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Password Store is a simple UNIX program that uses the GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) and Git to secure and manage passwords for your Linux system. It is simple, lightweight and fast. However, this simplicity means that accessing Password Store’s database to fetch your passwords can be a bit of a pain. However, if you are using Emacs, there is a way to seamlessly automate this process for you.

To help with that, password-store is also an Emacs package that serves as a front end to the Password Store program. Similar to its back end, password-store is simple and light. More importantly, you can easily extend its features by using a number of plugins done by its community.

How Does Password Store Work?

Password Store is an extremely simple password manager that creates and modifies passwords in pure plain text. It only maintains a text file for every account and password that you provide to it.

While this might seem insecure and archaic, Password Store makes it work by encrypting all of the files that it maintains. This allows you to have the flexibility of plain text while also having the security and encryption of GPG.

Since the program only deals with simple files, it is possible for you to categorize and sort those files under different folders.

Password store also allows you to append additional information for your password files. This is because it only requires you to reserve the first line of the file for your password. For example, this is a password file for one of my forum accounts:

thisismysupersecretpassword ===============

INFORMATION

============== Username: MySuperCoolName Security Question

1

: Yogi Security Question

2

:

1992

Toyota Corolla Security Question

3

: Smith OTP Key: aabbccddff11223344 ========================================

Password Store does not read any information after the first line. As such, I am able to easily add any additional information about my forum account. With that, the program not only allows you to create a custom password directory but also custom formats for your passwords.

Installing Password Store

Due to its simplicity, Password Store is easy to install. Further, it is also available to almost all Linux distributions. For example, you can install it in Debian and Ubuntu using apt:

sudo

apt

install

pass gnupg

In Fedora, you can use dnf:

sudo

dnf

install

pass gnupg2

For Arch Linux, you can use pacman:

sudo

pacman

-S

pass gnupg Creating Your Password Store

With that done, creating a password store requires you to do two things:

First, you need to have a GPG key. This will be the key that will be associated to your Password Store. You can either create a new one specific for this store or use an old one that you already have.

Secondly, you need to initialize the Password Store itself. This could either be a simple password store maintained through GPG or a version controlled one under GPG and Git. Either way, creating these two versions will only require you to run a single command.

Creating a GPG Key for Your Store

Password Store relies on GPG for all of its encryption. As such, it is necessary for you to create your own GPG key to ensure that password store is both secure and only encrypted to you.

Creating a GPG key is incredibly simple. To do that, you can run the following command:

gpg

--full-generate-key

    This will run a key creation wizard where you can choose a number of options for your GPG key.

    From here, the wizard will ask you for the kind of encryption algorithm that you want to use for your key. For the most part, the default RSA algorithm will be enough. To select it you can just press Enter.

    Setting Your GPG Key Length and Expiry

    From there, the wizard will now ask you for the length of the key that you want to make. In this, the general rule of thumb is that a longer key will be harder to crack than a shorter key. For the purpose of this article I picked 4096 for my key length.

      Once done, the wizard will ask whether you want your key to expire or not. In general, it is considered good practice to use a key that will expire after a certain date. Doing that will allow you to automatically revoke a key that either have been compromised or you have forgotten the password to.

      In my case, I prefer setting short expiration times for my keys so that I do not forget them. As such, I set this option to “6m”.

        Next, you’ll have to enter both a name and an email. This will only be in used as a display information whenever you encrypt or decrypt data.

          Lastly, you have to provide a password for accessing this key. In that, your password has to be both strong and memorable. This is because you will use this password every time you access your Password Store. That includes copying existing passwords and adding new ones.

          Starting Your Store

          With that done, the next thing that you have to do is to start your Password Store. You can do this in two ways:

          You can start a simple Password Store with the default GPG encryption. This is useful if you only want a simple way of storing and accessing your passwords.

          Run the following command in the terminal:

          cd

          /

          home

          /

          $USER

          /

          &&

          pass init

          "your-gpg-email"

          This will create a password store in your home directory under the name “.password-store”.

          You can also start a git-controlled Password Store. This will allow you to finely control your store’s history. As such, you will be able to easily jump back on the changes that you have made. This is highly useful if you constantly change the passwords for your accounts.

