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Computer games take up a massive amount of storage space. Some titles even reach 200 GB for a single game. With sizes that large (and if you have limited bandwidth), you don’t want to waste time and data re-downloading a game.
Thankfully, Steam makes it easy to move a game from one drive to another. While this process was more complicated in the past, Steam has now integrated Steam Library folders directly into the client.
Table of ContentsHow to Move Steam Games to Another Drive
Once you choose a destination, name the new folder. The name defaults to SteamLibrary if you don’t choose another. When this process is completed, you can move games with ease.
When you install games in the future, you can choose which of the drives you wish to install to. Games you play frequently should go on your primary drive, but games you don’t play often are good candidates for going to a secondary (potentially external) drive so they don’t clutter your memory.How to Game Between Multiple Computers
There are some instances when someone might game on more than one computer. Maybe you have a rig in your college dorm and one at home, or maybe you play competitively but need your own Steam library for competition. Whatever the reason, you can host your entire library on an external drive and carry it with you.
Create a new Steam library on the external drive. Download or copy your Steam games to the external drive. Once you’ve done this, you can use the drive on any PC. You will need to install Steam on the new PC and set the default folder to the external drive.
Sometimes it can take a few minutes for all of the necessary files to load, but once the game is up and running you should be able to play with little to no latency at all.Why You Should Move Steam Games
Many modern gaming PCs have two drives: a solid state drive that holds the operating system and the most commonly-played games, and a traditional hard drive with significantly more storage for non-essential files.
If you have a core set of games that you spend most of your time playing, these are the best games to keep on your main drive. However, if there are other games that you want to try out, but you don’t mind longer load times, you can put them on a secondary drive.
This way, your most-played games load quickly and play better, while games that you aren’t going to dedicate most of your time too won’t take up space on the solid state drive. If you start to spend more time with the games on your secondary drive, you can move them to the main drive – just don’t use up all the storage spacel.
Why? Solid state drives load significantly faster than traditional hard drives. A game on a solid state drive will have shorter load times and better performance than a game on a traditional SATA drive.
If you want a good example of where this would be useful, take a look at any open world game. Skyrim, for instance. Open-world games have long load times, but a solid state drive reduces the time you spend waiting and increases the time you spend playing.
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Are Steam VR games lagging on your computer? Do you want to make your Steam VR games run better? Several gamers have reported experiencing performance issues while playing Steam VR games. If you are one of those users, this post is curated for you. Here, we will be showing you methods using which you can improve the performance of your Steam VR games and run them smoother and better.How to make Steam VR Games run better?
Here are some methods you can use to make your Steam VR games run better on a Windows computer if they lag or stutter:
Use some general tips and tricks.
Update display and audio drivers to their latest versions.
Lower your graphics card settings.
Underclock your GPU.
Adjust your refresh rate.
Toggle off GeForce Experience Overlay.
Switch on Motion Smoothing.
Lower the render resolution.
Change in-game graphics settings.
Try a virtual desktop.
Install the VR Performance Toolkit mod.
Reinstall SteamVR if it still lags.1] Use some general tips and tricks
You can start with some generic tips and tricks to improve the performance of your Steam VR games on Windows. Here are some tips to take care of:
Also, ensure your system meets the system requirements of the Steam VR games. Else, the games won’t perform smoothly. You can take SteamVR Performance Test on Steam and see if your PC can handle VR games.
In case you are using Oculus Air Link with Quest 2 to connect and play VR games on your PC, it might be causing the issue at hand. So, ensure that the Oculus Air Link Network requirements are fulfilled.
Another thing you can do is close unnecessary resource-hungry programs from the background. If there are too many apps running in the background, your game is likely to lag due to the unavailability of the required amount of system resources. So, open Task Manager using Ctrl+Shift+Esc and then look for tasks consuming high system resources. After that, select the process and use the End task button to close it. Once done, try playing Steam VR games and check if the problem is fixed.
If you have taken care of the above tips, you can use another method to make SteamVR games run better.
Related: Fix SteamVR Error Codes 113, 200, 206, 207, 208, 301, 306, 308, 3022] Update display and audio drivers to their latest versions
Before you move on to the next solution, make sure the problem is not at the end of your system. Outdated device drivers cause performance issues with games and other apps. So, update your device drivers to their latest versions especially graphics and audio drivers.
There are other methods to update your device drivers. Once done, reboot your computer and play Steam VR games to check if the problem is resolved.3] Lower your graphics card settings
If you have set high graphics settings on a low-end or mid-range PC, you are likely to experience performance issues while playing Steam VR games. Hence, in that case, you can lower your graphics settings and then see if that helps run Steam VR games better or not.
