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Indian Government issued Android tablet called folly

Since all the way back in July of 2010 we’ve been talking about this tablet that was supposed to be undeniably affordable at sub-$50 USD and running Android – now it’s basically arrived and, well, it’s a dud. Wouldn’t you know it, the group that’s been hired by the Indian government to create the tablet decided to make the tablet with cheap enough parts to make a profit on it, and boy oh boy is this tablet a piece of junk. But it’s the thought that counts, right?

Note that in the past, this tablet had a different name, but now, according to the Wall Street Journal, it has a brand new name – perhaps to re-invigorate the government on the idea. Where you’ll see the name as Sakshat tablet in the two posts listed above, the name has been changed recently to “Aakash,” or “sky.” If the reviews are in for this device on the usability end, especially when compared to the rest of the tablet computers in the world at large today, this “Sky” tablet doesn’t really stand a chance.

For example, mister Rajat Agrawal, executive editor of gadget reviewers BGR India, noted that for the price, the specs might seem right in-line, but:

“Because of the price there is a lot of excitement. People might use it initially but if it is not user friendly they will give up within a week.” – Agrawal

On the other hand, Kapil Sibal, Indian human resources development minister, whose ministry oversaw the development of the device, said the tablet would be called “India’s gift to the world’s children – and an anti-poverty tool.” Sibal went on to note:

“Today we demonstrate to the world that we will not falter in our resolve to secure our future for our children. Let me not limit the achievements of this great enterprise to only our chúng tôi is for all of you who are disempowered.” – Sibal

The specifications for this device, also provided by the WSJ, are thus:

Technical specifications:

Operating system: Android 2.2 FroYo

Screen: 7″ resistive

Processor: 366 MHz + HD video co-processor

RAM: 256 MB

Flash memory: 2GB + 2GB Micro-SD (expandable up to 32 GB)

USB ports: 2

Network: WiFi (GPRS & 3G options)

So what’s the real deal here – is it really our place to say that the tablet isn’t good enough when you compare it to, oh, I don’t know, the Samsung Galaxy Tab 10.1, another Android device made for global distribution? Or is it important to embrace the idea that computers, in tablet form that is, should be bottom-floor inexpensive and not necessarily the best build on the globe?

Then again once again, what if these tablets are so poorly made that they break upon extended use? What’s the good if these devices aren’t functional after a single school year? Without actually holding one of these magic machines in our hands, we simply cannot know. We’re hoping for the best.

Aakash, or Sky, will be made available to Indian graduate students exclusively for the small $35 or $55 price, while the commercial version, called UbiSlate, will cost much closer to $70, all of this converted to USD, of course.

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Best Android Apps: Essential Apps For Your Phone Or Tablet

Google Play Store, so finding the real gems can be an arduous task. 

To separate the wheat from the chaff, we’ve put together this comprehensive guide, which outlines those essential apps that should be the first you download. 

Best Messaging Apps

Aside from texting and voice calls, there are many excellent ways to keep in touch with friends or even make new ones on your device.

Arguably the most popular of all these is WhatsApp Messenger which has become pretty much ubiquitous in the smartphone age, at least in the West. The reasons for this are numerous, with the service being free, allowing multiple group chats, the ability to share video, images and audio, no international charges, plus free calling to other users over Wi-Fi connections.

It’s easy to use and the chances are you already do. An added bonus is that it works with your PC or Mac via the WhatsApp Web app. See our How to use WhatsApp Web feature for more details.

Another hugely popular chatting app is Skype, which allows free Wi-Fi calling for video and audio, plus instant messaging, and the same features are also standard on Facebook’s Messenger app.

For those who prefer to keep things private there’s Telegram, a service that focuses on delivering a refined texting experience, all while maintaining your privacy.

If you’re a fan of online forums, then Reddit is the app for you as it’s a gateway to the stupefying array of communities on the site. Whether it’s Game of Thrones theories, your favourite sports teams, or the latest scientific research, there is a Reddit forum full of people discussing the latest news and views right now.

Go join them!

Best Social Apps

Obviously, there’s the heavyweights of Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, all of whom are fully featured, free services that will more than likely have all your friends already signed up.