          If you want to run a git-controlled store, you have to run the following command:

          pass

          git init

          Doing so will start the git repository for your store. From here, you can access all of git’s commands for your store by prepending “pass” to git. You can view all of the git remotes for your store by running the following command:

          pass

          git remote

          get-url

          --all

          Integrating Emacs with Password Store

          If you are an Emacs user, you can integrate Password Store to your Emacs client. Start by downloading the “password-store” package from the MELPA repository.

          By default, this repository does not come with the standard Emacs installation. As such, you need to explicitly add it first to your Emacs’ configuration.

          To do that, you can write the following command to your “init.el” file:

          (

          add-to-list 'package-archives

          (

          package-initialize

          )

            Once done, reload your Emacs client to apply the changes.

            Press Alt + X and type package-install. This will load a command buffer where Emacs will ask you for the name of the package that you want to install. Type password-store.

              Emacs will then fetch, compile and install the source code for the password-store package. At the end of it, its commands should be accessible by pressing Alt + X and typing password-store-version.

              Adding a New Password to Your Store

              With that done, accessing your store is relatively straightforward. For example, you can add a new password by pressing Alt + X and typing password-store-insert.

              This will bring up a prompt where the package will ask you for the name of the password that you want to insert.

                Now input the password itself. Similar to other password prompts, the input in here will be masked.

                Editing Your Store Entry

                One of the key strengths of Password Store is that you can customize your password files. This, in turn, allows you to provide an arbitrary format that can contain just about anything.

                  From here, the package will prompt you to enter your GPG key password. After that, Emacs will then display the contents of the password file in a separate buffer that you can edit.

                    Once done, you can save your password file by pressing Ctrl + X, Ctrl + S. From there, you can finalize the edit by pressing Ctrl + X, K. This will close the password buffer and tell Password Store to commit the changes to its file tree.

                    Removing a Password in Your Store

                    Similarly, deleting a password in your store is also a simple process. You can remove a password by pressing Alt + X and typing password-store-remove. Doing this will bring up a prompt asking you for the password that you want to remove.

                    In my case, I wanted to remove an old password for a site that I do not visit anymore. So I typed “my-old-password” and pressed Enter.

                    Copying a Password from a Store

                    Lastly, the package also allows you to copy your passwords directly from Emacs. This is highly useful if you want to quickly access your store whenever you are logging in to a service or an account.

                    To do this, you can press Alt + X and type password-store-copy.

                    This will load a prompt that will ask you for the password that you want to copy to your clipboard.

                    That’s it! You now have a basic idea of how to use Emacs as your password manager. Further, you also now know how to use a simple, file-driven password manager with Password Store.

                    Frequently Asked Questions 1. Is it possible for Password Store to create passwords similar to KeepassXC?

                    Yes! The package can generate passwords for new accounts out of the box. You can access this function by pressing Alt + X and typing password-store-generate.

                    This will tell the package to prompt for a new account. From there, it will then generate a sufficiently random password for that account. You can, then, copy that password by using the password-store-copy function as described above.

                    2. Is it possible to integrate one-time password (OTP) support for my store?

                    Yes! Password store has an excellent plugin that can manage OTP from within the command line. To use it, however, you will need to install an additional package to generate OTPs.

                    For example, in Debian and Ubuntu you can run the following command to install it:

                    sudo

                    apt

                    install

                    pass-extension-otp

                    In Fedora, you can use dnf:

                    sudo

                    dnf

                    install

                    pass-otp

                    In Arch Linux, you can use pacman:

                    sudo

                    pacman

                    -S

                    pass-otp

                    Once done, you can then run this command to insert an OTP link to a store account:

                    pass otp insert

                    "account-name"

                    From there, all you need to do is to run pass otp "account-name" to generate an OTP code for that account.

                    3. Is it possible for me to display the passwords as a tree in Emacs?

                    Sadly no. However, you can display all of your passwords through tab-completion if you are using a minibuffer completion package.

                    The most common packages that provide this functionality are helm and mct. Both of them are available in the GNU ELPA repository and, as such, can easily be installed through the package-install function.

                    Image credit: Unsplash

                    Ramces Red

                    Ramces is a technology writer that lived with computers all his life. A prolific reader and a student of Anthropology, he is an eccentric character that writes articles about Linux and anything *nix.