TIP: Best AMD Radeon Settings for gaming on PC.4] Underclock your GPU
You can also try underclocking your GPU and see if it works for you. As reported by some users, underclocking has helped them run Steam VR games better. So, you can try doing the same and see if the problem is resolved.5] Adjust your refresh rate
The next thing you can do is change your computer’s refresh rate. Multiple users have confirmed that adjusting their refresh rate has helped them run VR games better. For some users, lowering the refresh rate worked, while for a few users, setting a higher refresh rate was helpful. So, you can adjust the refresh rate accordingly and check what works for you. Here are the steps to do that:
Now, scroll down to the Advanced display option under Related settings and tap on it.
You can now try playing your Steam VR games and see if the problem is resolved.
First, open the Oculus software on your PC and then choose Devices.
Now, select Quest 2 and Touch from the list of your devices.
After that, select a desired Refresh Rate from the available ones.
Finally, press the Save & Restart option and then check if your Steam VR games run smoothly or not.
Read: Oculus Software not installing on Windows 11.6] Toggle off GeForce Experience Overlay
GeForce Experience Overlay can make your VR games laggy on your computer as reported by several users. Hence, in that case, you can disable the in-game overlay feature and see if it improves the performance of VR games or not. Here’s how you can do that:
First, open the NVIDIA GeForce Experience app and make sure you are signed into your NVIDIA account.
Now, press the Settings icon present in the top right corner.
On the Settings page, go to the GENERAL tab from the left side.
Next, simply disable the IN-GAME OVERLAY toggle.
Try running your games now and see if it has enhanced the overall performance or not.
Read: Oculus Quest not connecting to WiFi on PC; Keeps disconnecting7] Switch on Motion Smoothing
Motion Smoothing in SteamVR is a nice feature that helps run the game smoothly when the frames drop. So, you can try enabling it in SteamVR and see if you see a significant improvement in your VR games. Here are the steps to enable Motion Smoothing in SteamVR:
First, open SteamVR Settings and then go to the Video tab.
Now, set the Motion Smoothing option to ON state.
Once done, close the settings and try playing your games.
Hopefully, your SteamVR games will run better now. If not, you can use the next method to make your Steam VR games run better.
Read: Steam is not opening on Windows PC8] Lower the render resolution
You can also try reducing the reader resolution in your SteamVR settings. It will basically make SteamVR render the game at a lower resolution. As a higher render resolution is more demanding graphically, it will cause lags and other performance issues in your games. So, lower the render resolution and see if that helps. Here are the steps to do that:
Firstly, open the SteamVR Settings and simply move to the Video tab from the left-side pane.
Now, choose the Custom option for Render Resolution and then adjust the Resolution Per Eye slider accordingly to lower it.
Once done, play your VR game and see if there is any improvement in its performance.
See: SteamVR Error 1114, There is a problem with the Oculus runtime installation.9] Change in-game graphics settings
To make a specific Steam VR game run better, you can adjust its in-game graphics settings. Running a game at lower configurations will automatically make it run better on a low-end PC. So, lower your in-game graphics settings and see if it enhances the game’s performance. You can disable the anti-aliasing feature, lower the render scale, reduce or disable certain graphics effects, etc.10] Try a virtual desktop
You can also use a virtual desktop to play VR games. Oculus Quest 2 users can download the Virtual Desktop app from the Oculus Store and see if it makes games run better or not.11] Install the VR Performance Toolkit mod
There is this mod called VR Performance Toolkit developed especially for VR games. It helps in achieving more FPS and running the games better. You can download this mod from chúng tôi and then install it on your computer.12] Reinstall SteamVR if it still lags
If the VR games still lag and there are other performance issues, the problem might lie in the SteamVR app. So, you can try uninstalling and then reinstalling the app to fix the issue. Before doing that, make sure to create a backup of your game data.
See: Fix SteamVR not working on Windows PC.How do I make SteamVR run smoother Quest 2? Do VR games need a lot of RAM?
Now read: SteamVR keeps telling to update the Graphics driver.
How to Backup & Restore Steam Cloud Saves [Gaming Tips]
You’ll be surprised how many post on support forums about their corrupted Steam game save files.
One way to deal with this issue is to manually back up your saved games.
Better option would be to enable synchronization in Steam and automate the process.
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Saving a Steam game once will usually be enough to preserve your progress in it. However, sometimes you need to backup Steam game files.
It’s always good to have a backup of your could saves, especially if Steam Cloud error appears so you can’t access your saves in the could.
So, it’s better to be safe than sorry, right? There are a few ways Steam players can back up their game saves to ensure they can restore them if something happens to the original game saves.Where are my Steam cloud saves?
If you’re wondering about Steam Cloud Save location, here’s where your files are stored:
Windows: C:Program Files (x86)Steamuserdata
MacOS: ~/Library/Application Support/Steam/userdata
Linux: ~/.local/share/Steam/userdataDoes Steam automatically backup save files?
