craft 1 stair for each stone block on the stonecutter.

Q. Does Stonecutter Save Stone?

Stonecutters save both time and stone in the longer run. So, if you are speedrunning your builds or creating houses in survival or hardcore mode, a stonecutter can be very useful.

Craft and Use a Stonecutter in Minecraft Today

How To Use The Histogram In Lightroom (Classic & Cc)

Photographers have a very valuable tool available to help them edit their photos – the histogram in Lightroom. This is one of the more underrated editing companions because, while powerful, it can be hard to understand (especially for those looking at it for the first time).

The histogram can make adjusting your exposure much easier, indicating exactly where the exposure falls flat or is too much in your highlights, shadows, and mid-tones.

What Is A Histogram?

In a nutshell, a histogram is a graphical representation of your photo’s exposure. The “hills and mountains” represent the shadows, highlights, and mid-tones. The graph aims to show you how dark, light, or just right each of these tones is.

The histogram isn’t just a tool that exists in Adobe’s software. You have one on your camera itself. While adjusting your exposure settings to take a photograph, you can view a histogram of the scene before taking the shot. This can give a better idea of whether the exposure settings are underexposing, overexposing, or a good middle ground for the image.

While the histogram on the camera aims to help you capture a better photo, the availability of this tool in both Lightroom Classic and Lightroom CC enables you to edit your image’s exposure more precisely.

Where Is The Histogram Located In Lightroom?

You can find the histogram in both Adobe Lightroom Classic and Adobe Lightroom CC, although the graph is located in different places between the two programs.

The Lightroom Classic Location

In Lightroom Classic, you can find the histogram in both the Library module and the Develop module.

The histogram in the Library Module is at the top of the right-side panel above Quick Develop.

If this right side panel isn’t immediately visible, press the arrow icon in the middle of the right side of the program screen.

In the Develop module, the histogram is located in the same location but is now above the Basic tab. Again, if this right side panel is hidden, press the arrow symbol.

The Lightroom CC Location

Close-up of the Edit symbol

From the edit view, you can find the histogram located in the right-hand corner above the Light tab.

This will bring up an options window from which you can restore the histogram view. You can also press Control + 0 (Win) or Command + 0 (Mac).

How To Read The Histogram In Lightroom

Reading the histogram is not as complex as it may seem on the surface. The histogram is divided into three primary sections:

Mid-tones:

Highlights:

Technically the histogram is divided into five sections because the chart is a very detailed representation. On the far right side are your Whites (brighter than highlights), and on the far left are your Blacks (darker than shadows).

But it is easiest to think of the chart as being made up of three primary sections when editing.

The peaks and valleys of the “mountains” represent how much shadows, highlights, and mid-tones are present in a photo.

If you have a lot of tall peaks on the left side of the screen, that means your image is underexposed. You have a lot of shadows and not a lot of highlights or mid-tones. Here is an example of an underexposed image with the histogram skewed to the left as a result:

On the contrary, an overexposed image would have a histogram that is skewed to the right. This indicates that there are a lot of bright tones in the picture.

An image lacking contrast will have a histogram with no peaks and mountains on the shadows or highlights (far-left and far-right sides of the screen). The tall peaks will be in the mid-tones.

An image with a good or even exposure will have a cluster of mountains, more so in the middle of the histogram, spreading across the entire chart.

The Histogram And Color

Notice that the histogram graphs also have “mountains” with colors. The colors represented are red, green, and blue (primary colors). Where they mix, you’ll find yellow, cyan, and magenta. The gray is where all of these colors mix.

This indicates how much of that color (or colors) is present in that tone. So, the histogram has the added bonus of representing color distribution in your tones!

For example, you can see a lot of blues in the Highlights section of this photo. That states that the highlights have blue in them.

The Histogram And Clipping

The histogram also indicates a tonal issue known as Clipping. Clipping is when there is a loss of information or detail on the extreme end of the shadow spectrum and/or the highlight spectrum.

Generally speaking, photos look best when you can see detail in the entire range of tones, from the darkest to the lightest. If your shadows are clipped, that means you have lost information in the darkest part of your image. Likewise, if your highlights are clipped, that means your image is overexposed.

