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The Internet Protocol (IP)

An IP address composes an essential part of the internet protocol (IP). Therefore, the full name of an IP address is the internet protocol address. The Internet protocol governs the most basic parts of internet communications, like packet transmission. Everything that goes out of your computer first uses the IP protocol before anything else.

After that, it branches out into two types of protocols that form a layer (known as the transport layer) on top of IP: connected, and connection-less. They are known, respectively, as the transmission control protocol (TCP, or TCP/IP) and the user datagram protocol (UDP).

With TCP, you must establish a means of communication with the server (as seen in the above image) before you are allowed into a virtual space that is allocated for you. This is much like establishing a phone call. The phone rings, and once the receiving end picks up, you both can have a conversation. You absolutely need TCP when you’re sending data and its reception must be confirmed.

UDP works more like the post office. You can send a message to a server at any time, without having to establish a connection. All you have to know is the destination address, and you send a datagram packet to that address, which it will read, interpret, and respond to accordingly. The differences in how computers interact through TCP and UDP are shown in the above image. Some applications prefer UDP (such as BitTorrent), because it doesn’t waste upstream bandwidth by sending confirmations (acknowledgement, or ACK, packets) of every single bit of data transferred. Instead, data that has not been sent is simply re-sent upon any further requests. Because of this, UDP is significantly faster for downloading.

These two protocols are the most used in the Internet Protocol (IP) Suite. For the sake of simplicity, this article will not dive into other parts of the suite.

Application Layer Protocols

We’re way past the days when simple text messages were transmitted across wires to relay information and commands to different servers. You now have YouTube and several other websites that you browse and enjoy on a daily basis. For sophisticated internet communications, we must have other protocols that function on a layer on top of TCP and UDP, known as the application layer.

Email clients often use either the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) or the Post Office Protocol (POP) for incoming messages. The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used for outgoing messages.

There are literally thousands of protocols out there, each used by an application to optimize functionality and add as many features as possible so you can be happy with the products you use. New versions of applications are often compatible with newer protocol versions, adding to the snowball of features you already enjoy. That’s how some mind-blowing features actually come to show up on certain applications.

Perhaps you now understand why it is that some online games require you to upgrade to a new version in order to continue playing on particular servers. The servers are likely using versions of its own communications protocol that are no longer compatible with your game. These problems are being dealt with as protocols continue to improve and mitigate the obstacles that prevent users of older applications from communicating and interacting with users of newer versions.

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Image crdit: network cables RJ45 connected to a switch by BigStockPhoto

Miguel Leiva-Gomez

Miguel has been a business growth and technology expert for more than a decade and has written software for even longer. From his little castle in Romania, he presents cold and analytical perspectives to things that affect the tech world.

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Mte Explains: Desktop Toolkits, Gtk+ And Qt

If you have been using Linux for quite a while, you will probably have seen some applications that are based on Qt or GTK+. So what exactly are these? Does it make any difference whether you are using Qt or GTK+ based application?

Let’s talk about Desktop Toolkits

One thing Desktop Toolkits do is provide these “standard” functions, so developers don’t need to implement them from scratch (i.e. a developer creating a text editor doesn’t need to draw all the fields and buttons for an “Open…” dialog from scratch, nor code the instructions to allow the user to browse for a file). As an additional bonus, programmers using these toolkits can make their applications consistent with others using that toolkit. And in the computer world, consistency is always a good thing.

In the Linux’s world, there are several desktop toolkits that are actively being used by the developers. GTK+ and Qt are two of such toolkits. The good thing about these toolkits is that they will work fine in different destkop environment. You can run Qt-based programs in GNOME, and apps built with GTK+ will work just fine in KDE. The main differences will be in how some of the elements behave (file selection dialogs might look quite different between Qt/KDE and GTK/GNOME applications), although developers have found some way to minimize these differences. For example, KDE includes a Control Center module to make things like the title bars and other style/theme elements for GTK apps match those of the Qt-based ones.

Qt: Cute and Functional

Qt (commonly pronounced “cute”) began in 1991 by a pair of developers who eventually found Trolltech (which was in turn bought by Nokia, then the commercial rights sold to Digia). Qt first came to prominence as the foundation of the K Desktop Environment, which most users know today as the KDE Software Collection. The more modern look of Qt compared to other toolkits at the time (it was common in the late 1990’s to still use applications written in Motif or even Xaw, which while still functional, were looking rather dated) set KDE on track to become the desktop environment for Unixes, including Linux.

However, some community members took exception to Qt’s licensing, which at the time included restrictions from redistributing modified versions. The debates went on, and the result was the decision to create a new, completely free toolkit.

Some well known Qt-based apps for Linux, in addition to every program in the KDE Software Collection, include popular media player VLC, robust desktop-publishing application Scribus, and the Calibre e-book management program.