Snapchat is popular with younger users and has a different approach thanks to its posts that disappear after a set time (beginners should check out our guide on How to use Snapchat). While, those wanting to scrapbook the things they love online will find Pinterest just the ticket.

Best TV & Video Apps

Now that most Android phones have large, high-resolution displays, they make ideal devices on which to enjoy the latest blockbuster films, TV shows or your favourite YouTubers.

The apps available break down into two major categories: Subscription-based or free.

If you’re looking for the latter, then you’ll probably find that the best option, YouTube, is more than likely preinstalled on your Android device. Here you’ll be able to enjoy news shows, music videos, a huge selection of Vloggers, tutorials, and pretty much anything short of actual movies and shows, unless you’re wiling to hire or buy them from the Google Play Store.

Another essential app, at least for UK residents, is BBC iPlayer, which grants access to recent shows across all the BBC channels, plus an archive of older content. There are a number of other catch-up apps available, such as ITV Hub and All 4, but iPlayer still remains the real jewel in the crown. 

Note that a TV Licence is required for streaming of live television broadcasts in the UK, as well as catch-up TV on iPlayer. See  Do I need a TV Licence? for more details.

If you’re happy to pay a monthly fee then there are some excellent options. Existing Sky customers in the UK will want Sky Go which lets you watch content from the service on your phone or tablet, so long as you have a WiFi or data connection. Should you wish to access the same movies and shows without a Sky contract, NowTV offers this on a variety of reasonable price tiers.

Amazon Prime members are automatically entitled to its Prime Instant Video service (and the accompanying app), featuring a number of decent movies plus Amazon exclusive TV shows like American Gods, The Grand Tour, and Mr Robot.

Perhaps the most groundbreaking app in this area is Netflix. The service offe

Best Music Apps

Much like with TV & Movies, there is a wide range of excellent music streaming services that offer millions of tracks for a monthly subscription.

Most charge £9.99 / $9.99 to access the songs, plus offline listening capabilities, or £14.99 / $14.99 if you prefer a family plan with six individual accounts. 

The top apps we recommend are Spotify (which has an amazing free tier), Google Play Music, Deezer, Apple Music, and Amazon Prime Music, and you can see a detailed breakdown of their individual merits in our best music streaming services comparison.

There are a few highlights worth noting though, such as the fact that you can access your entire audio collection (up to 50,000 tracks) from your Android device, once you’ve uploaded the content to Google Play Music on your PC.

Amazon Prime members also have access to Prime Music as part of their subscription, which includes over two million songs that can be downloaded to their devices. If you’ve yet to try the service, read our beginner’s guide to Amazon Prime, as it has many other benefits. 

Of course, there’s still good old radio, with many Android phones and tablets coming with FM radio apps that only require plugging in a pair of headphones to act as the aerial. For Wi-Fi or data connections  BBC iPlayer Radio and TuneIn are great options, with an impressive range of stations and shows.

Best Reading Apps

Amazon’s Kindle devices may well be one of the best ways to read eBooks, but thanks to the free Kindle app you can just use your phone or tablet instead. The selection of titles available is the largest we know of, and once again Prime Members have the added bonus of Prime Reading being part of their subscription.

This offers hundreds of books and magazines for free, or you can upgrade to Kindle Unlimited (£7.99 / $9.99) which expands the selection to over a million titles and thousands of audiobooks.

Other apps worth exploring are Kobo Books, Google Play Books, and for those who already have a collection of ePub, doc, mobi or other eBooks formats there’s eBoox Reader.

If you prefer shorter prose, then Readly is the answer. This is a subscription-based magazine service that lets you read as many mags as you want for a one-off monthly fee. Check it out with a free trial.

With Marvel superheroes all the rage in cinemas, you can get up to speed with the various backstories of Thor, Iron Man, Scarlett Witch, or characters from DC and a wide range of independent publishers through the excellent Comics app.

It might not technically be reading, but Audible is a great choice if you want to try out audiobooks. A monthly subscription of £7.99 / $14.95 gives you one credit to buy any audiobook in the copious Audible range, and you keep this even if you end your subscription.