Yes, Steam automatically backs up save files for most games using the Steam Cloud Sync feature. With it, all your save games are uploaded to the cloud.
So even if you reinstall a game or Steam completely, your saved games will be downloaded from the cloud and you can continue where you left off.
In this guide, we’re going to show you how to backup Steam game files, so let’s get started.
How do I restore Steam saves?1. Use a third-party game backup software
First of all, saving game progress is essential for most gamers that need to finish the story completely. To do this quickly, backup software is the solution you need.
By using EaseUS Todo Backup, you can save files and folders or eliminate intrusive commercials that interrupt the game. Plus, it will sync your data and accounts on the cloud every time.
Hence, if this sounds good, you should learn more about this practical tool and other awesome gaming backup software using the support given by the best game backup software.2. Enable Steam Cloud
Expert tip:3. Manually back up Steam game saves
Some users might need to locate game save files from remote subfolders at this path:
The AppID is an ID number for a specific game. You can find the AppID for games at the top of their Store link pages within the Steam client software.4. Back up Steam game saves with File History
This is a great way to backup Steam saves locally, so be sure to try it.Steam’s Backup Feature
You might notice that Steam includes a backup feature to save game copies. However, that utility is for backing up the actual games, not game save progress files.
The backup feature doesn’t establish backups that include custom game content files for things like saved games, custom maps, configuration scripts, etc. So, that utility isn’t much good for game save backup purposes.How can I back up Steam saves?
So, you can back up your Steam game saves with GameBackupSystem, Steam Cloud, File History, or the manual File Explorer method.
Choose whichever method you prefer to ensure you have backups of your saved game progress whenever you need them.
In case you want to delete Steam Cloud saves, we also have a guide about that, so be sure to check it out.
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Microsoft Outlook has a navigation pane that looks like a toolbar which consists of items such as mail, calendar, people, tasks, etc. Since an update in 2023, the navigation pane that used to be at the bottom for many years has been moved to the left side of the Outlook’s window. This is part of the new design of Outlook’s layout which may eventually be made permanent.
Many users like us who are so used to the way things were still prefer those buttons to be at the bottom like they have been for years. At the very least, there should be an option that allow us to choose the position of the navigation bar. However, so far there is no such option in the Office 365 Outlook app after the changes.
Fortunately, for now, there are still ways to forcibly move the navigation pane back to the bottom.
If you have installed the update and see that the Outlook navigation pane has been moved to the left side of the window, you can move it back to the bottom by following one of the methods below.
This is likely the only method that still work to change the position of the Outlook navigation pane to the bottom like how it used to be.
Caution: The following instructions require editing the Windows registry. Editing registry can cause serious issue and may potentially corrupt your operating system if done incorrectly. Therefore, it’s recommended that you create a system restore point as a backup prior to making any changes. Please proceed at your own risk.
Search for “regedit” or “Registry Editor” via Start and open the first result.
Copy and paste the following path to the address bar in the Registry Editor window. Alternatively, you can manually navigate to the following path via the left pane in Registry Editor. HKEY_CURRENT_USERSOFTWAREMicrosoftOffice16.0CommonExperimentEcsOverrides
Next, rename the newly created string value as Microsoft.Office.Outlook.Hub.HubBar.
Close Registry Editor and restart Outlook to see the changes. The navigation pane should now appear at the bottom. In some cases, you may need to restart your computer for the changes to take effect.
Even though the registry key can (for now) ignore the Outlook Hub bar changes and revert the position back to the bottom, since it’s an experimental feature, if Microsoft decides to conclude the experiment and permanently include the feature into Outlook in a future update, this registry key may no longer work.
See also: How to Move Start Menu and Taskbar Icons To The Left in Windows 11
Microsoft Office 365 apps including Outlook can be launched in safe mode. In this mode, the application will have only a limited set of features. It is usually used to troubleshoot problems users encounter when they use Outlook. It seems Outlook layout can be restored back to its default when Outlook is opened in safe mode.
When there is any upcoming new features or changes that is planned for a future update, users may have the ability to try the feature prior to the release. If you see the Coming soon or Try it now toggle button at the upper right corner of Outlook’s window, try to turn it off and see if the navigation pane can be moved from the left side back to the bottom.
When you buy a new computer, the first thing you’ll probably want to do is copy all of your contents from your old computer over to the new one. This ensures you can continue the work that you were doing on your old machine.
One of the things you may want to migrate to your new computer is to move your iTunes library to a new computer. Although Apple has done away with iTunes on the latest Macs, the app is still used on old macOS versions and Windows computers.
Table of Contents
Moving your iTunes library to a new computer is pretty easy actually. There are features inside the app itself to help you do it.Put All Your iTunes Content In a Single Folder
If you know the basics of how iTunes works, you probably know that the app doesn’t need to copy your music files to its folders to play them. Your songs could be anywhere on your machine and you can still find, organize, and play them in the app.