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                    You're reading How To Use Password Store To Manage Your Passwords In Linux

                    How To Save And Manage Passwords On Opera Browser?

                    How to Save and Manage Passwords on Opera Browser? An Overview of Saving and Managing Passwords on Opera How To Save And Manage Passwords On Opera Before We Delve Into How To Save And Manage Passwords On Opera

                    We’d urge you to sync your data on all devices where you have installed Opera which also includes your passwords. This will help you save and manage passwords on Opera across a variety of devices and platforms especially when you are on the go.

                    Read Full Review of Tweakpass

                    How To Save Password on Opera Browser on PC:

                    Open Opera Browser

                    Note: Instead of following steps 1,2 and 3, you can directly press the Alt + P combination and open Settings

                    Once you do this, every time you will sign in to any account online, Opera will ask whether or not to remember the password. Here are a few things to take note of –

                    In that time duration, you have to decide whether you want the password manager to save the password or you want the password manager to never save the password for that particular website

                    On An Android Device

                    1.    Open the Opera browser app

                    3.    Tap on the cog-icon for Settings

                    4.    Tap on Passwords

                    5.    Tap on Saved passwords

                    6.    Tap on Ask every time

                    How To Manage Password on Opera Browser:

                    Open the Opera browser

                    Copy password

                    Edit password

                    On An Android Device

                    1.    Open the Opera browser app

                    3.    Tap on Passwords

                    4.    Again tap on the website name

                    5.    Here you can –

                    Tap on the bin icon next to the Info and remove the password

                    View your password by tapping on the eye icon

                    Copy details to the clipboard

                    Also Read: How To Manage Android Passwords With Ease

                    Can I Sign-In To An Online Account Automatically?

                    Yes, you can. Under the Autofill section, you can again go to Passwords and toggle on the Auto Sign-in switch button after which you will be able to automatically sign in to accounts for which you have saved login details.

                    Use A Password Manager To Save And Manage Password on Opera Browser

                    How about we give you a fast, smart and an efficient way to save and manage passwords on Opera? You’d instantly say “I want it right now”, isn’t it?

                    If you have a spec of doubt that you can have a better shot at storing and managing passwords while you use Opera, you can opt for a password manager.

                    TweakPass is one of the best password managers which at the outset is simple to set up across devices. And, the best part is that it is available as an extension for Opera.

                    How To Use It?

                    Open Opera browser and head to Download TweakPass Password manager

                    Sign-up if you haven’t yet

                    Sign-in with your credentials

                    Wrapping Up:

                    Related Topics

                    Quick Reaction:

                    About the author

                    Sarang Bhargava

                    How To Set Up And Use Icloud Passwords On Windows 11/10

                    If you want to set up and use iCloud Passwords on Windows 11 and Windows 10 PC, here is how you can do that. It is a free password manager by Apple that you can use as a browser extension and desktop app on your computer. This guide helps you set things up correctly to avoid issues while accessing your passwords when needed.

                    If you have an iPhone and Windows computer, you might get some problems when sharing data, such as passwords. Although there are some cross-platform password manager apps, having a native one is plus point. In this case, you can set up iCloud Passwords on your computer to save and manage all the passwords from one place.

                    iCloud Passwords features

                    It comes with some essential features that help you manage your complex passwords with ease. Although it doesn’t offer as many features as other third-party password managers do, it does the job pretty well. Talking about the options and features, here is a comprehensive list:

                    No limit on the number of saved passwords.

                    Delete and edit any password whenever needed.

                    Copy username or password.

                    Search for a website or username.

                    Browser extensions are compatible with Chrome and Edge.

                    There are some other options you can find while using it regularly.

                    How to set up and use iCloud Passwords on Windows 11/10

                    To set up and use iCloud Passwords on Windows 11/10, follow these steps:

                    Open Microsoft Store on your computer.

                    Search for iCloud and install it.

                    Open iCloud on your PC and sign in to your account.

                    Search for iCloud Passwords and open it.

                    Enter your computer PIN.

                    Start using the iCloud Passwords.

                    To learn more about these steps, continue reading.