A free trial gives you a credit to spend, which once again remains yours whether you sign up or not. So, if you want to get through that latest bestseller while walking the dog, driving, or relaxing in the bath, then Audible is a fantastic solution.

Finally, Pocket is a superb, free way to read articles you find on the web. Simply share the article to Pocket and you’ll be able to enjoy it offline when you have more time.

Best Photography Apps

Smartphone cameras are better than ever, but there are apps that can make a good thing great. Snapseed is one such option, as it offers impressive editing controls that are easy and quick to apply.

For the more creative types, PicsArt Photo Studio is a wonderful way to make collages or artistic blends of images that can take snaps and turn them into masterpieces. The basic app is free, but to access 3000+ premium stickers, filters, fonts, and other tools you’ll need to move to the PicsArt Gold subscription that costs around £6 / $8 each month.

Make sure you have 

And don’t forget about Instagram and

Best Productivity Apps

Phones and tablets are more like mini PCs these days, making them viable devices for getting some work done. With online productivity services and cloud storage you get the benefit of being able to access all your office documents from wherever you are, and collaborate on them with colleagues.

At Tech Advisor we make regular use of  Gmail,  Google Calendar,  Google Drive,  Google Docs and  Google Sheets for work tasks both in and out the office. But there are plenty of other app choices, not least of which is Microsoft’s Office suite, with its free apps for Word,  Excel,  PowerPoint and  OneNote.

With  OneDrive you also get useful cloud storage, but you might prefer Dropbox, Google Drive, or one of the other options found on our round-up of the  best cloud-storage services.

We’re also big fans of Slack for instant messaging between colleagues. It’s much easier to follow than a long email thread where various people reply to different messages all at once, plus there’s the added fun brought by its GIF support.

One app that’s specific to us as a tech media publisher, but also useful for anyone whose business involves a website, is  Google Analytics. Using the Analytics Android app we can see not only how many people are reading this very article right now, but what drove them to it, on what type of device they’re browsing and other useful stats.

Best Games for Android

There are far too many great games on Android to be able to quickly slim it down to a few for this article. That’s why we’ve put together our massive Best Android games of all time roundup.

So, whether it’s a quick five-minute puzzle game to keep you busy while waiting for the bus or a deeply immersive story-driven epic, you’re sure to find something to satiate your gaming desires.

Best News & Weather Apps

BBC News is a well-built news portal, replete with breaking news notifications.  Another excellent option is the AP News from Associated Press, with its world-wide coverage of stories. For newspaper fans, News and Weather app.

For all your weather needs there’s Met Office,  AccuWeather, Dark Sky, plus the good old BBC Weather app so you can choose the one that tells you it’s going to be sunny tomorrow.

Best Shopping Apps

Online shopping is now a regular, indeed preferable, way to stock up on food, clothing, books, and all other things that keep the wheels of capitalism turning.

For groceries, check out our roundup of the  best food shopping services as it goes into far greater detail than we can here.

Looking to pick up some books, DVDs, trousers, a lawn mower, or outboard motor? Well, Amazon Shopping is the app for you, as it helped popularise online shopping in the first place and now dominates the landscape. 

Fashionistas will enjoy the visually rich Asos app which not only gathers together a wide range of clothing, but also has videos of models wearing them so you can see how you might look.

eBay, the online auction site that again sells just about everything, remains another great place to find a bargain or two, and these days there’s more new stuff listed than second-hand. 

Quidco offers cashback, discounts & voucher codes on sites like eBay, Boots, Argos, Waterstones, and many others, while VoucherCodes and GroupOn gather together deals to save you money on a variety of products and experiences.

You can also check our  deals pages for up to date bargains on tech.

Best Banking Apps

With all that shopping, you’ll probably want to keep an eye on your finances. Obviously here you’re going to download the app for the bank you use, rather than the one that has the nicest interface or features, but it’s worth keeping in mind that apps such as these exist to make managing your account much easier. 

Some popular banking apps in the UK include  Barclays,  Halifax,  HSBC,  Lloyds,  MBNA,  Nationwide,  NatWest,  Royal Bank of Scotland and  Santander. There are also apps for credit card companies such as  American Express,  BarclayCard and  Capital One.