Because of the nature of the app, there’s no one folder that you can copy from your old computer to the new one and get your library migrated. But, there’s a feature in iTunes that lets you put all of your files in a single folder. It’s called consolidating files and you can do it from within the app on your computer.
Your files will continue to exist at their original location and the following procedure will only make a copy of those files in the iTunes folder. You want to make sure there’s enough storage on your computer as you’ll have a total of two copies of each of your iTunes files.
It’ll start copying the iTunes library files from wherever they’re on your computer to the iTunes folder. Wait for it to do that.
Once the files are copied, you can delete the original ones from their folders if you want.Find The iTunes Folder & Copy It To Your External Drive
Once your entire iTunes library is consolidated, you can copy the consolidated folder over to an external drive for migration. However, the iTunes folder isn’t easily accessible as it’s located deep down in various subfolders.
Also, if you or someone has ever changed the original iTunes media folder, it won’t be available at its default location. You’re then going to need to find exactly where it’s stored on your machine.
Fortunately, iTunes provides you with an easy way to find its media folder. All you need to do is access an option in the app and it’ll let you know where your iTunes files are located. Once that’s done, you can copy the folder over to your external drive and start the migration process.
On the settings screen, you want to navigate to the tab that says Advanced as the option you’re looking for is located there.
Once you’re in the Advanced tab, you’ll find a box with the title that says iTunes Media folder location. Note down the path displayed there as you’re going to need it in the following steps.Restore Your iTunes Library On Your New Computer
Your entire iTunes library should now be available on your external hard drive. All that you need to do now is plug the hard drive into your new computer, copy over the library files, and then let iTunes know about it for it to import the files into the app.
It may sound a bit too technical but it’s not. It’s just basically copying your files and then configuring iTunes to recognize your new library. That’s all.
Navigate to the iTunes folder on your new computer and select the iTunes chúng tôi file. The app will then start importing your content.
When your files are all imported, you should see them on the same interface and menu where they were on your old computer.
A file is a collection of information or data that is stored on a computer. You are already familiar with several file types, such as your audio, video, and text files.
Text files and binary files are the two categories into which we often split files. Simple text is contained in text files, as opposed to binary data, which can only be read by computers.
A group of files and subdirectories is called a directory or folder. A subdirectory is a directory present inside a directory. Numerous operating system functions can be carried out automatically.File Operations Using Python
Python provides various methods to perform operations on the files and folders of the underlying operating system.
The OS module in Python has functions for adding and deleting folders, retrieving their contents, changing the directory, locating the current directory, and more. Import this module, we will use the listdir() method of it to fetch the files.
Similarly, the shutil module provides a number of functions for dealing with operations on files and associated collections. It gives users the option to copy and delete files. You can copy the contents of one folder to another using the shutil.copy(), shutil.copy2() and shutil.copytree() methods of this module.
You can include these functions in your file by importing their respective modules as shown below −
)Using shutil.copy() operation
Using this function, the text or content of the source file is copied to the target file or directories. Additionally, the permission mode of the file is preserved, but the file metadata (such as the “Date Creation”, “Date Modification” etc..) is not preserved.Syntax
Following is the syntax of the shutil.copy() method−shutil.copy(origin, target)
Origin − A string containing the source file’s location or path
Target − A string containing the destination file’s location or path.Example
Following is an example of to copy files from one folder to other using shutil.copy() operation −
"Files are copied successfully"
Following is an output of the above query:Files are copied successfully
Note − Both a relative and an absolute path can be used to copy a file. The file’s location on the disc is indicated by the path
Here we are providing the folder path of both the source and the destination of the files.Using shutil.copy2() operation
First of all, this function is exactly like copy() with the exception that it keeps track of the source file’s metadata.
The execution program for this is exact same as shutil.copy(). The only difference is that while fetching the file to directory, in place of shutil.copy() we write shutil.copy2().
Following is the syntax of the shutil.copy2() method –shutil.copy2(origin, target)
Origin and target values are same as defined above.
The copy2() function in this code does one additional operation in addition to a copy() which is to keep the metadata.Using shutil.copytree() method
This function moves a file and any subdirectories it contains from one directory to another.
This indicates that both the source and the destination include the file. The string must contain the names of both parameters.Syntax
Following is the syntax of the shutil.copytree() method –shutil.copytree(origin, target)
Origin and target values are same as defined above.Example
Following is an example of to copy files from one folder to other using shutil.copytree() operation:
"File Copied Successfully"
Following is an output of the above query:File Copied Successfully
As an output we will be able to see the changes made after the execution i.e. the ‘Works’ folder gets copied to the ‘Works TP’ folder with the name of ‘newfolder’ as assigned in the code above containing all the files inside it which was there in the Works folder.
In order to obtain a duplicate of that file, we have included the copytree() function in this code.
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