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iTunes is not only an audio player, but rather a whole multimedia management centre, available for PCs and Macs. Although its main function is playing and tagging your music collection, you can also find features allowing you to play films, radio stations, and podcasts. There is also a built-in iTunes Store where you can purchase new tracks as well as subscribe free channels offering interesting podcasts. iTunes allows also to edit information about your albums, add cover images, and share your music in a local network.

Importing your music collection

When you turn on the program for the first time, it will ask you to import your music collection. To start using the program for playing your favourite songs you have to show where do you store your library. This can be accomplished in a few ways.

You can also drag whole folders (including their subfolders) to the program’s window by using drag-and-drop method. All the songs you drag to the program’s window will be added to the library.

The interface of the program

After you have added your music collection to iTunes Library, the time has come for you to get a bit more familiar with the rudimentary features of the program. iTunes has a well-designed interface with a touch of typical Apple style. However, if until now you have used simple programs, such as Winamp or foobar2000, you may feel a bit lost; but don’t panic yet.

In the upper part of the window you can find navigation buttons and volume adjustion slide. There is also a bar displaying the information about the currently played track, such as the title, the artist, the album, along with the progress bar and interactive icons that allow you to repeat a song (on the left) and shuffle the tracks (randomly choose the next song – on the right).

However, one of the most important components of the interface is a horizontal bar that allows you to switch between various tabs. Each of them displays your collection in a different way by focusing on a certain element.

Songs tab

This is definitely the best way of displaying your music collection. iTunes shows the library in a form of a grid list with icons made of albums’ covers.

Artists and Genres tab

These both tabs look alike and you handle them in a similar way. Just as the names suggest, the first one displays your music collection by sorting according to the artists, while the other places them in order of their genre.

In both tabs you can find a side bar on the left – the list of either artists or genres is displayed here. After choosing one of them iTunes displays a list of matching albums on the right, either all of the CDs of a certain artist or all albums that fit into a chosen genre.

Playlists tab

Here you can find simply displayed lists of tracks, along with a side bar which allows you to create and save your own playlists.

You can create playlists on your own or import those saved in M3U and PLS formats. There are also lists created by default by iTunes. In the right you can see the tracks that comprise a certain playlist. Songs can be, just like in case of the first tab, be sorted by columns.

This is all you should need in the beginning to comfortably embark on your journey with iTunes. In the next articles you can read more about the settings, importing your CD collection (and converting files), editing tags, creating playlists, and using iTunes Store.

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How To Move Your Itunes Library To A New Computer

When you buy a new computer, the first thing you’ll probably want to do is copy all of your contents from your old computer over to the new one. This ensures you can continue the work that you were doing on your old machine.

One of the things you may want to migrate to your new computer is to move your iTunes library to a new computer. Although Apple has done away with iTunes on the latest Macs, the app is still used on old macOS versions and Windows computers.

Table of Contents

Moving your iTunes library to a new computer is pretty easy actually. There are features inside the app itself to help you do it.

Put All Your iTunes Content In a Single Folder

If you know the basics of how iTunes works, you probably know that the app doesn’t need to copy your music files to its folders to play them. Your songs could be anywhere on your machine and you can still find, organize, and play them in the app.

Because of the nature of the app, there’s no one folder that you can copy from your old computer to the new one and get your library migrated. But, there’s a feature in iTunes that lets you put all of your files in a single folder. It’s called consolidating files and you can do it from within the app on your computer.

Your files will continue to exist at their original location and the following procedure will only make a copy of those files in the iTunes folder. You want to make sure there’s enough storage on your computer as you’ll have a total of two copies of each of your iTunes files.

It’ll start copying the iTunes library files from wherever they’re on your computer to the iTunes folder. Wait for it to do that.

Once the files are copied, you can delete the original ones from their folders if you want.

Find The iTunes Folder & Copy It To Your External Drive

Once your entire iTunes library is consolidated, you can copy the consolidated folder over to an external drive for migration. However, the iTunes folder isn’t easily accessible as it’s located deep down in various subfolders.

Also, if you or someone has ever changed the original iTunes media folder, it won’t be available at its default location. You’re then going to need to find exactly where it’s stored on your machine.

Fortunately, iTunes provides you with an easy way to find its media folder. All you need to do is access an option in the app and it’ll let you know where your iTunes files are located. Once that’s done, you can copy the folder over to your external drive and start the migration process.

On the settings screen, you want to navigate to the tab that says Advanced as the option you’re looking for is located there.

Once you’re in the Advanced tab, you’ll find a box with the title that says iTunes Media folder location. Note down the path displayed there as you’re going to need it in the following steps.

Restore Your iTunes Library On Your New Computer

Your entire iTunes library should now be available on your external hard drive. All that you need to do now is plug the hard drive into your new computer, copy over the library files, and then let iTunes know about it for it to import the files into the app.

It may sound a bit too technical but it’s not. It’s just basically copying your files and then configuring iTunes to recognize your new library. That’s all.

Navigate to the iTunes folder on your new computer and select the iTunes chúng tôi file. The app will then start importing your content.

