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Although Excel is a powerful data analysis tool, many users use it for basic arithmetic operations.

One common requirement is to multiply an entire column by a number (a constant value).

In this tutorial, I will show you two easy ways to multiple an entire column with a given number.

So let’s get to it!

Suppose I have a dataset as shown below, where I have the Sales Rep names in Column A and their current sales values in Column B.

I want to calculate their Sales target for the next year, which would be 10% higher than their current sales.

This essentially means that I want to increase all the values in column B by 10% (i.e., multiply these values by 1.1 or 110%)

Below is the formula to multiply 110% with the values in the entire column B2 (use this formula in cell C2):

=B2*110%

The above formula would give you the result of the multiplication of value in cells B2 with 110%.

But we also want to get the result when all the values in column B are multiplied with the same number.

To do this, select cell C2, place the cursor at the bottom right part of the selection, hold the left mouse key and drag down. This will copy the same formula for all the cells in column C.

Alternatively, you can also copy cell C2 and paste it into the cells below it (a simple Control +C and Control + V would work).

Note that the result of the formula is dynamic. So if you change the values in column B, the result would accordingly update. If you don’t want this to be dynamic, and instead want static values, you can convert the formula to values.

In the above example, I hardcoded the value 110% in the formula.

Another option is to have the value, with which I want to multiply the entire column, in a separate cell, and use the cell reference instead of hardcoding the actual value in the formula.

The benefit of this method is that in case I change the value in the cell, the formulas would automatically update.

Below I have the same dataset, and I have the new sales target percentage in cell E2.

Below is the formula that will give me the new sales target:

=B2*\$E\$2

To multiple the entire column, you need to copy the cell with the formula and paste it into all the cells in the column. This will copy the formula as well and give you the right result.

How does this work?

The trick in this method is in using the dollar signs in the reference of the cell that contains the number with which we want to multiply the entire column (\$E\$2 in this example).

When you add a dollar sign before the row number and the column alphabet, it makes sure that when that formula is copied in other cells, the reference does not change.

In our formula, the \$E\$2 portion of the formula would not change, while the A2 would become A3 when the formula is copied in cell C3 and it would become A4 when the formula is copied in cell C4, as so on.

Note: In case you’re using Excel for Microsoft 365, where you have access to dynamic arrays, you can simply use the formula =B2:B13*E2. You don’t need to copy for the entire column, the formula itself would spill the result for the entire range.

Another method that you can use to quickly multiply an entire column with a given number is by using the Paste Special technique.

Suppose you have a data set as shown below, where I want to multiply the number in cell E2 with the entire data set in column A.

Below are the steps to do this:

Copy all the values in column B and paste it in column C. We are doing this as the Paste Special multiplication would be applied in column C, and we would also retain the original values in column B.

Select all the cell in column A with which you want to multiply the number

In the Paste Special dilaog box that opens, select the Multiply option in Operations

That’s it!

The above steps would instantly change all the values in column A and give you the result after it has multiplied these numbers with the value in cell E2.

The result you get is static values (as compared to a formula that you get in the method before that)

Once you are done with the multiplication, you can delete the value in cell E2 (if you want).

One important thing to note about using this method is that when you multiply an entire column using the paste special method, it also copies the formatting from cell E2. So if you give a cell color to cell E2 and use this method, all the cells in column A would also have that color copied to it. To avoid this, you can also select the Value option in the Paste Special dialog box in step 4

So these are two simple methods that you can use to multiply an entire column with a number in Excel.

I hope you found this tutorial useful.

Other Excel tutorials you may also find helpful:

You're reading How To Multiply A Column By A Number In Excel (2 Easy Ways)

## How To Calculate Correlation Coefficient In Excel (2 Easy Ways)

Excel is a powerful tool that has some amazing functions and functionalities when working with statistics.

Finding a correlation between two data series is one of the most common statistical calculation when working with large datasets,

I was working as a financial analyst a few years ago, and although we were not heavily involved in statistical data, finding correlation was something we still had to do quite often.