                    First, you need to install the iCloud app on your computer. As iCloud Passwords is iCloud-dependent, you must have the app installed. For that, you can open the Microsoft Store and search for iCloud. Once you get it on your screen, install the app and open it.

                    It enables iCloud Passwords on your PC. Otherwise, you will keep getting an error while opening iCloud Passwords.

                    Once done, you can find a window like this:

                    Next, it redirects you to the respective repository, from where you can install the extension on your browser.

                    Advantages:

                    It is from Apple – you can trust it with your passwords.

                    The app is available on multiple platforms – no money needs to be spent on a paid password manager to use it on multiple devices.

                    The user interface is smooth, and it doesn’t have any unnecessary animations.

                    Options are pretty clear – they do what they are supposed to do.

                    You need to enter your Windows PIN to access your passwords – it prevents others from accessing your credentials.

                    Enable or disable the iCloud Passwords quickly from the iCloud app in case of emergency.

                    It is not a standalone app that you can use on your Windows computer. You must have the iCloud app installed.

                    Lack of features. For example, many password managers (even free ones) allow users to write a note while saving a password. However, iCloud Passwords has no such option.

                    No password generator. Most of the third-party password manager apps let you create a complex or strong password within moments. However, it doesn’t have such an option.

                    No add-on for Mozilla Firefox. The browser extension is compatible with Google Chrome and Microsoft Edge.

                    Can I use iCloud Passwords on Chrome?

                    Yes, you can use iCloud Passwords on Chrome and Edge browser on Windows 11/10 PC. You must have the iCloud app installed, and iCloud Passwords enabled on your computer to access the browser extension. For your information, you can save new passwords from any website and provide the saved credentials without any problem.

                    How do I access my iCloud Keychain passwords on Windows?

                    To access your iCloud Keychain passwords on Windows 11/10, you need to have the iCloud and iCloud Passwords apps enabled. Then, you can log in to your Apple account and find all the previously saved passwords. It is possible to use them and save new passwords using the app mentioned above.

                    How To Reset Your Computer Password If You Lock Yourself Out

                    Being the administrator of a computer or computer network is important. You’re the person whom everyone goes to when they lock themselves out of their computer or need a new piece of software added to their accounts. 

                    But what can you do if you get locked out yourself? Although a little embarrassing, it can happen to anyone. Everyone has misplaced their keys at some point or another making getting back into your car or home, a real pain.

                    Table of Contents

                    What you’d normally do is call a professional to handle this sort of thing. They can get you back into whatever you’ve locked yourself out of, as long as you’re willing to pay for the service.

                    When it comes to getting yourself locked out of your admin account, the same resolution is possible. However, there is also a way to do away with the need for involving someone else – and the cost – and simply do it yourself instead by resetting your password.

                    How To Reset Your Computer Password 

                    The key to “hacking” your way back into your admin account is doing it in a way that causes little to no harm to your files and data stored on the computer. The process should also be as painless as possible and not cause too much of a headache.

                    Remember that this is for administrator account restoration for forgetting your password, or being locked out from an incorrect password input. These are not techniques to be used if your computer is facing a virus or has been hacked by an outside entity. 

                    Windows (10, 8.1, 7, Vista, & XP)

                    In the past, we’ve touched on a similar subject specifically for Windows 7 and 8.1. With this new method, we’ll be looking at free utilities like Trinity Rescue Kit (TRK) or MediaCat USB. 

                    We’ll be focused on TRK for this tutorial as it is one of the best utilities out there to reset your admin password. Though if you happen to be dealing with Linux instead of Windows, MediaCat USB can help with that.

                    TRK can help you recover more than just the administrator password for your computer. It also provides help in the recovery of files, evacuating a faulty or dying disk, and can scan for rootkit malware, as well as any other disaster recovery tasks you might need.

                    You’ll need to load TRK to either a CD/DVD or USB drive as it will need to run prior to Windows loading. Navigate to the official site and download the program.

                    Once downloaded, either burn it to CD/DVD or move it over to the USB drive. If you currently have a blank CD in your CD burner, TRK will detect this and ask if you’d like to proceed with burning the program to a CD.

                    Prior to loading TRK, ensure that you head into your computer’s BIOS (or UEFI) and have it set to boot from USB/CD/DVD. Not doing so will cause the computer to boot as normal and bypass the TRK utility.