When your files are all imported, you should see them on the same interface and menu where they were on your old computer.

Quick Notes On The Basics Of Python And The Numpy Library

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.     

      “Champions are brilliant at the basics”

Quick Basics of python 1. What is an interpreter? 2. Difference between the virtual environment and the existing interpreter?

Ans: The difference is that if you use a virtual environment for your project and add/remove packages then it will only affect the virtual environment. If you use an existing interpreter then all changes will affect the system-wide interpreter and these changes will be available in all the projects that use that interpreter.

3. What is a pip?

Ans: Pip is a standard package management system used to install and manage the software packages written in python.

4. What are the various commands of pip?

Ans: Below are the various commands of pip to be run in the command prompt/terminal

5. What are variables?

Ans:  Variables are used to store information to be referenced and manipulated in a program. In python, we don’t need to explicitly mention the datatype during declaration. A string variable cannot be manipulated by mathematical actions.

6. What are the basic operations in python?

Ans: We have ‘+’ (addition) ;  ‘-‘ (subtraction) ; ‘*’ (multiplication);  ‘/’ (division); ‘%’ (modulus meaning the remainder of division) ; ‘**’ (power meaning ab i.e. a to the power of b);  ‘//’ (floor division meaning this will give the quotient of division without the decimal).

7. What are string indexing and slicing?

Ans: Index is the position of each character starting from 0. Slicing is getting the substring i.e. subset out of a string value or a word or sentence.

You slice your butter so that the chunks can be used for various purposes !! Right !! SAME IS APPLICABLE HERE AS WELL !! 

Suppose we have a string variable having ‘stay positive’ stored in it. The below picture shows the indexing of the elements in the string. 

Below is a code snippet having examples of indexing and slicing.

8. What is mutable and immutable property?

Ans: Mutability means you can change the values of an object after it is created, and the Immutable property of an object means it cannot be changed after it is created.

9. What are the different data structures of python?

Ans: Below are different types of data structures :

9.1) Lists : These are the data types that hold elements of different/same datatype together in a collection in sequential manner. These are enclosed in square brackets [ ]. Lists are mutable and indexable in nature, and also allow duplicates. There are many list methods like list.append(), list.pop(), list.reverse(),list.sort(),list.count(),list.insert(),list.remove() etc.  for performing various list operations; few of which is showed in the below code snippet.

NOTE:  Accessing and indexing elements in the list are the same as the Q7(indexing and slicing) topic explained above.

9.2) Tuples: These are similar to lists with two major differences i.e. (that is) Firstly they are enclosed within round brackets() and second they are immutable in nature.  There are two inbuilt methods that can be used on tuples index() and count(). Code snippet for same is mentioned below:

NOTE: Accessing and indexing elements in the tuples are the same as the Q7(indexing and slicing) explained above.

9.4) Dictionaries: Dictionaries in python is a data structure that stores the values against its keys. Basically key-value pair. It is enclosed within curly braces having key:value pair i.e. {key1:val1}

In the above example, ‘mydict’ is a dictionary that stores the number of students present in each class. So classA is key and 30 is its value. 

Dictionaries do not allow duplicate keys and are mutable in nature. Below is the code snippet having dictionary examples:

There are few more functions like get(keyname) that will return the value of that key, update(),popitem(), etc. . We can also have nested dictionaries,                                                            lists value for the key i.e. key1 : [1,2,3].

What is the use of dictionaries  ???

Well, there might be scenarios wherein you will have to count the number of occurrences of an item in a list, then you can easily compute this using dictionary. Another example is using a dictionary like a lookup file wherein you might have a set of static key-value pairs to refer to. Also, dictionaries are used in backend code while building APIs. Hence with dictionaries in place, many operations like I mentioned above become easier to deal with.

10. What are the various common libraries used in Data Science?

Ans: Common libraries are :

11. Why is Numpy required when we have python Lists? Since both do the same work of storing data in array form?

Ans: Absolutely, but Numpy is better since it takes less memory as compared to lists. Also, a Numpy array is faster than a list.

Now the question is HOW ??? Please follow the below code snippet showing the answer for the question of HOW  IT TAKES LESS MEMORY AND IS FASTER THAN LISTS??   

In the above code, we have compared the memory used by the list and the memory used by the Numpy array. The size of a single integer element in the list takes 28 bytes whereas a Numpy array takes only 4 bytes. This is because lists are python object which requires memory for pointers as well as value, but Numpy array does not have pointers that will point to the value. Hence IT TAKES LESS MEMORY.

HOW NUMPY ARRAY  OPERATIONS ARE FASTER THAN LIST ?? 

Let us PROVE IT IN BELOW CODE SNIPPET

In the above code, we have computed the time taken by the addition of two lists each having 1 million records that took142.3 seconds whereas when we performed the same operation with the same number of records with two arrays, the computation took 0.0 seconds !!!!! WOW!!!!

HENCE PROVED! Numpy array is much faster than a list.