A number of new, app-centric ‘challenger’ banks have started recently, offering a thoroughly modern approach to finances and how we interact with them. These include Starling, Monzo, N26, Revolut and others. To see whether they would be right for you read our What is Starling Bank and is it safe to use? feature.

Best Travel Apps

Okay, you’ve done your shopping, checked what little remains of your balance, and decided it’s time to take a break from all your worries. If you’re planning a trip in or out of the city then we recommend  National Rail to keep tabs on the trains. For their London-dwelling subterranean cousins there’s Tube Map, and if you need info on buses then there’s  CityMapper. 

While in town, why not take the chance to visit the theatre or a gig? Last minute tickets can be found via the Dice or Today Tix apps, whether you’re in London, LA, Chicago, New York or one of several other cities.

Uber is a brilliant app for grabbing a cab within minutes in more than 50 countries, but if you’re driving yourself then Waze will ensure that you miss the traffic hotspots and get to your destination in as little time as possible.

Should you wish to leave the country entirely, try  SkyScanner as it scours the internet for the cheapest flights, and be sure to also download  LateRooms, and TripAdvisor to help you find a nice place to stay overnight.

Best of the rest

Here are the apps we use here in the office that didn’t quite fit with the categories above, but are definitely ones you should try. AssistantTrigger is a handy tool that makes connecting Apple’s excellent wireless AirPods a doddle on your Android phone.

Those seeking calm and relaxation should check out Wetherspoon app a potential oasis in the parched desert of life (and you can also order your dinner too).

Looking for ways to keep the kids occupied? Then The Hoop will let you know what activities are available near you, plus YouTube Kids will entertain them on the way.

Finally, if the Gmail app isn’t cutting it for all your email needs then we recommend trying either Newton or Spark, both of which are friendly, well-designed apps that can bring a bit of excitement back to your tired old inbox.

Indian Stamp Act: An Overview

Documentation works are such type that are essentially required at personal level as well as at professional level and it is not only required for a person, but also required for the government. For the government, such documentation work is indispensable, as without such regulatory framework, it is very difficult to keep track of such transactions. The British government revised the Indian Stamp Act in 1899 with the primary objective of generating money for the government. This Act requires the payment of stamp duty on certain and defined papers. The Indian Stamp Act is a piece of fiscal law.

Objectives of the Stamp Act, 1899

Through this Act, government primary generates revenue that helps government to perform its duty with ease. However, in a court of law, a stamped document is admissible as evidence. The Stamp Act also requires the payment of stamp duty on certain papers, which makes those documents legally legitimate and authentic.

Stamp Duty

Stamp duty is the tax that must be paid on a certain document. Stamp duty might be constant or variable depending on the product’s worth. Stamp duty is a charge levied on the exchange of papers or the execution of instruments.

Stamp duty may be divided into two categories

Impressed stamp − An imprinted stamp is created by the engraving or embossing process. The labels are applied to impressed stamps, and the impressions are made by franking machines in the bank.

Adhesive stamp − Adhesive stamps are stamps that may be adhered to a paper with any type of adhesive. Adhesive stamps are classified into two types

Postal stamps − Postal stamps have a restricted range of applications. Postal stamps are used for transactions with the post office.

Non-postal stamps − Unlike postal stamps, non-postal stamps have a broader range of applications. Non-postal stamps include revenue stamps, court fee stamps, and insurance policy stamps, among others.

Important terms under the Act

There are a few key phrases associated with the Indian Stamp Act of 1899. It is critical that we are aware of these words, which are as follows

Provision Term Definition

Section 2 (10) Conveyance It essentially consists of a property transfer document. It covers both moveable and immovable property. Conveyance includes a sale deed, lease transfer, release, and settlement.

Section 2 (11). Duly Stamped It indicates that the instrument carries the adhesive or impressed stamps, in the amount required by law, and in the form required by law. The Stamp Act’s provisions and schedule control the quantity of stamp to be used. The mode of stamping is controlled by sections 10 to 19 of the Act as well as the government’s guidelines. This section contains information on the description of state and the quantity of stamps to be utilized. Thus, if an instrument is to be written on paper with an impressed stamp but only carries an adhesive stamp of the value, it is not correctly stamped, and vice versa

Section 2 (14) Instrument An instrument is any document that creates, transfers, extends, or extinguishes any right or responsibility. An instrument is a document that aids in the recording of such rights and liabilities, even though the instrument itself does not generate such rights or liabilities.