                    Getting into your BIOS will usually require holding down a key like F12 while your computer is restarting. You’ll need to refer to the manual that came with the motherboard or computer to determine how yours is set up.

                    The chances are rather good that if you have Windows 10, you’re using UEFI. Some Windows 8 machines are also UEFI, and you’ll need to determine if your computer does before proceeding. 

                    To get into UEFI, hold down the correct hotkey during restart, similar to BIOS. There are other methods, but they will require that you are logged into Windows. Seeing as the whole purpose of this article is you not having access to Windows, those other methods won’t help at this time.

                    Once you’ve booted up the program, you’ll be presented with the TRK 3.4 splash screen. Select Run Trinity Rescue Kit 3.4 (default mode, with text menu) and press Enter.

                    From the simple menu, arrow down to Windows password resetting and press Enter.

                    Arrow down again until you highlight Reset password on built-in Administrator, and press Enter again.

                    Locate the section Windows NT/2K/XP. Underneath, make a note of the number found next to the Windows folder. Enter that number into the prompt and press Enter.

                    Enter 1 under the User Edit Menu, and press Enter. This will remove the password set for Administrator. You can press any key to continue.

                    Again, use the arrow keys to highlight Main Menu, and press Enter.

                    For the final time, use the arrow keys to highlight Poweroff computer, and press Enter. You can now eject your CD/DVD or USB so that the boot can return to normal.

                    Allow Windows to boot up, then log into the Administrator account while leaving the Password portion blank.

                    For Mac OS X 10.4 – 10.6 (Tiger, Leopard, and Snow Leopard)

                    The methods to reset your password for older versions of Mac OS X are a bit simpler than that of the Windows operating system – as long as you still have the OS X DVD that came with the computer or OS X upgrade.

                    For Mac OS X 10.7+ (Lion and Above)

                    Newer Mac OS X, or MacOS, is even easier than past versions. No more need for a disk as everything is right there in the operating system to reset your password.

                    Restart the computer and hold down the ⌘ + R keys once the restart begins. You’ll have to continue holding down the keys until the Apple logo appears on-screen.

                    After the startup sequence is completed, you should have the Recovery HD utility window on-screen.

                    Open a terminal window while in the utility, and type resetpassword, then press Enter.

                    Is Icloud Keychain Safe To Use As Primary Password Manager?

                    Apple wants to help me remember my passwords. That’s good because I’ve got a lot—over 200 right now. That’s too many to remember, and I shouldn’t keep a list in my desk drawer or just use the same one for every website. Everyone needs a password manager, and Apple installs iCloud Keychain on every computer and mobile device they sell.

                    I’ve been using it to manage my passwords for the last few years. Before that, I used LastPass and loved it. I wanted to discover for myself whether Apple’s solution was up to the task, and I’m surprised at how well it has met my needs. It remembers all of my passwords, makes them available on all of my devices, and fills them in automatically.

                    That’s not to say that it’s perfect. It’s safe and secure, but limited in some areas. All of my devices have the Apple logo on them, but if you have a Windows computer or Android device in your life, it won’t work there, and for a password manager to be effective, it needs to work on every device you use. I also had to make a decision to switch to Safari as my primary (well, only) web browser. That’s a pretty significant restriction, and not something everyone will be willing to do.

                    Besides being locked into the Apple ecosystem, the service lacks features that have become expected in a password manager. I’d become accustomed to using them with LastPass, and there have been times I really missed them. I’ll outline them later in the article.

                    What is iCloud Keychain?

                    iCloud Keychain is Apple’s password manager. It’s conveniently built into every Mac, iPhone, and iPad. It’s easy to use, and makes it simple to create safe, complex passwords. It fills them in automatically while using Safari, and stores other types of sensitive personal information for you. These are synced to other Apple devices you’ve enabled Keychain on.

                    According to Apple, iCloud Keychain stores:

                    internet accounts,

                    passwords,

                    usernames,

                    wifi passwords,

                    credit card numbers,

                    credit card expiration dates,

                    but not the credit card security code,

                    and more.

                    Is iCloud Keychain Safe?