In this tutorial, I will show you two really easy ways to calculate correlation coefficient in Excel. There is already a built-in function to do this, and you can also use the Data Analysis Toolpak.

So let’s get started!

Since this is not a statistics class, let me briefly explain what is the correlation coefficient, and then we’ll move on to the section where we calculate the correlation coefficient in Excel.

A correlation coefficient is a value that tells you how closely two data series are related.

A commonly used example is the weight and height of 10 people in a group. If we calculate the correlation coefficient for the height and weight data for these people, we will get a value between -1 and 1.

A value less than zero indicates a negative correlation, which means that if the height increases then the weight decreases, or if the weight increases at then the height decrease.

And a value more than zero indicates a positive correlation, which means that if the height increases then the weight increases, and if the height decreases then the weight decreases.

The closer the value is to 1, the stronger is the positive correlation. So a value of .8 would indicate that the height and weight data are strongly correlated.

Note: There are different types of correlation coefficients and statistics, but in this tutorial, we’ll be looking at the most common one which is the Pearson correlation coefficient

Now, let’s see how to calculate this correlation coefficient in Excel.

Also read: Weighted Average Formula in Excel

As I mentioned, there are a couple of ways you can calculate the correlation coefficient in Excel.

CORREL is a statistics function that was introduced in Excel 2007.

Suppose you have a data set as shown below where you want to calculate the correlation coefficient between the height and the weight of 10 people.

Below is the formula that would do this:

=CORREL(B2:B12,C2:C12)

The above CORREL function takes two arguments – the series with the height data points and the series with the weight data points.

And that’s it!

As soon as you hit enter, Excel does all the calculations in the back-end it gives you one single Pearson correlation coefficient number.

In our example, that value is a little over .5, which indicates that there is a fairly strong positive correlation.

This method is best used if you have two series and all you want is the correlation coefficient.

But if you have multiple series and you want to find out the correlation coefficient of all these series, then you can also consider using the data analysis tool pack in Excel (covered next)

Excel has a Data Analysis Toolpak that can be used to quickly calculate various statistics values (including getting the correlation coefficient).

But the Data Analysis Toolpak is disabled by default in Excel. So the first step would be to enable the data analysis tool back and then use that to calculate the Pearson correlation coefficient in Excel.

Below are the steps to enable the Data Analysis Toolpak in Excel:

In the Manage drop-down, select Excel add-ins

Check the Analysis Toolpak option

The above steps would add a new group in the Data tab in the Excel ribbon called Analysis. Within this group, you would have the Data Analysis option

Now that you have the analysis tool back available in the ribbon, let’s see how to calculate the correlation coefficient using it.

Suppose you have a data set as shown below and you want to find out the correlation between the three series (height and weight, height and income, and weight and income)

Below are the steps to do this:

For input range, select the three series – including the headers

For ‘Grouped by’, make sure ‘Columns’ is selected

Select the option – ‘Label in First Row’. This will make sure that in the resulting data would have the same headers and it would be a lot easier to understand the results

In the Output options, choose where you want the resulting table. I’m going to go with cell G1 on the same worksheet. You can also choose to get your results in a new worksheet or a new workbook

As soon as you do this, Excel would calculate the correlation coefficient for all the series and give you a table as shown below:

Note that the resulting table is static, and would not update in case any of the data points in your table change. In case of any change, you will have to repeat the above steps again to generate a new table of correlation coefficients.

So these are two quick and easy methods to calculate correlation coefficient in Excel.

I hope you found this tutorial useful!

Other Excel tutorials you may also like:

## Excel Find Column Containing A Value

Last week I had an email from Mike asking how he can lookup a suburb in a range of columns and return the post code from the header row.

I imagine his data was a bit like this:

And in cell B9 he wants to find the post code for Herston.

One way is with this array formula:

=

INDEX(B1:F1,,

MIN(

IF(B2:F5=A9,COLUMN(A:E))

)

)

Entered with CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.