In real-time, we have a huge amount of data that needs to process and analyzed so as to get useful and strategic information out of the data. Hence Numpy arrays are better than a list.

12. Can we create and access the n-D(n-dimension) array using the Numpy library?

Ans: Definitely, this is one more key feature of the Numpy array. We can create an n-dimensional array using the array() method of Numpy by passing a list, tuple, or an array-like object.

In order to know the number of dimensions an array has, we have the “ndim” attribute of Numpy arrays.

We can also explicitly define the dimension for an array by using “ndmin” argument of the Numpy array() method.

There is a “dtype” property that will return the data type of array. Also, we can also define the data type of array by passing an argument of dtype to the array method

Below is the code snippet for the same

13. How to index, access, and  perform slicing on an n-D Numpy Array

These are the positions assigned internally in the n-D array. Keeping this in mind, an n-D array can be accessed, manipulated, etc.

Please follow the below code snippets to understand how to access and slice the n-dimensional arrays.

The above picture represents how the indexes are represented in an n-dimensional array. Using the indexes, we can access array elements and perform slicing.

SLICING:  The concept of slicing remains the same as mentioned in the above queries. The syntax for slicing is arrayName[startIndex:stopIndex:step(optional)]

Be it 1-D,2-D, or n-D, array slicing works the same.

The array examples used in the below code snippet are the same as in above eg i.e. oneD_array, TwoD_array, ThreeD_array. Please refer to the array declarations in the above code snippet.

14. What are various methods and attributes in Numpy?

Ans: Numpy has various attributes and methods that can tell you the size, shape of the array(rows X columns), change the shape(reshape), size of each element, datatypes, and many more. Few are listed in below code snippet:

We also have copy and view methods that duplicate an existing array. But these two methods do have a very major difference internally. Please find the below code snippet wherein the difference is shown in a practical way:

Numpy also has many more methods and attributes like :

and MANY MORE. You can go through all of them on the Numpy website. The ones that I have listed are the common ones that are frequently used.

ARRAY OPERATIONS : 

Very easy addition, subtraction, multiplication, division can be done between two arrays. Below is the code snippet for adding and subtracting. Others can also be done in the same manner viz (a*b),(a/b)

15. Numpy array has an AMAZING PROPERTY !!  What is that ??

Ans: Let us assume we have a 2-D array wherein I want to check if that every array element is greater than value 10. If yes, then replace them with True otherwise False. So in return, I will get TRUE FALSE MATRIX. Below is the code snippet:

Now, if I want the values of array ‘arr’ which is greater than 10 ??  This can be achieved in just a line as shown in the below code snippet:

Now we can also replace these with specific flag values like -1 or 0 or anything.

The code snippet is as follows:

So all those elements greater than 10 is replaced by -1

THAT IS ALL FOR THIS ARTICLE !!! 

ENDNOTES: 

I am sure, you, as a beginner must have found this article to be useful. All the necessary basics have been covered and I have tried to cover the concepts in detail with the practicals where most people find difficulty in understanding. Thank you for your time.

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Related

Learn The Working Of The Math Library In Lua

Introduction to Lua math

In Lua, math is defined as a standard library that consists of mathematical functions that are used in Lua programs for dealing with mathematical concepts easily by declaring this library in the program. In general, Lua math is a standard library provided by Lua programming language to work with mathematical concepts using the functions that are defined in this library for solving mathematical related problems such as logarithmic functions (log), exponential functions (exp), trigonometric functions (sin, cos, tan, etc), rounding functions (floor, ceil) and many other functions like max, min, pi, etc are defined within this Lua math library which is an interface to standard C math library.

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Syntax:

math.function_name(argument_list or parameter);

In the above syntax, we can when we want to use any math functions then we need to use math library provided by Lua standard library and to define or use any kind of math functions then we have to use math library starting with math then followed by a dot and then followed by the function name along with the parameters that need to be declared or used in the function for calculations.

Working of math library in Lua programming language

The Lua math library can be included directly with its function name and the parameters are passed to this function to include the variable values that are needed to calculate according to the function defined. In Lua, there are various functions for different mathematical calculations in the math library and a few of them are listed in the below section. But before that, we will see a list of math functions that are defined within this math library.

math.sin(x), math.cos(x), math.tan(x), math.asin(x), math.acos(x), etc are some of the trigonometric functions for getting sine, cosine and tangent for radiant values that are passed as parameter to the function and asin and acos are for getting arc sine and arc cosine in radians for the given values in the parameter.

In Lua, the math library also provides random functions such as math.random([x [,y]]) to get random numbers.