                    Is it a good idea to store your passwords in the cloud? What if your account was hacked? Wouldn’t they gain access to all of your passwords?

                    That’s a question asked of all password managers, and like them, Apple uses end-to-end 256-bit AES encryption to protect your data. They don’t know the passcode you use, so you can’t access your data, and that means if someone was able to hack into iCloud, they couldn’t access your data either.

                    iCloud protects your information with end-to-end encryption, which provides the highest level of data security. Your data is protected with a key that’s made from information unique to your device, and combined with your device passcode, which only you know. No one else can access or read this data, either in transit or storage. (Apple Support)

                    While that keeps your data secure, it also means that Apple can’t help you if you forget your passcode. So choose one that’s memorable. That’s common for most password managers, and only McAfee True Key and Abine Blur are able to recover your master password for you if you forget it.

                    You can further protect your account with two-factor authentication (2FA). This means that even if someone was to discover your password, they still wouldn’t be able to access your account. Turn it on using the Security tab in iCloud system preferences.

                    On this page, you can set up security questions and a rescue email address, as well as turn on 2FA. Once it’s enabled, you’ll receive a message on your other Apple devices asking for permission before iCloud Keychain can be enabled on another device. No one can access it without your permission, even if they have your password.

                    Two-factor authentication on other password managers is a little more flexible, especially in McAfee True Key. With Apple, you’re limited to using other Apple devices as your second factor, while other apps offer additional options and flexibility.

                    What Can iCloud Keychain Do?

                    There’s no easy way to export your passwords if you decide to use something else—though if you’re technical, there are some third-party scripts. Import is also missing, so you’ll need to save your passwords one by one. Let’s just say that iCloud Keychain’s primary problem is vendor lock-in.

                    iCloud Keychain will automatically log in to websites, but only if you use Safari—other browsers are not supported at all. That means if you use Chrome or Firefox some of the time, your passwords won’t be available. That’s very limiting, and if you do use other browsers, you’ll be better off using a different password manager.

                    iCloud Keychain will generate strong, unique passwords. This encourages secure password practices, and you won’t need to remember those complex passwords because Keychain will do that for you. Unlike other password managers, you’re not able to specify the length and other criteria of the password.

                    iCloud Keychain will automatically fill in web forms, though I believe it’s using your information stored in the Contacts app rather than in Keychain itself. This is useful but not as flexible or secure as other password managers that allow you to store all the information you need to fill in web forms for several identities in the app itself.

                    iCloud Keychain will automatically fill in credit card details. If you have more than one card, you’ll be able to select the one you want to use. For your safety, the security code is not stored in Keychain, so if the website requires it you’ll have to check the card yourself.

                    iCloud Keychain will store secure notes. This could be a safe place to keep your alarm code, safe combination and driver’s license details. You’ll find “Secure Notes” when you open Keychain Access, which you’ll find under Utilities in your Applications folder. I haven’t used this feature personally because I find it too limited, and awkward to access. Other apps also let you securely store files and other types of structured information.

                    iCloud Keychain will warn you of reused passwords. When I navigate to Safari/Preferences/Passwords, I can see I have a number of passwords that are used on more than one site.

                    Unfortunately, you have to navigate to that settings page to see the warnings, so it’s not a particularly effective notification. Other apps will also warn you if the password is weak or hasn’t been changed for some time.

                    What Can’t iCloud Keychain Do?

                    iCloud Keychain can’t work with other operating systems and browsers. If you can’t live within those limits, choose another app. All of the alternatives work with Mac, Windows, iOS, and Android, and a wide range of web browsers.

                    iCloud Keychain won’t let you share your passwords with others. Other apps do—as long as they also use that app. If you change the password their app will be automatically updated, and you’ll be able to revoke their access at any time. This is great for a family, team, or business.

                    iCloud Keychain won’t warn you of compromised passwords. Many of the alternatives do. If a website you use is hacked and your password compromised, you should know about it so you can change your password as soon as possible.

                    iCloud Keychain won’t automatically change your passwords for you. The worst thing about having to change a password is the effort involved. You have to navigate to the site and log in, look for where the “change password” button is, and create a new one.

                    LastPass and Dashlane offer to do all of that work for you automatically. This only works with co-operating websites, but there are hundreds of them, with new ones being added regularly.