Before we dive in, here are the syntaxes for the INDEX and IF functions as a reminder (I’ve crossed out the arguments we’re not using):

INDEX(reference,

row_num

,[column_num],[

area_num

])

IF(logical_test, [value_if_true],[

value_if_false

])

The INDEX formula is returning a reference to the cell in the first row for the column containing ‘Herston’. For the column_num argument it uses a combination of IF, COLUMN and MIN.

Here it is again for reference:

=

INDEX(B1:F1,,

MIN(

IF(B2:F5=A9,COLUMN(A:E))

)

)

Check the cells in the range B2:F5 for ‘Herston’ and tell INDEX what column number it’s in. i.e. column 4. INDEX (look in) the range B1:F1 and return a reference to the 4th cell i.e. E1, which contains 4006.

So what’s MIN got to do with it….hold your horses, more on that in a moment.

Let’s step through the formula in the order it evaluates:

Step 1 – IF function’s logical_test: B2:F5=A9 i.e. B2:F5=Herston and it looks like this:

=INDEX(B1:F1,,MIN(IF({FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE;  FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE; FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,

TRUE

,FALSE;  FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE},,COLUMN(A:E))))

Tip: did you notice in the formula above there is a semicolon after every 5th ‘FALSE’ instead of a comma. This semicolon represents a new row in the array.

Or if you imagine our formula is putting together a list of values representing each row in the table like this:

Step 2 – COLUMN function: This evaluates to return a horizontal array of numbers {1,2,3,4,5} for our IF function’s value_if_true argument. These numbers represent the 5 columns B:F in our table.

Our formula now looks like this:

=INDEX(B1:F1,,MIN(IF({FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE;FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE;FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,

TRUE

,FALSE;FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE},{1,2,3,

4

,5})))

Tip: Instead of using the COLUMN function to generate the array of numbers we could simply type {1,2,3,4,5} into the formula. However, with large horizontal arrays it’s quicker (and dynamic) if we use the COLUMN function to generate the array, or for vertical arrays you can use the ROW function.

Note: if you don’t want your COLUMN function to be dynamic you can use the INDIRECT function to fix it, like this:

=INDEX(B1:F1,,MIN(IF(B2:F5=A9,COLUMN(INDIRECT("A:E")))))

Step 3 – IF function value_if_true: The IF function finishes evaluating by assigning the value_if_true numbers (generated by the COLUMN function) to the TRUE results in the logical_test.

To visualise this we can look at the 3rd horizontal array (i.e. the series of FALSE/TRUE after the second semicolon below). Remember this is the 3rd row of our table above.

Excel gives the TRUE results the corresponding number from the array generated from the COLUMN function {1,2,3,4,5} like so:

Note: In this step the FALSE values evaluate to nothing i.e. they are ignored. Remember we don’t have a value_if_false argument in our IF formula. Our formula now looks like this:

Step 4 – MIN: This simply evaluates to find the one and only number; 4.

=INDEX(B1:F1,,

4

)

Tip: Since there is only one number remaining (the rest are all FALSE) we could have used MAX or SUM to get the same result as MIN.

Step 5 – INDEX: Finally INDEX can return a reference to the 4th column in the range B1:F1 which is cell E1 containing post code 4006.

Tip: Notice how our INDEX formula doesn’t have a row_num argument:

Since our reference is only one row high we don’t have to type a 1 in for the row_num argument, we simply enter a comma as a placeholder and continue on to the column_num argument.

What The?

Did you find that tricky?

When working with long or complex formulas I like to use the Evaluate Formula tool to understand what’s going on behind the scenes.

You can also evaluate parts of your formula by highlighting the section of the function in the formula bar and pressing the F9 key. Below I’ve evaluated the COLUMN(A:E) part of my formula:

To revert to the original formula either press the escape key or CTRL+Z.

Thanks

Thanks to Mike for inspiring this post.

If you liked this please share it with your friends and colleagues.

## Swift Program To Multiply Two Matrices By Passing Matrix To A Function

In this article, we will learn how to write a swift program to multiply two matrices by passing the matrix to a function.