Valuation of Stamp Duty

Stamp duty is assessed on an ad valorem basis, which means that it depends on the value of the property, among other factors. The issue of how to value instruments is addressed by Sections 20 to 27 of the Indian Stamp Act, with the exception of Section 22. This issue is brought up by the fact that instruments are liable to duty. In these circumstances, value is assessed based on the following standards.

Provisions Purpose

Section 20- Value if amount is expressed in foreign currency

Section 20 of the Stamp Act states that if an amount is stated in a foreign currency, the exchange rate in force on the document’s date should be used to calculate the value in Indian rupees (1)

The Central Government may periodically set such rates for the purpose of determining stamp duty (Section 20). (2)

This rate will be considered for appraising the asset rather than the current market rate. If a document contains the current exchange rate and is stamped using that rate, it will be considered (unless the contrary is shown) that it is duly stamped

Sections 21- Valuation of stock and marketable securities

To establish the stock’s or security’s value, the instrument’s date’s average price for the stock or security will be utilized – Section 21

Stamp duty is thus required in the case of a share transfer deed based on the market value of the shares on the day the document was executed.

Section 23- No duty on penal interest portion mentioned in the instrument Section 23 indicates that valuation must be carried out without taking the penal interest portion into account, even if a document specifies that punitive interest would be assessed.

Section 24-Valuation in case of transfer in consideration of debt

Even if a contract says that punitive interest will be levied, Section 23 states that valuation must be performed without taking the penal interest part into consideration.

When any property is given to a person in settlement (or consideration of) a debt due to that person, the transfer counts as “consideration” for the purposes of ad valorem duty value.

In a manner similar to this, cash or stock will be considered consideration for value purposes if property is transferred in return for payment or the transfer of either.

In addition, if the sale of the property is mortgage-subject, any existing mortgages and any interest payable, if any, will be taken into account as part of the consideration.

Section 25- Valuation in case of annuit

Instead of a single huge payout, some contracts include annuities or monthly payments. The evaluation is finished in this instance as follows

If the length of the annuity is predetermined, the total amount of annuity payments anticipated throughout that time period will be considered.

If the annuity is payable forever or for an indefinite period of time, the full amount payable within 20 years of the date the first payment is due will be considered for valuation. However, the payment of an annuity shouldn’t be based on the existence or dying of any one person for such an eons.

Section 25 indicates that if a person’s life or death impacts the payment of an annuity.

Section 26- Provision when value is indeterminable

The stamp shall be established based on an estimated valuation where the subject matter’s value cannot be ascertained with certainty on the day of execution.

However, the maximum amount that can be claimed on such an instrument in this circumstance is simply the value on which stamp duty has actually been paid, and nothing more – Section 26.


Modernization led to the introduction of an e-stamp, sometimes known as an electronic stamp. E-stamps are essentially stamps that are produced electronically and can be used for non-judicial purposes as well as to pay taxes. The state can use a computer-based procedure known as “e-stamping” to safely pay non-judicial stamping costs.

Advantages of E-stamp

The benefits of E-Stamp are as follows

Using e-stamps takes less time.

Accessing them is not difficult at all.

They lower expenses.

Using e-stamps is easy.


Under the Indian Stamp Act, the assessment or computation of stamp duty is less difficult to understand. Furthermore, it gives the government a reliable source of money. If the collector has any doubts regarding the appropriate amount of duty to be charged for the document, they may, in line with the Stamp Act, write a statement of the matter and submit it to the Controlling Revenue Authority.

Several of the parts of the Indian Stamp Act, 1899, have needed to be changed since it was first introduced. Significant changes were made in this regard in the Law Commission’s 67th report, which was published in 1976. These changes included, among other things, modifications to the procedures for drafting legal documents and computations, an improvement in the language of the law to make it more comprehensible, tougher penalties for Act violations, and the addition of provisions relating to postage stamps.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is stamp duty?