                    Best Alternatives to iCloud Keychain

                    1. LastPass

                    LastPass is the only password manager to offer a usable free plan. It syncs all of your passwords to all of your devices and offers all the other features most users need: sharing, secure notes, and password auditing.

                    The paid plan provides more sharing options, enhanced security, application login, 1 GB of encrypted storage, and priority tech support. It’s not as cheap as it used to be, but it’s still competitive. Read our full LastPass review.

                    Personal $36.00/year, Family $48.00/year, Team $48.00/user/year, Business $72.00/user/year.

                    LastPass works on:

                    Desktop: Windows, Mac, Linux, Chrome OS,

                    Mobile: iOS, Android, Windows Phone, watchOS,

                    Browsers: Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, Edge, Maxthon, Opera.

                    2. Dashlane

                    Dashlane arguably offers more features than any other password manager—and even throws in a basic VPN—and these can be accessed just as easily from the web interface as the native applications.

                    In recent updates, it has outpaced LastPass and 1Password in terms of features, but also in price. Read our full Dashlane review.

                    Personal $39.96, Business $48/user/year.

                    Dashlane works on:

                    Desktop: Windows, Mac, Linux, ChromeOS,

                    Mobile: iOS, Android, watchOS,

                    Browsers: Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, Edge.

                    3. 1Password

                    1Password is a leading password manager with a loyal following. It includes most of the features offered by LastPass and Dashlane, and one that’s unique: Travel Mode will let you remove sensitive information from the app when you’re entering a new country, and add it back after you arrive. Read our full 1Password review.

                    Personal $35.88/year, Family $59.88/year, Team $47.88/user/year, Business $95.88/user/year.

                    1Password works on:

                    Desktop: Windows, Mac, Linux, Chrome OS,

                    Mobile: iOS, Android,

                    Browsers: Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, Edge.

                    4. McAfee True Key

                    But it’s inexpensive and offers a simple web and mobile interface and does the basics well. And unlike most other password managers, it’s not the end of the world if you forget your master password. Read our full True Key review.

                    Personal 19.99/year.

                    True Key works on:

                    Desktop: Windows, Mac,

                    Mobile: iOS, Android,

                    Browsers: Chrome, Firefox, Edge.

                    5. Sticky Password

                    By comparison, Sticky Password is only a little more expensive than True Key and offers additional features. It’s not perfect: it looks a little dated, and the web interface does very little.

                    Its most unique feature is security-related: you can optionally sync your passwords over a local network, and avoid uploading them all to the cloud. Read our full Sticky Password review.

                    Personal 29.99/year or $199.99 lifetime, Team 29.99/user/year.

                    Sticky Password works on:

                    Desktop: Windows, Mac,

                    Mobile: Android, iOS, BlackBerry OS10, Amazon Kindle Fire, Nokia X,

                    Browsers: Chrome, Firefox, Safari (on Mac), Internet Explorer, Opera (32-bit).

                    6. Keeper Password Manager

                    Keeper Password Manager is a basic password manager with excellent security that allows you to add on the features you need, including secure chat, secure file storage, and BreachWatch. On its own, it is quite affordable, but those extra options add up quickly.

                    The full bundle includes a password manager, secure file storage, dark web protection, and secure chat. Read our full Keeper review.

                    Basic features: Personal $29.99/year, Family $59.99/year, Business $30.00/year, Enterprise 45.00/user/year. Full bundle: Personal 59.97/year, Family 119.98/year.

                    Keeper works on:

                    Desktop: Windows, Mac, Linux, Chrome OS,

                    Mobile: iOS, Android, Windows Phone, Kindle, Blackberry,

                    Browsers: Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, Edge.

                    7. RoboForm

                    Long-term users seem quite happy with the service, but new users may be better served by another app. Read our full RoboForm review.

                    Personal 23.88/year, Family 47.76/year, Business 40.20/user/year.

                    RoboForm works on:

                    Desktop: Windows, Mac, Linux, Chrome OS,

                    Mobile: iOS, Android,

                    Browsers: Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, Edge, Opera.

                    8. Abine Blur

                    Abine Blur is a privacy service with an integrated password manager. It provides ad-tracker blocking and masking of your personal information (email addresses, phone numbers, and credit cards), as well as quite basic password features.