A matrix is a mathematical structure in which the elements are present in rows and columns format. For example, the first element is present at the a00 location, the second at a01, and so on. So to multiply two matrices, we multiply the mth row of the first matrix by an nth column of the second matrix and add the products. This will create an element at the mth row and nth columns of the resultant matrix. For example −

Matrix 1 −

\$mathrm{begin{bmatrix}2 & 2 & 2 newline3 & 3 & 3 newline4 & 4 & 4end{bmatrix}}\$

Matrix 2 −

\$mathrm{begin{bmatrix}1 & 1 & 1 newline1 & 1 & 1 newline2 & 2 & 2end{bmatrix}}\$

So the product = Matrix 1 * Matrix 2

\$mathrm{begin{bmatrix}(2^{*}1+2^{*}1+2^{*}2) & (2^{*}1+2^{*}1+2^{*}2) & (2^{*}1+2^{*}1+2^{*}2) newline(3^{*}1+3^{*}1+3^{*}2) & (3^{*}1+3^{*}1+3^{*}2) & (3^{*}1+3^{*}1+3^{*}2) newline(4^{*}1+4^{*}1+4^{*}2) & (4^{*}1+4^{*}1+4^{*}2) & (4^{*}1+4^{*}1+4^{*}2)end{bmatrix}}\$

\$mathrm{begin{bmatrix}8 & 8 & 8 newline12 & 12 & 12 newline16 & 16 & 16end{bmatrix}}\$

Algorithm

Step 1 − Define the size of the rows and columns.

Step 2 − Create a function.

Step 3 − In this function create an empty matrix to store result of same number of rows and columns.

Step 4 − Run nested for loop to iterate through each element of both matrices.

Step 5 − Multiple the element at [x][z] position of matrix1 with each element of the row of matrix2 and add the values, store the values at [x][y] position of the resultant matrix. This process will continue till the lest element of the matrix1.

Step 6 − Create two matrices of the same type along with same number of rows and columns.

Step 7 − Call the function and pass these matrices in it.

Step 8 − Print the resultant matrix.

Example

Following the Swift program multiply two matrices by-passing the matrix to a function.

import Foundation import Glibc var row = 4 var col = 4 func multiplyMatrix(mxt1:[[Int]], mxt2:[[Int]]) { var Mul = Array(repeating: Array(repeating: 0, count: 4), count: 4) for x in 0..<row { for y in 0..<col { for z in 0..<row { Mul[x][y] += mxt1[x][z] * mxt2[z][y] } } } print("Resultant matrix:") for x in 0..<row { for y in 0..<col { print(Mul[x][y], terminator:" ") } print("n") } } var matrix1 : [[Int]] = [[1, 1, 4, 3], [1, 1, 1, 1], [5, 5, 2, 2], [4, 3, 3, 4]] print("Matrix 1:") for x in 0..<row { for y in 0..<col { print(matrix1[x][y], terminator:" ") } print("n") } var matrix2 : [[Int]] = [[1, 1, 4, 4], [3, 2, 4, 5], [5, 6, 3, 2], [4, 5, 6, 3]] print("Matrix 2:") for x in 0..<row { for y in 0..<col { print(matrix2[x][y], terminator:" ") } print("n") } multiplyMatrix(mxt1:matrix1, mxt2:matrix2) Output Matrix 1: 1 1 4 3 1 1 1 1 5 5 2 2 4 3 3 4 Matrix 2: 1 1 4 4 3 2 4 5 5 6 3 2 4 5 6 3 Resultant matrix: 36 42 38 26 13 14 17 14 38 37 58 55 44 48 61 49

Here in the above code, we create two 4×4 matrices along with values. Now we create a function to find the product of two matrices. In this function, we create an empty matrix to store the result. In addition, run nested for loop to iterate through each element of both the matrices. Now we multiply the element of matrix1 at [x][z] position with each element of the row of the matrix2 using the * operator and add the values and store the result at [x][y] position of the resultant matrix. Repeat this process for all the elements of matrix1.

Conclusion

Therefore, this is how we can multiply two matrices by passing the matrix to a function. Using this method we can also multiply matrices of different sizes like 4×4, 6×3, and 2×3.