Example:

In the below example let us see few math functions demonstration using math library.

print( "Demonstration of math library function in Lua programming language ") print("n") print("Rounding functions in math library are as follows:") a = 89.50983 print(" The floor value of a is ", math.floor(a)) print(" The ceil value of a is ", math.ceil(a)) print("n") print(" Comparative function are as follows: ") print(" The maximum of the given numbers is : ", math.max(30, 46, 29, 78, 56, 9)) print(" The minimum of the given numbers is : ",math.min(30, 46, 29, 78, 56,9)) print("n") print(" The trigonometric functions provided in the math library is as follows: ") print("n") p = math.rad(math.pi / 2) print("The pi value for calculating trigonometric values is : ", p) print("n") print("The sine value of the given radian which is 90 degree is : ", string.format("%.1f ", math.sin(p))) print("The cosine value of the given radian which is 90 degree is : ", string.format("%.1f ", math.cos(p))) print("The tangent value of the given radian which is 90 degree is : ", string.format("%.1f ", math.tan(p))) print("The sine hyperbolic value of the given radian which is 90 degree is : ", string.format("%.1f ", math.sinh(p))) print("The cosine hyperbolic value of the given radian which is 90 degree is : ", string.format("%.1f ", math.cosh(p))) print("The tangent hyperbolic value of the given radian which is 90 degree is : ", string.format("%.1f ", math.tanh(p)))

Output:

In the above program, we can see some of the math functions that are defined using the math library in the program. In the first we are finding the rounding of functions such as math.floor() which will round of to the previous value and math.ceil() will round off the value to the next value of the given number. Then we are defining comparative functions such as max and min which will display the maximum and minimum number in the given list of the numbers as parameters to this function. Then we have defined few trigonometric functions and to display the values for the radian with 90 degrees where we have converted the pi value to the radian value using rad() such as math.rad(math.pi / 2), whereas if we want to display the degree value then we can use deg() function as math.deg(math.pi / 2). In the above program, we have displayed the values of sine, cosine, and tangent along with its hyperbolic values also. The output of all these functions can be seen in the above screenshot.

Example:

print( "Demonstration of some other math library function in Lua programming language ") print("n") print("The squareroot of given number a is :", math.sqrt(24)) print("n") print("The 2 to the power of 5 is :", math.pow(2,5)) print("n") print("The absolute value of the given number is :", math.abs(-45)) print("n") print("The exponential value of the given number is :", math.exp(4)) print("n") print("The logarithmic value of the given number is :",math.log(2)) print("n") print("Random number between 70 and 80 is ",math.random(70,80))

Output:

In the above program, we can see we have defined some other math function provided by the math library such as math.sqrt() will display the square root of the specified number, math.pow() will specify the powers of the given number in the above program, it is 2 ^ 5 =32, then we saw math.abs() which will display the absolute value which will always display positive number, then math.exp() will display the exponential value, math.log() displays logarithmic values, then we have also defined the math.random() function to display the random number. The output in the above screenshot will show the result of these functions respectively.

Conclusion

In this article, we conclude that Lua provides a standard library that contains mathematical functions for some mathematical calculations in the program and it is provided by the math library. In this, we don’t need to separately import or include the math library we can directly use it with the math function with a dot followed by the math function name. Therefore unlike other programming languages, this also has a simple math library for mathematical operations.

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We hope that this EDUCBA information on “Lua math” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

Ios 7: The Ultimate Itunes Store Guide

Interested in making a digital media purchase on your iPhone? The iTunes Store app is your primary portal for doing so. The iTunes Store app is a stock application that is installed by default on every iOS device. It allows you to make digital media purchases for a variety of media types.

The iTunes Store app works in tandem with the stock Music app and the stock Videos app to provide users with a rich digital media experience. Check inside for details covering the ins and outs of this long running stock application.

Table of contents

Basics What is the iTunes Store?

The iTunes Store is the main digital store where iOS users can purchase music, TV shows, movies, ringtones, and audiobooks. Movies can be rented from the iTunes store as well.

Previewing content

Upon launching the iTunes Store app, you’ll notice three main sections: top, middle and bottom. The top of the interface contains buttons for genres, featured items, charts, and Wish List. The middle of the interface contains all of the actual content available, which includes things like artwork, preview buttons, purchase buttons, and the like. The bottom of the interface features five media tabs, four of which are editable to meet your specific needs. We’ll speak about each of the individual tabs in a later section of this guide.

Navigating the iTunes Store app interface

For now, let’s talk about previewing the content available to you in the iTunes Store. The middle of the interface, as mentioned, contains all of the content awaiting your consumption. Each media tab in the iTunes Store app contains a Featured button, which acts a hot-bed for new releases, specials, and popular items.

Featured button versus the Charts button

Next to the Featured button lies the Charts button. Charts, which is also available in each of the other main media tabs, is a spot for highlighting all of the current chart-toppers. For example, inside of the Music tab’s Charts section, you’ll find top songs, albums, and music videos.

Persistent previews are new to iOS 7

To preview content inside any of the main media tabs, simply tap on the artwork associated with that content. If you tap on the album artwork associated with an individual song, the song preview will begin playing immediately. Generally speaking, song previews are about 90 seconds in length, a generous provision that debuted back in 2010.

Watching a movie trailer

For movies and TV shows, you’ll find trailers that you can watch instead of the audio-based previews presented in the Music media tab. For Audiobooks, you’ll find a a 90 second audible preview, but it’s presented in a style that’s slightly different from the traditional song. Ringtone preview lengths are, of course, shorter, since ringtones are less lengthy than a full song.