                    Due to the nature of its privacy features, it offers the best value to those living in the United States. Read our full Abine Blur review.

                    Personal 39.00/year.

                    Blur works on:

                    Desktop: Windows, Mac,

                    Mobile: iOS, Android,

                    Browsers: Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, Safari.

                    Which Password Manager Should I Use?

                    iCloud Keychain is Apple’s password manager. It’s secure, comes included with every Mac, iPhone, and iPad, and includes basic password management features.

                    But it has two problems: it only works on Apple’s browser on Apple devices, and it lacks the additional offered by other password managers. Most users would be better served by a different password manager. Which one should you choose?

                    LastPass’ free plan has a lot going for it. You can use it on most operating systems and web browsers, and it includes features you normally need to pay for, including password sharing and security audits. But Dashlane has the edge, and if you’re willing to pay around $40/year offers the best password management experience available.

                    Read our full roundup of the best Mac password managers to learn why we recommend these apps, and for the details of what the others can do for you.

                    How To Factory Reset Laptop Without Password (In 3 Ways)

                    If you want to access your old laptop but you’ve forgotten its password, the ideal method is to factory reset it. Basically, this erases all your data, including the sign-in option, and restores the operating system to default.

                    Generally, logging in to your laptop should be easy if you have set up a Microsoft Account. This is because you could easily reset your password even if forgotten. But you can possibly not do it if you got it from your friend or bought a pre-owned laptop. In such a case, the only option left is to restore it to factory settings.

                    So, if you’re also stuck on the sign-in screen and want to access the laptop, you’re at the right place. Here, we have explained what a factory reset does and some easy techniques to do without a password.

                    Factory reset is an option within Windows OS that sends the PC to its default system state. Usually, we perform the factory reset on Windows to solve any hard drive and OS-related issues.

                    Since this option deletes every software that’s creating issues on your system, we recommend factory resetting your laptop if you’re trying to sell it or you recently bought a used one. This way, even the lagging issues get resolved, and you can use the old laptop as if it’s brand new.

                    However, you need to use alternative methods if you do not remember your laptop’s password. In this section, we have explained the proven ways to factory reset your Windows 11 laptop.

                    To enter the Windows Recovery Mode, we recommend checking the user manual as every manufacturer has different dedicated keys to open it. Generally, most PCs can navigate you to the recovery screen by pressing the F11 key when Windows is booting.

                    Moreover, you can use bootable media and select Repair your computer to open the Windows Recovery Mode. Also, you can directly navigate to this screen from the login screen, and here are the involved steps you need to follow:

                    Interestingly, every manufacturer offers a recovery partition that can be accessed using a dedicated function key.

                    Factory reset your laptop

                    Perform backup and restore management

                    Back up user data

                    Create a factory state disk

                    Create a disk copy

                    Once you enter the recovery screen, you’ll be able to perform the following operations:

                    In this section, we have included the steps for some of the most popular laptops. If we have missed out on yours, the process is quite similar to any of them. So, all you have to do is read the user manual or refer to the internet to check the dedicated key for your laptop.

                    On Samsung

                    Samsung doesn’t just manufacture mobile phones but is also equally popular for producing laptops. For demonstration purposes, we have used Samsung Notebook here. Nonetheless, the steps should be similar for every other Samsung laptop too:

                    On Lenovo

                    Lenovo has adopted OneKey Recovery to factory reset your laptop without needing a password. However, this option is available only on the Ideapad series.

                    For demonstration purposes, we’ve used the Lenovo G40 model. Nonetheless, the steps should be similar to other models as well:

                    On Dell

                    Dell users can factory reset their laptops using the SupportAssist OS Recovery feature. However, this option is only available on some models. Go through the below guide to restore your settings to default on a Dell laptop:

                    Generally, both resetting and reinstalling Windows are applicable if you’re trying to delete everything from your PC. So, if you have an original disk or it’s feasible to create a bootable drive, you can easily reinstall your OS. 

                    To reinstall Windows using an installation media, you’ll need another Windows PC and an 8 GB or higher storage USB drive to make it bootable. Also, download Rufus from their official site as the below steps involve using this open-source application:

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