## How To Check Whether A Number Is A Pronic Number Or Not In Java?

Pronic number can be defined as a number when it is a product of two consecutive integers.

Mathematically, the Pronic number is in the form of n(n+1).

It is also called as heteromecic number, oblong number or rectangular number.

To show you some instances

Instance-1

Input number is 12

Let’s check it by using the logic of pronic number −

4 * 3 = 12, where 3 and 4 are two consecutive numbers.

Hence, 12 is a pronic number.

Instance-2

Input number is 30

Let’s check it by using the logic of pronic number −

5 * 6 = 30, where 5 and 6 are two consecutive numbers.

Hence, 30 is a pronic number.

Instance-3

Input number is 81

Let’s check it by using the logic of pronic number −

9 * 9 = 81, where 9 and 9 are not two consecutive numbers.

Hence, 81 is not a pronic number.

Some other examples of pronic numbers include 0, 2, 42, 56, 90, 110, 380, 420, 462 etc.

Note −

According to Wikipedia

The only prime pronic number is 2.

All pronic numbers are even.

Syntax

To get the square root of a specified number we can use the inbuilt sqrt() method which

is present in Math class of the chúng tôi package.

Following is the Syntax to get the square root of the number.

(We have typecasted to long)

long squareRoot = (long)Math.sqrt(inputNumber);

Algorithm

We can follow 2 algorithms here.

Algorithm 1

Step 1 − Get an integer number either by initialization or by user input.

Step 2 − Find the square root of the input number and round it to a lower integer. Suppose it is n.

Step 3 − Find n+1.

Step 4 − Then find n(n+1)

Step 5 − If n(n+1) is equal to the original input number then it is a pronic number else it is not a pronic number.

Algorithm 2

Step 1 − Get an integer number either by initialization or by user input.

Step 2 − Take a for loop and iterate it from o to square root of the original number.

Step 3 − And inside for loop keep on checking n*(n+1)

Step 4 − If n(n+1) is equal to the original input number then it is a pronic number else it is not a pronic number.

Multiple Approaches

We have provided the solution in 2 different approaches.

By Using Static Input Value and without Loop (Algorithm-1)

By Using User Defined Method and with Loop (Algorithm-2)

Let’s see the program along with its output one by one.

Approach-1: By Using Static Input Value and without Loop

In this approach find square root say n then find n(n+1) and check if it’s the same with the original number or not.

Here we have used Algorithm-1

Example

public

static

void

main

(

String

[

]

args

)

{

long

inputNumber

=

12

;

System

.

out

.

println

(

“Given number: “

)

;

long

n

=

(

long

)

Math

.

sqrt

(

inputNumber

)

;

if

(

inputNumber

==

n

*

(

n

+

1

)

)

{

System

.

out

.

println

(

inputNumber

+

” is a pronic number”

)

;

}

else

{

System

.

out

.

println

(

inputNumber

+

” is not a pronic number”

)

;

}

}

}

Output Given number: 12 is a pronic number Approach-2: By Using User Defined and with Loop

In this approach the user will be asked to take the input of an integer value and then we will call a user defined method by passing this input number as parameter.

Inside the method we will check whether the number is a pronic number or not by using the algorithm.

Here we have used Algorithm-2

Example

public

class

Main

{

public

static

void

main

(

String

[

]

args

)

{

int

inputNumber

=

110

;

System

.

out

.

println

(

“Given number: “

+

inputNumber

)

;

boolean

result

=

checkPronic

(

inputNumber

)

;

if

(

result

)

System

.

out

.

println

(

inputNumber

+

” is a pronic number”

)

;

else

System

.

out

.

println

(

inputNumber

+

” is not a pronic number”

)

;

}

public

static

boolean

checkPronic

(

int

inputNumber

)

{

long

n

=

(

long

)

Math

.

sqrt

(

inputNumber

)

;

for

(

int

i

=

0

;

i

<=

n

;

i

++

)

{

if

(

inputNumber

==

i

*

(

i

+

1

)

)

return

true

;

}

return

false

;

}

}

Output Given number: 110 110 is a pronic number

In this article, we explored how to check a number whether it is a pronic number or not in Java by using different approaches.