Listening to an Audiobook preview

We’ll get deeper into the nuances of each media tab in the tabs section later on in this tutorial. Just keep in mind that virtually all content available within the iTunes Store can be previewed to some degree. This helps to ensure that you will be satisfied with your purchase.

Single item view

Each iTunes Store media entity shares the same basic common structure when viewing individual items. The following sections make up the single item view:

The upper area of the single item view

Upper area – contains a link back to previous content, a Share button, and a Wish List button.

Single item details

Item details – artwork, name, author, star rating, purchase links, and other meta data details.

The Details/Songs tab

Details/Songs tab – This tab is the most varied, and differs depending on the type of media involved. For Music and Tones, this tab is named Songs, and contains a listing of all songs included on any particular release. All other forms of media contain some sort of description or summary, perhaps trailers or teasers.

You’ll find additional meta details media items such as Studio, Genre, Release date, Run Time, Size, Format, Network, Notes, etc. For video based content, the bottom of the Details section contains a link to switch between SD and HD quality videos.

The Reviews tab

Reviews tab – The Reviews section is pretty much exactly the same as the Reviews section on the App Store. It features the ability to like an item via Facebook integration, write a star-based review or a detailed review, and read reviews left by others.

The Related tab

Related tab – Here you’ll find content related to the single item that you’re currently viewing. In the case of movies, you’ll find sequels, and other related films. In the case of Music, you might find other albums and singles featuring the same artist. You’ll even find cross media promoted items. For example, you might notice a movie or a music video when selecting related items for a particular album that you like.

How to download content

Speaking of purchases, let’s talk a bit about downloading content. Most of the content available on the iTunes Store is for sale. There are times when you can download items for free, but the primary method for acquiring content from the iTunes Store app is by purchasing, or, as with the case for some movies, renting.

Before you’re able to download anything, you’ll need to ensure that you have an Apple ID logged into the iTunes & App Store section of the stock Settings app. The account must have a valid credit card associated with it before you can make any purchases.

You’ll need to sign in with a valid Apple ID

Once you have the Apple ID created and configured, you can begin making purchases on the iTunes Store. Tap the price box of an item, and you will immediately see the button change to ‘Buy’ in order to confirm your intentions. Tap the Buy button, and the purchase will initiate. If you recently purchased content from the iTunes Store or the App Store, the purchase will complete without verifying your Apple ID password. If you fall outside of this grace period window, which is only a few minutes, you will need to verify your Apple ID password before the purchase is completed.

“Purchasing” a Free TV show via the iTunes Store app

Using the Watch button after download a TV show

Once you’ve complete a download, the Buy button will change into a Play/Watch button. This Play button will link you to the respective app—Music or Videos—needed to play your content.

Sharing

Sharing items can be performed while in single item view. To learn more about single item view, see the previewing content section above.

Sharing a TV show episode

Tapping the share button in the upper right-hand corner of the iTunes Store app interface will present the iOS 7 universal share pane. From there, you can share links to all of your favorite iTunes Store content via the stock Messages app, Mail app, Twitter, or Facebook. You can also copy the link, Gift an item, or add an item to your Wish List.

Wish List & History

You can easily add items to your Wish List by means of the share button mentioned in the previous section. You can view your Wish List by tapping the Wish List button that resides in the upper right-hand corner of the iTunes Store interface. Unlike the Share button, the Wish List button is always accessible no matter where you are in the iTunes Store app.

Wish List section

The Wish List button is actually comprised of three different sections—Wish List, Radio, and Previews. The Wish List section allows you to see any item added to your Wish List. From there, you can purchase items directly, or tap on them to go into their respective single item view.

The iTunes Store Wish List

You can edit individual Wish List items by tapping the Edit button in the upper left-hand corner of the screen. You can then select individual items via the check box to the left of each item in order to prune entries.

Radio section

The Radio section allows you to see all of the songs you’ve listened to on iTunes Radio, along with buttons to buy the song, and artwork that links to its single item view.

The Radio section of the iTunes Store Wish List

The Radio section displays radio plays from any device that you have linked to your Apple ID. You should see a heading to indicate which device a particular song played on.

If you’d like to clear items from the Radio section, tap the Clear button in the upper left-hand corner of the screen. This clear button will clear all items from the Radio section in one fell swoop.

Previews section

The last section available when tapping the Wish List button is the Previews section. The Previews section contains a list of all of the Music, Tones, or Audiobooks you have previewed before. Like the other sections, you can directly buy previewed content from this view.

The Preview section of the iTunes Store Wish List

If you’d like to clear items from the Previews section, tap the Clear button in the upper left-hand corner of the screen. This button will clear all items from the Previews section at once.

Redeeming and sending gift cards

The process of redeeming and sending gift cards is exactly the same as it is on the App Store app. For that reason, we encourage you to view those respective sections in our Ultimate App Store guide.

Tabs

Like the stock Music app, the bottom of the iTunes Store app features several tabs for accessing differing types of information. At all times, you will find five tabs at the bottom of the interface. These consist of four customizable tabs, followed by a More tab.