Ans. Stamp duty is a tax levied by the Government on the execution of instruments.

Q2. What is the Indian Stamp Act 1899?

Ans. The Indian Stamp Act is a piece of fiscal law that was passed only as a means of collecting income for the government. This Act mandates that certain and particular documents be subject to stamp duty payments.

Q3. What instruments are covered by the Indian Stamps Act?

Ans. An “instrument” is any “document by which any right or liability is, or appears to be, formed, transferred, limited, extended, cancelled, or recorded,” according to Indian stamping laws.

Q4. What method does the Act use to collect stamp duty in case of financial securities?

Ans. Stock exchanges are responsible for collecting stamp duty on all exchange-based secondary market transactions in securities. Depositories are responsible for collecting stamp duty on off-market transactions (which are made for a consideration disclosed by trading parties) and initial issues of securities occurring in demat form.

Indian Fashion Trends In 2023

India, with its rich cultural heritage and diverse traditions, is a hub of fashion and style. In 2023, Indian fashion is set to showcase a range of exciting trends that draw inspiration from its traditional roots while embracing modern aesthetics.

Traditional Indian Textiles and Techniques

Traditional Indian textiles and techniques are an integral part of Indian fashion, and they continue to be a significant trend in 2023. From handwoven fabrics like khadi, chikankari, and bandhani to embroidery styles like zardozi and mirror work, designers are incorporating these traditional techniques into contemporary designs. This fusion of old and new is creating unique and exciting fashion pieces that celebrate India’s rich cultural heritage.

Sustainable And Eco-Friendly Fashion

Sustainable and eco-friendly fashion is gaining traction in India, with designers incorporating ethical and eco-conscious practices into their designs. From using natural and organic fabrics to promoting fair trade and upcycling, the focus is on reducing the impact on the environment and promoting social responsibility.

Fusion Wear and Indo-Western Styles

Fusion wear and Indo-western styles are becoming increasingly popular in Indian fashion, blending traditional elements with modern Western designs. This trend is often seen in formalwear, such as sarees and kurtas, incorporating Western cuts, silhouettes, and fabrics to create a unique look.

Bright And Bold Colours

Bright and bold colours are a staple of Indian fashion, and they are expected to remain popular in 2023. Vibrant shades of red, pink, orange, and yellow are especially popular, and they are often paired with intricate embroidery or embellishments to create stunning outfits.

Statement Accessories

Some popular statement accessories in Indian fashion include intricate jewellery pieces like handballs and jhumkas, embellished clutches and potlis, and ornate hair accessories like maang tikka and matha pattis.

Modern Takes on Traditional Wear

In recent years, there has been a surge in modern interpretations of traditional Indian wear. Designers are experimenting with new cuts, silhouettes, and fabrics, while still incorporating traditional elements. For example, sarees are being styled with modern blouses, and lehengas are being paired with crop tops. This trend is particularly popular among younger generations who are looking for fresh takes on traditional wear.

Handcrafted And Artisanal Fashion

Handcrafted and artisanal fashion refers to clothing and accessories that are made by skilled artisans using traditional techniques and materials. This trend has been growing in popularity in recent years as consumers seek unique and one-of-a-kind items that are made with care and attention to detail. In Indian fashion, handcrafted and artisanal fashion is particularly important, as the country has a rich history of textile and craft traditions. From handwoven fabrics to intricate embroidery and beadwork, Indian artisans produce some of the most beautiful and intricate fashion pieces in the world. This trend is expected to continue in 2023, with more designers incorporating handcrafted and artisanal elements into their collections.

Embellishments And Intricate Details

Embellishments and intricate details are expected to be a prominent trend in Indian fashion in 2023. This includes embroidery, beadwork, and other forms of intricate embellishments that add texture and dimension to clothing. These details are often inspired by traditional Indian craftsmanship, such as zardozi and gota work, and can be found on everything from sarees and lehengas to modern silhouettes like crop tops and skirts. The trend towards embellishments and intricate details highlights the importance of craftsmanship and artistry in Indian fashion, and the desire for unique, one-of-a-kind pieces that showcase individual style.