## How To Make A Histogram In Excel

A histogram is a type of chart you can generate from data in Excel. It makes it easy to summarize the frequency of particular values in your dataset. Excel makes it simple to create a histogram, assuming that a histogram is actually what you need!

What Is a Histogram?

A histogram is a type of chart that uses vertical bars to summarize ranges of data. While it may look like a bar chart, there are significant differences. Bar charts show the differences among variables, whereas histograms are generally used to show the differences among variables in terms of another variable.

To illustrate, a histogram may be used to show us how common ranges of IQ scores are. Each bar represents a “bin” or range of scores. So something like 0-10,11-20, etc.

The vertical Y-axis shows us how many measurements of that variable fall within each bin range. So if you have 100 people write an IQ test, every person whose score falls within a particular bin is counted towards the frequency score of that bin.

With a bar chart, you might want to compare something like average IQ scores between countries. In this case, each bar might represent a country and the vertical Y-axis would represent the average IQ of that country.

When Should You Use a Histogram?

HIstograms are a visualization of frequency distribution. It can help you see, at a glance, what sort of distribution your data has. For example, the “Normal Distribution” has the distinctive bell-curve look. A bimodal distribution will have two bumps. You can also see if score frequencies are skewed one way or another.

Of course, if you really want to determine whether your frequency distribution is normal or not, you’d run a normality test in Excel on your data. Those tests still use histograms as a basis though and creating and observing a histogram is a crucial first step in showing you roughly what sort of distribution you may be dealing with.

What You Need To Make a Histogram

In order to make a histogram, you need a few things:

A set of measurements for a single variable.

Defined “bins” of value ranges.

The first requirement is fairly straightforward. For example, if you have the weights of a group of people, you’d have each measured weight recorded in your dataset. Be careful not to mix the data from groups you don’t want to measure together into one histogram. For example, if you only wanted to look at the weight distribution of a certain age group or gender, you should only include data for that group.

If you wanted to compare the frequency distributions between two groups on a single variable, you’d need multiple histograms. One for each population group.

The next requirement is the trickiest. You need to decide on the “bins” that your frequency counts will be sorted into. The problem is that these may be arbitrary. If you’re going to look at the frequency of scores between 0 and 100, you could have 100 bins, one for each possible score. However, that means 100 bars in your histogram.

That’s a finely-grained distribution, but it’s probably not all that useful. In the case of test scores, you’re in luck since there are already “bins” in the form of grade symbols. So you could arrange your bins to coincide with those. However, for other types of data you have to invent the bin ranges.

Spend some time considering how you’d like to divide scores into bins and whether the histogram will paint the picture you’re looking for if you decide on a particular “bin width”.

You can also choose to leave it to an automatic function in Excel, where it will try to decide on a bin width that’s best suited to your data. In Excel, you can also specify the number of bins, which includes optional so-called overflow- and underflow- bins. These capture all scores over and under a specified value.

Creating a Histogram in Excel: Step-by-Step Create the Histogram

Assuming you’ve entered all the values for your dataset, select all the values that should be included in the histogram.

Next, switch to the Insert tab.

Now, under the chart section, select on the picture that looks like a histogram/bar chart.

From the popup menu, select histogram.

Customize the Horizontal Axis

Now your histogram is in the sheet, but it probably doesn’t look the way you want it to. So next, we’re going to customize the horizontal axis:

The format axis pane will now be open. There are a number of important options here that you can use to tune your histogram so that it looks exactly like you need it to.

Under Axis Options, you can customize the bins we discussed earlier. The two most important settings here are bin width and the number of bins. These options are mutually exclusive. If you specify a bin width in numbers, the number of bins will change automatically and vice versa. You can choose to activate overflow and underflow bins here as well.

From Hysteriagram to Histogram

Hopefully you can now make a histogram easily, but if you need to review basic Excel concepts, try reading Microsoft Excel Basics Tutorial – Learning How to Use Excel

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