More

The More tab is the tab that you’ll need when you want to access the whole gamut of what the iTunes Store app has to offer. It’s a way to access the tabs that haven’t been privileged with access to the bottom of the interface.

The More tab Edit interface lets your customize other tabs

Tapping the More tab opens the More page, which contains five additional tabs. These tabs will differ depending on how you’ve chosen to configure the tabs that already appear at the iTunes Store app interface. By tapping the Edit button that resides in the upper right-hand corner of the screen, you’ll gain access to rearrange any of the nine tabs present.

Drag the icons to the bottom of the interface while while in edit mode to organize any of the nine available tabs. Once you’ve finished rearranging the tabs, tap the Done button in the upper right-hand corner to exit edit mode.

Music

The Music tab is perhaps what iTunes is best known for. After all, iTunes began as a way to manage music, and eventually progressed to the point where it was a purchasing platform for all sorts of media, including music. The iTunes Store features 23 different genres of music, and they are as follows:

Alternative

Blues

Children’s Music

Christian & Gospel

Classical

Comedy

Country

Dance

Electronic

Fitness & Workout

Hip-Hop/Rap

Holiday

Jazz

Latino

Metal

Music Videos

Pop

R&B/Soul

Reggae

Rock

Singer/Songwriter

Soundtrack

World

Pricing

Most songs found on the iTunes Store start at $1.29, but songs can be purchased for as cheap as $0.69 if on sale. Album prices also vary considerably. Many new albums are available for $9.99, even if individual songs are priced at $1.29 and feature more than eight songs. Generally speaking, full albums provide a better “bang for your buck” than buying individual tracks.

Bitrate & Codec

All of the music sold on iTunes uses the AAC codec at 256kbps. Many new albums are now ‘Mastered for iTunes’, which basically means that music is encoded to sound good even at lower bit-rates. For more information on ‘Mastered for iTunes’ albums, check out this link.

Persistant previews

One of the unique things about music in the iTunes Store app is that it can be previewed while you peruse the rest of the iTunes Store interface. Once you begin playing a preview, you can switch tabs and still see the preview of the song, including its progression, a stop button, and a button for purchasing the song.

Explicit

Switching between Explicit and “Clean” music content

Most of the albums contained within iTunes that features explicit lyrics are marked with a red ‘E’ to signify such. Most explicit albums available on iTunes feature “clean” versions that can be accessed via the Related tab on its single item view.

iTunes Radio

Accessing iTunes Radio directly from the iTunes Store app

Amongst all of the other albums, singles, and featured sections found in the Music tab, is the iTunes Radio section. Tapping any of the items found under the iTunes Radio section will cause the stock Music app to open and begin playing that station.

Movies

The Movies tab is unique, because Movies can be purchased and, in some cases, rented. Movies are the only form of media that features a rental option. Here is a list of all of the available genres found in the Movies tab of the iTunes Store app:

Genres

Kids & Family

Comedy

Action & Adventure

Classics

Documentary

Drama

Foreign

Horror

Independent

Music

Romance

Sci-Fi & Fantasy

Short Films

Sports

Thriller

Western

Pricing

Generally speaking, movies range between $9.99 and $19.99. Sometimes Apple runs amazing deals that allow you to pick up bundles of movies for one low price. For example, three movies that normal retail for $14.99 a piece might be sold for $9.99 collectively. That’s a savings of almost $35.

Standard definition movies are generally cheaper than their HD counterparts, but not necessarily. Usually, you can find the standard definition version cheaper by $2-5 dollars.

Renting

Notice the option to buy or rent

Sometimes, Apple will allow you to rent movies instead of buying them. In rarer cases, you’ll find movies that are only available to rent and not available for purchase. This is largely based on deals that have established with movie studios, so not all movies are available to rent. If a movie is available to rent, you’ll see a Rent button underneath the Buy button on the movie’s single item view. Rentals are always cheaper than buying a movie, but you only get temporary access to rented movies, whereas you get lifetime access to movies that are purchased.

A rental only title

Rented movies have a 30-day shelf life, assuming that you haven’t begun watching the movie. Once you start watching a rented movie, you have 24 hours (US) to complete the viewing. If you live somewhere besides the United States, the watch period is extended to 48 hours. Rented movies can be watched as many times as desired within the window periods.

Quality

Switching between HD and SD content

Most new movies are available in high definition (720p or 1080p), but you have the option to watch purchasable and rental movies movies in standard definition as well. Standard definition movies are usually cheaper (though, not always) and download faster due to the smaller file size. High definition movies feature an ‘HD’ logo next to the title of the film. You can switch between HD and SD versions of a film by scrolling to the bottom of the single item view’s Detail tab, and tapping the “Also Available in…” button.

Tones

If you want a quick and easy way to add ringtones to your iPhone, then the Tones section of the iTunes Store is the section for you. While the ringtones available on the store are severely overpriced in our opinion, it’s hard to argue with the sheer convenience of simply downloading a ringtone and using it immediately.