The histogram indicates when your shadows or highlights are clipped with an arrow icon on either side of the screen.

The arrow turns gray on the left side when your shadows are clipped.

When your highlights are clipped, the right arrow is gray.

How To Edit Your Photos Using The Histogram In Lightroom

With all of the information that the Lightroom histogram shows, editing becomes a lot more technical. You can see in real-time how your exposure adjustments impact the image, not just by the changes within the image itself but also by how the graph adjusts.

Use the histogram to fix the tones in your image that are shown to be an issue. The histogram also helps you edit by stopping you from going overboard with your adjustments and causing blown highlights or dark shadows.

For example, let’s take this underexposed photo, and I’ll walk you through how the histogram helps me fix it:

As you can see, there are too many blacks and shadows here, so the image appears very dark. The gray arrow on the left side is marked, indicating clipping there.

To adjust this, I will go to my Basics tab and move the Exposure slider to the right to lighten the image. I move the slider until the clipping arrow on the left side is no longer gray.

But, as I moved the exposure slider to the right, more highlights and whites appeared, which meant that although my shadows were corrected, my highlights and whites suffered because the arrow now indicates clipping on the right side of the histogram.

To counteract this, I pulled my Whites and Highlights sliders down until the arrows no longer showed clipping.

This resulted in my histogram showing that there is no more clipping present in my image (because neither arrow was colored light gray) and that my picture is now well exposed.

For the overexposed image, I used the histogram to see how far I could edit that image to my liking without causing more clipping.

The original:

After my edit:

The above being said, the histogram is not a law you have to follow. The histogram is more of a guide, suggestion, or reference and should be treated as such.

There are situations where following the histogram perfectly won’t do you any favors – such as editing in a Light and Airy style, landscape sunset images, or adjusting nighttime photographs.

For example, how I would edit a photograph like this is not conducive to what the histogram tells me.

My edit would result in a histogram that looks like this, showing that I didn’t resolve the shadow clipping – but that’s because I felt like the shadows enhance the image.

Editing is as much a matter of opinion and aesthetic as it is what a computer graph tells you – use your best judgment.

Using The Histogram Clipping Warnings In Lightroom To Improve Your Exposure

To elaborate a little bit further on clipping, the Lightroom histogram can show you exactly where the clipping is happening directly in your image.

Let’s take the overexposed image once more.

If you hover your mouse over the clipping arrow on the right side, the photo lights up to indicate exactly where the highlights are clipped. Highlights are clipped in red.

You can do the same for the shadows, which are clipped in blue.

If you need the clipping highlights (or shadows) to remain visible after you move the mouse, just press the arrow.

As you edit and adjust your image, the bright red or blue will disappear (because you’ve fixed the clipping issue) or appear even more prominent (because you’re causing clipping). You can use these clipping warnings to gauge your edit’s progress.

Clipping warnings can also be very important for those looking to print the photo they are editing. Clipped highlights and shadows will not print well because of the lack of detailed information. Adjusting clipped highlights and shadows before printing helps save you money from having to reprint an image because it didn’t come out correctly.

How To Make A Cow Farm In Minecraft

Cows are, without a doubt, the most amazing domesticated mob in Minecraft. The cows are friendly, easy to breed, and yield some amazing items. You can get food, leather, and milk, which acts as an anti-potion element, from the cows. But it’s usually the most crucial time in the game when you can’t find any cows near your base. Luckily, that issue has a simple solution. You just need to learn how to make a cow farm in Minecraft. Once it’s ready and populated, you will never have to search for another cow again. With that said, let’s get started!

Make a Cow Farm in Minecraft (2023)

We will first cover the mechanics and requirements to build a cow farm in-game. But if you want to skip ahead to the functionality, you can do so using the table below.

Mechanics of a Minecraft Cow Farm

Unlike other useful Minecraft farms, the cow farm can’t be automated – at least not without the use of Minecraft commands. So, you must put in some effort now and then to keep your automatic cow farm functional. But, at the same time, it also implies that cow farms are the easiest to make.