GTK+: It’s Not Just for the GIMP Anymore

In addition to GIMP, other popular Linux applications using GTK+ are the Chromium browser (which is used to produce the Linux version of Google Chrome), multi-protocol instant messenger Pidgin, and other desktop environments such as MATE and LXDE.

Aaron Peters

Aaron is an interactive business analyst, information architect, and project manager who has been using Linux since the days of Caldera. A KDE and Android fanboy, he’ll sit down and install anything at any time, just to see if he can make it work. He has a special interest in integration of Linux desktops with other systems, such as Android, small business applications and webapps, and even paper.

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Glossary: Android Terms And Their Meanings

Android is the most popular mobile operating system that powers our phones, tablets, smartwatches, smart TVs, and many other connected devices. From using a selfie camera, to searching the Web with Google Assistant, to navigating real-world GPS traffic, it can be said that Android touches every aspect of our lives (unless you’re an exclusive Apple user, of course)

Accordingly, there are many Android terms that are familiar to us but we may not be aware of what they do. The following A-to-Z glossary explains these Android terms.

Android

First unveiled in November 2007, Android is both a mobile development platform and a Google brand. In fact, only around 70 percent of Android devices are based on Google. The remaining run on separate Android forks such as LineageOS, OxygenOS by OnePlus, Fire OS by Amazon, PhoenixOS, CyanogenMod (now discontinued,) and many more. All these forks are based on Android Open Source Project (AOSP), but none can commercially use the term “Android” to market their software.

Android’s range of device applications includes smartphones, tablets, smart TVs, PCs and laptops, gaming consoles, smartwatches, and connected vehicles.

Android adb

Android Debug Bridge (adb) is a terminal-based developer tool used to communicate a client computer with an Android phone, tablet, smartwatch, or any other Android device. It contains both specific commands built into the adb library or other commands in the terminal built over a Unix shell. There are many applications of using adb: installing apps outside Play Store, creating a full backup of the phone (on your computer), extracting APK from the phone, and installing an app on a secondary device.

Android Apps

Android applications (“apps” for short) offer a glimpse into the real functionality of Android devices. They consist of both preinstalled Google apps with Google mobile services (GMS) – such as Google Play, Gmail, Chrome, YouTube, Google Maps – and published apps to be downloaded from Google Play, Android’s official app store for Google-certified devices. You can also run third-party Android apps outside the Google ecosystem, and of course, there are apps that were designed for a non-Google marketplace.

Android Auto

Android Auto runs the Android platform and apps on a car display panel. While the primary motivation was to assist GPS navigation for drivers, today the platform offers a wide range of communication and entertainment options. With Google Assistant built in, one can easily go hands-free and stay connected to people through call and chat mode. (Although, we do not recommend that while you’re driving.)

Android One

Android One is an authentic Google certification for participating devices which guarantees at least two years of OS upgrades, long battery life, high quality hardware, monthly security updates, and only the most essential Google apps to reduce the problems of bloatware. You can find the list of devices endorsed by Google at the official link of Android One.

Android Open Source Project (AOSP)

AOSP is Android’s official open source system development project which can be used to create custom forks of Android, such as Phoenix OS. Although no credit to Google is required, it does oversee the general direction of AOSP.

Android Recovery Mode

Android phones come with a built-in recovery mode separate from the operating system. It can be accessed through a combination of key presses on the Android device. This can help you fix your Android phone problems such as automatic restarts, slowdowns, or other issues. There are various ways to get into recovery mode based on the manufacturer or specific Android device you use. For example, with most Samsung devices, you can press and hold the Power, Volume Up and Home buttons simultaneously to boot into Recovery mode.

Android Studio

Android Studio is the official Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for Android devices. It supports Windows, Mac, and Linux, is based on JetBrains’s IntelliJ IDEA software and uses Java, Cotlin, and C++. The freeware can be downloaded from Android Studio’s official site and contains features that include a rich layout editor and built-in integration with Google Cloud. Apart from Android Studio, the Android apps can be designed on Visual Studio, AIDE, Eclipse, Droid4X, Bluestacks, and more.

Android TV

Android TV is a customized entertainment platform enabled by Android for display on a “smart TV” device. With Google Assistant built in, it lets you play your photos, YouTube and Netflix videos, Spotify music, and other digital streaming app contents on a large screen. It also plays your regular Live TV shows, such as ESPN or NBA, and games such as Minecraft and Grand Theft Auto.

In various countries, Android TV is programmed by respective “global partners,” such as TV service providers, TV and streaming device brands, and Internet Service Providers.

Android Versions

Android operating systems have seen many different versions from its first launch, which trace a substantial evolution over the years. The following Android versions were released by Google.