Ringtones are insanely overpriced

Ringtones can be created by other much-less convenient means, but the fact that Apple has so many tones so readily available makes it an easy sell. You can find the following genres to meet all of your ringtone needs:

Genres

Alternative

Blues

Children’s Music

Inspirational

Classical

Comedy

Country

Dance

Electronic

Hip-Hop/Rap

Jazz

Latin

Pop

R&B/Soul

Reggae

Rock

Singer/Songwriter

Soundtrack

World

Dialogue

Music

Sound Effects

Like the Music tab, you can preview ringtones found in the Tones tab and they are of the persistent variety. This means that you can preview a ringtone and browse the rest of the iTunes Store interface while still being able to stop or purchase that ringtone at any given time.

Once purchased and downloaded, you can assign your ringtone directly to a contact or make it your generic ringtone for your entire device.

TV Shows

Genres

Animation

Classic

Comedy

Drama

Kids

Nonfiction

Reality TV

Sci-Fi & Fantasy

Sports

Pricing

Quality

Like movies, TV shows come in SD and HD versions. The HD versions are usually more expensive than their SD counterparts by about a buck.

Season Pass

The Season Pass feature is exclusive to TV shows found in the iTunes Store. Season Pass allows you to purchase an entire season of  a show before all of the season’s episodes have been released. It’s sort of like pre-ordering a full season, which means you don’t have to worry about purchasing each episode individually as it arrives on iTunes.

Purchasing a Season Pass

Season Passes often come at some sort of monetary discount, and at times, include bonus content. Season Passes are only available for TV shows that are currently running on broadcast TV. Shows that have finished airing can be purchased as a full season, which is different than a Season Pass. When new Season Pass episodes arrive, you’ll be sent an email alerting you of the episode’s availability.

Details on how Season Pass works

A Season Pass includes all current and future episodes of a particular show’s season. Current episodes will download immediately after purchasing  Season Pass, and future episodes will download when you sign in to iTunes on your device.

Audiobooks

The last media category available in iTunes is the often overlooked Audiobook. The following Audiobook categories are available to choose from:

Categories

Arts & Entertainment

Audiobooks Latino

Biography & Memoir

Business

Classics

Comedy

Drama & Poetry

Fiction

History

Kids & Young Adults

Languages

Mystery

News

Nonfiction

Programs & Performances

Religion & Spirituality

Romance

Sci Fi & Fantasy

Science

Self Development

Speakers & Storytellers

Spoken Word

Sports

Technology

Travel & Adventure

Pricing

Breaking the mold of every other form of media available in the iTunes Store, audiobooks are priced with a five cent ending value instead of a 9 cent ending value i.e. $9.95 vs $9.99. Prices of Audiobooks vary greatly. I’ve seen some as low at 5.95, and some closer to the $30 range.

Previews

Audiobook previews differ slightly from music and tones previews

Unlike the previews available for Music and Tones, the previews available in the Audiobooks tab are good old fashioned HTML embeds. Each preview is about 90 seconds in length.

Search

The iTunes Store search is a bit different than one might expect. Instead of only searching for the categories of media directly available in iTunes, it searches for media outside of the iTunes Store as well. When you perform a search, here are all the different types of media that you can find:

Songs

Albums

Movies

Podcasts – Podcasts app required

Podcast Episodes – Podcasts app required

TV Seasons

TV Episodes

Books – iBooks Required

Audiobooks

Music Videos

Ringtones

Alert Tones

Collections – iTunes U required

iTunes U Episodes – iTunes U required

Courses – iTunes U required

iTunes U Materials – iTunes U required

The search result page features a filter near the bottom of the search box for filtering the type of media that is displayed. You can select the All section to display all of the forms of media, or you can choose the Songs, Albums, or More section to filter the search results.

Search is a powerful way to find a variety of media content

Selecting the More tab will open up a scroll selector at the bottom of the interface, which allows you to select from the following filters:

All

Songs

Albums

Movies

Podcasts

TV Seasons

Books

Audiobooks

Music Videos

Ringtones

Collections

Courses

The one media type that’s noticeably missing is apps. Apps can only be searched and downloaded via the App Store app. With that in mind, be sure to view our Ultimate App Store guide for more information on downloading apps.

Genius

You can use the Genius tab to find additional media that may appeal to you. Genius results are similar to those that you’ll find when using the Music app. The Genius algorithm is able to find Music, Movies, and TV Shows that you may like based on your other content and purchased items.

The Genius page features three sections that return results based on your likes. The three sections are:

Music

Movies

TV Shows

Music is broken up into songs and albums. Movies and TV Shows are just a list of movies that Genius thinks you might like. Genius allows you to swipe to rate the movie and TV show picks to help further curate its selections.

It looks like my wife has been using my Apple ID

You can break Genius suggestions down further by using the Genres button in the upper right-hand corner of the page. Genius will only return Genres that it thinks you might be interested in, so the list won’t be the exhaustive list that you’d find in other tabs.