To make a cow farm in Minecraft, you simply have to trap some cows and breed them. Once your farm is overpopulated with cows, you can kill them to collect your rewards. Moreover, if you know how to use an Allay in Minecraft, it can take care of the collection process, making the farm semi-automatic right away.

Items Required to Make a Cow Farm

Two cows

Stacks of wheat (as many as possible)

A stack of fences (or less, depending on the area)

A fence gate

You can easily find two cows within the plains biome and its variants in Minecraft. You can read about all the Minecraft biomes via the link right here. They are much more common around villages. The same villages can also help you get wheat. Though, you can grow your wheat in Minecraft to get enough of it for your farm.

How to Make a Fence Gate & Fence

Crafting recipe of Fence (up) and Fence Gates (down)

The crafting recipe of fences and fence gates only requires sticks and wooden planks. You can use any wood to create them. Moreover, their recipe is, in a way, opposite of each other. And thanks to the abundance of wood in Minecraft, you can quickly build many fences.

How to Make a Cow Farm in Minecraft

Follow the steps below to quickly and easily build a cow farm and get various resources in Minecraft:

1. First, find an open area that is at least 4 x 4 blocks. It’s best not to choose a cold biome to avoid snow being collected on your farm.

3. Next, use wheat to make the cows follow you and have them enter the farm area. You only need two cows to get started but having more of them is only better.

4. Next, to activate the farm, hold a piece of wheat and stand outside the farm. The cows will move towards you as soon as they notice the wheat.

5. When the cows approach, you have to feed them wheat to make the cows breed. As soon as both cows are fed, you will see a baby cow spawn. It will take 20 minutes for the baby cow to grow into an adult. And it only takes 5 minutes for cows to be ready to breed again. So, if you time it right, you can get plenty of cows in no time.

Automatically Kill Cows to Collect XP and Items

In cow farms, most Minecraft players usually grab a sword and kill as many cows as they want. It is usually a need-based action. Though, unless you save some of them, you will have to start from scratch. In any case, you can follow these steps below if you wish to improve the killing process:

2. Then, place water in one corner of the farm. This will create a flow of water that pushes cows in one corner of the farm.

3. In the corner where water takes the cows, replace the corner block with a hopper and its surrounding blocks with magma blocks.

4. Now, every cow that reaches this corner will die because of damage from magma blocks. Their dropped items will get collected into the chest via the hopper.

The above mentioned method is the most efficient for killing a bunch of cows at once. Whenever you want to stop, you only have to remove the placed water to stop the flow of cows.

Unfortunately, there is no way to feed, and thus, breed the cows automatically in vanilla Minecraft. But you can use Minecraft mods to get this feature.

How big should a cow farm be Minecraft?

The size of the cow farm depends upon your requirements. You can start small and slowly expand it as the time goes by.

Can dispensers feed mobs?

How to get seeds to grow wheat in Minecraft?

Wheat seeds are the most common ones in the game. You can get them by breaking not only wheat but even regular grass.

Create Your Own Cow Farm in Minecraft 1.19

How To Check If Hyperlink Exists In A Worksheet In Excel?

If we have a huge data where hyperlinks have been scattered throughout the worksheet, then it becomes a tedious task to find the hyperlinks and external references. This tutorial will help a user to find the hyperlinks available in a worksheet in the following scenarios −

Find all the hyperlinks in Excel

Find all hyperlink locations with VBA Code

Step 1 − A sample worksheet has been shown below with scattered hyperlinks.

Step 2 − Please note that, using Find and Replace feature, all hyperlinks can be identified easily. For this, press Ctrl+H on the keyboard. The find and replace dialog box will open.

Or you can open the same by following the below path −

Step 6 − It will display all the hyperlinked cells in a list as shown below. You may select each cell individually or hold the control key to select multiple cells from the list.

Step 1 − A sample worksheet has been shown with some similar hyperlinked cell values.

Step 2 − Repeat the step 2 and 3 from the above method.

Find all hyperlink locations with VBA Code

Step 1 − Press Alt+F11 keys on the keyboard and this will open the window of Microsoft Visual Basic for applications.

Step 3 − Now paste the following code in the workspace as following −

Code Snippet