Experimental Silhouettes

Experimental silhouettes are a significant trend in Indian fashion for 2023, with designers pushing the boundaries of traditional cuts and shapes. This includes oversized and asymmetrical pieces, exaggerated sleeves, and unconventional draping. The focus is on creating statement-making pieces that are both edgy and elegant, appealing to the modern Indian consumer who wants to stand out. Designers such as Manish Arora and Sabyasachi Mukherjee are known for their experimental silhouettes and are expected to continue to lead the trend in the coming years.

Modest Fashion and Inclusive Sizing

Modest fashion and inclusive sizing are a rising trend in Indian fashion. Modest fashion has gained popularity, with designers creating clothing that provides coverage while still being stylish. Additionally, there is a growing demand for inclusive sizing, with brands offering a range of sizes to cater to diverse body types.


Indian fashion trends in 2023 are likely to focus on traditional textiles and techniques, sustainable and eco-friendly fashion, fusion wear, bright and bold colours, statement accessories, modern takes on traditional wear, handcrafted and artisanal fashion, embellishments and intricate details, experimental silhouettes, and modest fashion with inclusive sizing. The industry is expected to continue to evolve and embrace new trends while preserving the rich cultural heritage and craftsmanship of Indian fashion.

Government Of India Act 1858


The Government of India Act 1858 was the first act that applied under direct British rule. After the 1857 revolt, The British government decided to take over the rule of India from the Company. A bill was passed in 1858 in British Parliament to fulfil this agenda and this act was also called the Act for Better Government of India. The British government appointed Lord Canning as the Governor General of India during this act’s enactment.

What is the Government of India Act 1858?

The Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the Government of India Act on 2nd August 1858. The control of the administration of British India was handed over to the Crown by the British Parliament and in this bill; they referred to the defect that existed in the system of the Indian Government. This act was introduced as a bill by Lord Palmerston and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

Lord Palmerston was forced to resign for other issues before the theorised bill was passed. The first State Secretary of India, Edward Stanley introduced this bill during the 15th earl of derby where it is said that this act was created for the improved Governance of India.

Government of India Act 1858: Background

The Sepoy mutiny ended in the year 1858 that sends great shockwaves throughout London. It gave stimulus that the company should not have authorization for trading and continue as a political power. Many British settlers and traders had increased their enthusiasm for India since 1853 and their constant objection that their interest was neglected by the company. Prime Minister Palmerston, said the cumbrous and irresponsibility, irrational, complex characteristics of double government were the basic error in the rule of the Company.

The Act was approved on August 1858 by the Parliament after a month when Lord Canning proclaimed the victory of the army of the British. British dominance transferred over India from the Company of East India which was highly accused of rebellion against the Crown. The Crown rule suspended the Company rule in India and the State Secretary for India was created as an exercise of the power of the British Crown.

Government of India Act 1858: Provision

The Company of East India lost their control over the territory of India and British Indian territory was governed in the British queen’s name. This 1858 Act transform India into an immediate British colony. The civil services of India were established to help the Indian administration to function very smoothly. Indians were admitted to the service according to the provision (Wu, 2023).

This 1858 Act brought an end to the concept of lapse and demolished the double government that was proposed by Pitt as the India Act of 1784.

He was also acting as a medium of communication between the Indian Administration and the British government. The Secretary of State for India would have full control and authority over the administration of India and he also was blessed with the power that he could secretly dispatch an army to India without discussing it with his council. The British Parliament has the authority to question the secretary of state about the affairs of the states in India.

The Viceroy and Governor General of India was the agent of the British government. Crown appointed the Viceroy and the Governor of the different presidencies.

An Executive Council assisted the Viceroys. It was pronounced that the rest Princes of India would be provided with their complete independence status if they acknowledge British rule. Crown would accept the apology of every Indian who joined in the Sepoy mutiny excluding those who killed the subjects of the British.

Government of India Act 1858: Criticism

The Government of India Act 1858 had also some defects that are −

There was no representative of the Indian people and India was completely dominated by the control of the Imperial.

The Secretary of State was the highest power and had the free hand on the administration of India and he was only answerable to the British Parliament.