Purchased

The Purchased tab contains a list of all the the purchases that you’ve made on the iTunes Store, regardless of the device that you purchased them on. Purchases are directly tied to an Apple ID, so you’ll find items that you’ve purchased on other devices listed here.

Accessing previously purchases content and downloading

Purchases are broken up into individual types of media. For example, the Music section in the Purchased tab only pertains to songs and albums that have been purchased. The Music section is further broken up into recent purchases, all songs, and an alphabetical list of all music items based on artist name.

The Purchased tab is broken up into different media types

At the top of the music section of the Purchased tab are two buttons for further filtering the music items. The All button displays all purchases, and the “Not on this…” button displays only items that have not been downloaded to the device you’re currently using.

Purchases are broken up into various categories

Purchased button oddity

The Purchased button links to the stock Music app’s Playlist tab

In the upper right-hand corner of the Download tab, you’ll find a Purchased button, which, one would think, would lead back to the Purchased tab in the iTunes Store app. Not so. The Purchased tab links to a Purchased playlist in the stock Music app, that may or may not exist. It’s the weirdest thing, and I don’t see why Apple decided to map this button to the stock Music app, no less to a playlist that can be easily removed by the user.

Settings

At the top of the iTunes & App Store preferences, you’ll find a section for entering in your Apple ID. This is the Apple ID that will be associated with all iTunes Store purchases. It’s also the Apple ID that you should use for the account that contains previous purchases that you want to re-download.

Conclusion

The iTunes Store is an app stuffed to the brim with content. It’s an exhaustive collection of some of the best media available. iTunes is the digital entertainment hub, and it’s one of the reasons that people stay locked into the Apple ecosystem.

How To Play Mp3 Or Audio Without Adding To Itunes Library On Mac

Want to play an mp3, m4a, or audio file on a Mac, but you don’t want to add that MP3 or audio file to your iTunes Library?

There are a few different ways to accomplish this task; one approach allows you to play an audio file in an iTunes playlist without copying it to the iTunes music library, and that works in iTunes for both Mac and Windows, and two other approaches will allow you to play audio files and mp3s on a Mac without using iTunes at all, instead utilizing either Quick Time or Quick Look, thereby never adding those audio files into iTunes or any playlist.

These tricks can be useful for one-off audio files that you just want to listen to but don’t want to permanently store on the computer. Maybe it’s a shared voice memo from an iPhone, maybe it’s a podcast you don’t want to store or listen to again, perhaps it’s a shared voicemail from an iPhone, or maybe it’s an audio file you need to hear but don’t want to save. There are many practical applications for this, as surely you can imagine.

In the examples below, we’ll be listening to a podcast mp3 file without adding the file itself to iTunes, the first method uses iTunes, the second option uses QuickTime, and the third option uses Quick Look.

How to Play Audio Files in iTunes Without Adding to iTunes Library

You can create a playlist for audio files without adding those audio files to the iTunes library itself. This is done by holding down a key while adding audio files to the iTunes app. Here’s how it works:

Launch iTunes on the Mac or Windows computer

From the file system of your Mac (or PC), locate the audio file you want to play in iTunes but not add to the library

Hold down the OPTION / ALT key and drag and drop the audio file into iTunes, this adds the audio file to iTunes playlist but will not copy the iTunes file to the iTunes media library

In the example screenshot below, four podcast files were added to iTunes in the general playlist, but without adding those podcast files to the audio library of iTunes itself.

This approach will add the audio file to the iTunes Library, but not copy the audio files to the iTunes media library on the computer, essentially using an alias or soft link from iTunes to the files original location on the computer.

You can later remove the audio file from iTunes playlist at any time if desired.

You may find it useful to know you can also use a similar approach to copy music and audio files directly to an iPhone, iPad, or iPod without adding the audio to iTunes as well, as discussed here.

But what if you want to play an audio file without even adding it to the iTunes playlist or library? What if you just want to listen to an audio file without iTunes at all, perhaps for hearing a podcast once, listening to an iPhone recorded voice memo, or hearing a shared audio file just once? The next options can be useful for that scenario.

How to Play Audio Files on Mac Without iTunes by Using QuickTime

QuickTime also offers a simple way to play nearly any audio file on a Mac without having to use iTunes at all, thereby preventing the audio file from being added to either an iTunes Library or iTunes playlist. This is great for a one-off listening, and if you want to avoid iTunes in general for whatever reason.

Open QuickTime on the Mac (found in the /Applications folder)

Drag and drop the audio file into the QuickTime Dock icon, or into the QuickTime app directly to open that audio file and play it directly in QuickTime

How to Play Audio Files with Quick Look on Mac

You an also play audio files directly in the Finder of the Mac by using Quick Look:

From the Finder of the Mac, locate the audio file you want to play

Select the audio file you want to play, then press the SPACE bar key on the Mac

The audio file will play automatically and will continue playing as long as the Quick Look preview window is open and in focus

The downside to Quick Look is that it Quick Look stops playing audio files when the Quick Look window is no longer in focus, or if another file is selected in the Finder.

Related

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