Android 2.3 Gingerbread

Android 4.2 Jelly Bean

Android 4.4 KitKat

Android 5.1 Lollipop

Android 6.0 Marshmallow

Android 7.0 Nougat

Android 7.1 Nougat

Android 8.0 Oreo

Android 8.1 Oreo

Android 9 Pie

Android 10

Android 11 (the latest as of this post in Oct 2023)

Bloatware

Every Android phone sold in the market comes with pre-installed apps. Apart from these, there are many apps by the carrier that are considered “value-add” apps requiring extra payment. Since these extra apps consume valuable system memory and extra space, they are considered “bloatware.” To reduce the bloatware problem on your Android phone, consider buying only those devices that support Android One.

Custom ROM

Most factory Android devices come with a built-in ROM (or “stock ROM”). Since Android is an open source project, you may choose to develop your own custom ROM and add useful features to the ROM. LineageOS and Bliss OS are popular examples of Custom ROMs.

Emulator

To run your favorite Android apps and games on a larger PC or Mac screen, you need an application called an “emulator,” which recreates the mobile environment for a larger screen. You can go with many popular emulators, including GenyMotion and BlueStacks.

Factory Reset

By doing a factory reset, you reset the Android phone to its default state. All Android handsets are equipped with a factory reset option. Of course, you need to back up all your data before proceeding with a factory reset.

Fast Charging

Fast charging is an important feature in current Android phones, which is indicated in wattage (W) in device specifications. (The higher the wattage the better.) Handset manufacturers use various terms, such as “Quick charge,” “Super charge,” and “Superfast charge” to promote the high speed of charging. The downside of fast charging is that the device may get heated up, and it takes its toll on battery life.

Find My Device

Find My Device is a Google service that makes it easy to locate, ring, or erase your device from the Web. If you’ve misplaced your phone, you only have to sign in into your official Google account associated with the handset, and Find My Device will trace its global location. You can remotely delete your associated device data even if it falls into the wrong hands.

Google Assistant Google Play

Google Play is Android’s official app distribution environment which allows the user to download any app published within the Google ecosystem. To publish their apps with an aim of monetization, developers need to spend a one-time fee of $25 and get an approval from Google. Despite being the world’s largest mobile apps repository (followed by Apple’s App Store), Google Play is conspicuously absent in many countries, such as China, the largest Android apps market.

LineageOS

LineageOS is a free and open-source Android custom ROM, which is big on user personalization, security, and privacy. As a custom ROM, it has its own ensemble of open-source apps that mirror Google Play and pre-installed Google apps.

Nexus

Nexus was a range of consumer devices by Google which operated on the Android operating system. The most recent version was the Nexus 9 tablet by HTC, which included features such as a multi-touch screen, accelerometer, gyroscope, and Android 7.1.1 Nougat support. The Nexus range of devices has now been superseded by Google Pixel devices.

OxygenOS

If you’re a OnePlus smartphone user, then you are using its official Android-based operating system, OxygenOS. It is a huge upgrade on Stock Android with several smart, swift, efficient, and intuitive features. Unlike many other forks, OxygenOS integrates official Google apps such as Gmail, Google Maps and Google Duo.

Pixel

Pixel is the latest range of flagship Google devices based on the Android operating system. They have superseded the Nexus range. Pixel Android phones include Pixel 4 and Pixel 4a. Pixel C and Pixel Slate are the latest tablets. Pixelbook Go is Google’s latest Pixel device.

TWRP

TWRP (Team Win Recovery Project) is an open source custom recovery image for Android devices. It provides a touchscreen-based interface that allows users to install third-party firmware, and is used in flashing, installing, and rooting Android devices. You can download the latest TWRP for your own device at the official link.

Wear OS

Wear OS is Google’s official operating system for Android-based wearable devices, including smartwatches, fitness trackers, and other wearables. It is operated using Google Assistant, and uses Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, 3G/4G, and more in the roadmap. It contains features such as an always on feature and a “tilt to wake screen” setting. Users are currently operating their WearOS devices on their phones, bikes, while walking, and much more.

Sayak Boral

Sayak Boral is a technology writer with over eleven years of experience working in different industries including semiconductors, IoT, enterprise IT, telecommunications OSS/BSS, and network security. He has been writing for MakeTechEasier on a wide range of technical topics including Windows, Android, Internet, Hardware Guides, Browsers, Software Tools, and Product Reviews.

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Types Of Computer Ports And Their Function

You might have noticed a variety of ports on the back of your CPU casing. There might even be some on the front, on the sides, or the top. Many people are familiar with USB and audio ports. But what are all the other ports, and why do we need them?

If you’ve been wondering this question, then we have this article that is tailored for you. Please read, and enjoy!

A computer port is a junction or a connecting point between a peripheral device and your computer. Peripherals such as keyboards, mice, monitors, speakers, external storage device, etc all need a method to communicate with your computer. 