The 1858 Act stated the transfer of the power of India to the Crown from the East India Company. With this act, the Company ceased as a political company and the rule of the Company in India was ended. Therefore the Colonial System of government changed into Imperial rule under the Crown. At that time the queen of the British was Queen Victoria and she had the responsibility for the administration of British India.


Q.1. What was Sepoy mutiny?

Ans. Sepoy mutiny was a revolt that started on 10th May 1857 by the soldiers of Indians. The main reason behind this mutiny was the cartridge of Enfield’s rifle had to bite off by the soldiers before loading the gun. The soldiers of India thought that the cartridge was made with either the fat of a pig or cow and this was opposite to the sentiments of Muslims and Hindus. Therefore they denied using the cartridge and this began the protest against the British.

Q.2. Who was the first Viceroy of India?

Ans. Lord Canning was appointed as the first Viceroy of India in the year 1858 and his duty ended in 1862. They were the General Governor of India who represented the Crown in India.

Q.3. Who was the last Viceroy of India?

Ans. The last Viceroy of India was Lord Mountbatten and he was appointed in 1947. He was also the first Governor General of Independent India.

Top Robotics Companies Redefining Indian Automation Industry

The current COVID-19 pandemic has proved the importance of Established in the year 2006, recon is the largest robotics company in the world. It sells its products in 33+ countries worldwide. Their client bases include big names such as U.S. Air Force, Army, Navy and Marine Corps, Border Patrol, FBI, and ICE. Headquartered in Edina, Minnesota, it has offices spread across the globe.  

Founded in 2001, this company made history by developing a robotic guidance system for spine surgery. Today surgeons, across the globe, use their Robotics Renaissance in conducting neurosurgery and orthopedic surgery. It’s revolutionary “Mazor Robotics technology” is installed in 28 hospitals in the US and in 26 hospitals around the world. It is estimated that this technology is used in more than 4,000 surgery procedures worldwide.  

Gridbots is an India company working in the field of Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and Machine Vision. Established in the year 2007, today it has a team of 30 trained professionals working in its headquarters in Ahmadabad and regional offices in Jaipur, Faridabad, and Meerut. The company offers various products in Nuclear Robots, Space robotics, defense robotics, and industrial robotics. Its client base includes various Navratana companies and defense services.  

This Us based company was established in the year 1912 in California. It entered in India 20 years ago and since then supporting various Ministry of Defence projects. Headquartered in Delhi, they have recently tied up with Tata Advanced Systems and formed a joint venture company known as Tata Lockheed Martin Aerostructures, for manufacturing components for aircraft C-130J.  

The company is a subsidiary of FANUC Corporation, Japan, and started its India operation in the year 1992. FANUC is one of the largest industrial robot manufacturers with 200,000 installations worldwide. They are the leaders in India with over 4700 industrial robot installations. They have a large network of the sales team in PAN India and have their Advanced Technology Centres at Gurgaon, Pune, and Bangalore. They have a highly skilled team of engineers which provide complete end to end solution ranging from preparing concept drawings to manufacturing and installing industrial robot.  

ABB is a giant in robotics with its operations in 53 countries around the world. Its key business is to manufacturing and supplying robot products, its systems, and services. It has a skilled workforce of 4,600 employees spread across its various locations. Till now it has installed around 250,000 robots around the globe. Headquartered in Bangalore, it has sales and marketing offices in several Indian cities.  

Founded in 1915, Yaskawa is the largest manufacture of motion control products. They started their India business in 1980 and offer products in two categories Motion Control and Robotics. Their core robotics strength includes assembling, coating, dispensing, and material cutting. They have successfully completed 3000+ installations in various industries. Headquartered in Bangalore, their robotics division is located at Gurgaon, Pune, Chennai, and Bangalore.  

In the year 1961, Kawasaki has created its first robot, Since then the company is developing high-quality industrial robots. They manufacture robots for various industrial processes such as assembly, handling, painting, etc also automation systems for logistics such as automated product- handling systems for airports. It has it’s headquartered in Japan and operating worldwide through its subsidiaries. They have their sales and marketing team located in India too.  

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