This is where ports come in. By providing a junction point where the peripherals can attach, they enable the peripherals to communicate with the CPU and carry out their normal functionalities.

As to why there are so many different ports of varying shapes and sizes, the simple answer lies in the fact that various peripherals have varying compatibility, bandwidth, optimization, and shape requirements. There has been some initiative to unify all various port types in the form of USB-C in recent times, however, that does not change the fact that there is still legacy hardware that uses various different types of ports.

Now let’s take a look at the most common computer ports and their functions one by one.

PS/2 ports are 6-pin connectors that were used to connect legacy keyboards and mice. This port was invented by IBM. You usually see two of these ports in older computers, one for a keyboard and mouse each.  

The two PS/2 ports were color-coded and labeled for insertion of keyboard and mouse connectors separately. These two devices use different sets of commands which means the ports were not interchangeable for them even though the ports were physically identical and employed the same communication protocol.

Most modern computers have done away with these ports in favor of USB. Some may provide a single PS/2 port for legacy support, onto which you can insert either a keyboard or a mouse receptacle. 

This is because PS/2 devices do not require drivers, thus they can operate in BIOS. Some USB devices may not operate in BIOS.

The port also inherently supports N-key rollover, which makes them attractive to gamers.

Some corporations might choose PS/2 over USB ports for security reasons.

Also known as COM port, these are communication ports that are used to connect devices such as mice, keyboards, and modems. These ports had either a 9-pin or a 25-pin configuration. These ports support hardware compliant with the RS-232 standard. 

The port was designed for a serial communication interface. Information transfer occurred serially 1-bit at a time and the interface had a bandwidth capacity of 115 KB/s.

These devices have been mostly superseded by USB as well, however, they still find some use in modern hardware where peripherals do not demand much bandwidth capacity, such as Point-of-Sale terminals, industrial automation, some data acquisition systems, etc. 

Also known as LPT port, these ports were designed for the parallel communication interface. These ports had a 25-pin configuration.

In contrast to serial communication, parallel ports allow the transmission of multiple bits of data simultaneously.  These are also commonly identified as printer ports. These ports support the IEEE 1284 standard protocol of communication.

Once ubiquitous, these ports have also been largely replaced by USB ports. Some legacy printers and scanners might still use parallel ports.

FireWire Port was developed by Apple along with Sony and Panasonic, and other companies. It uses IEEE 1394 standard interface. It is also known as chúng tôi (Sony) and Lynx (TI).

FireWire ports come in 4-pin, 6-pin, and 8-pin configurations. They are capable of 40 – 500 MB/s data transfer rate. 

FireWire ports are used for transferring audio/video data from digital camcorders. They can also be used for storage media, and to set up improvised ad-hoc networks, which can be set up without the need for a router.

The game port, as the name suggests, was developed as a connector for joystick input for IBM-compatible PCs in the 1980s and 1990s. Like many other legacy ports, these have now been largely deprecated by the use of USB ports.

Game port uses a D-sub connector, also used by the VGA port, that was compatible with four analog channels and four buttons. At the time when they were widely used, they supported two joysticks with two buttons or a single gamepad with an analog stick and four buttons.

The small Computer System Interface (SCSI) interface is used for connecting disk drives and has been around since 1982. SCSI enabled daisy chaining of multiple devices using a single cable. Thus, as opposed to the competing IDE technology of the era, SCSI is capable of connecting up to 7/15 devices at a time. 

Even though the SCSI saw the most widespread adoption for storage devices, it is also able to interface with optical drives and scanners.

Video Graphics Array (VGA) is an analog video interface that uses a D-sub connector with 15 pins. It was first introduced in 1987 with IBM PS/2 computers. 

It is used to send video signals between the computer and a monitor or external display.

Although modern VGA adapters can support up to 2048×1536 resolution, they have largely been displaced by digital interfaces such as HDMI and DisplayPort in recent times.

An audio jack or a headphone jack is used with audio-in and audio-out ports for the transmission of analog audio signals. A standard audio jack is 6.35 mm in diameter. However, for use in personal computers, a miniature size (3.5 mm) is used.

Audio ports can be audio-in, which carries analog audio signals to the computer, for e.g., from a microphone, and audio-out, which carries signals from the computer to an external speaker or headphones.

Some computers have an integrated audio port that can transmit both audio-in and audio-out signals with a single jack.

You can also commonly see these ports in other devices such as your cell phone and speakers. 

The ethernet port or RJ45 is a type of 8 positions 8 contacts (8P8C) connector. They have 8 pins which are the terminal points of 4 sets of twisted pair cables in a cat5/5e/6/6e cable.

Ethernet ports are used for connecting to a network. The Internet Protocol is also carried over ethernet, so they are a key cornerstone in modern internet architecture.

They are capable of data transmission upto 5000 Mbit/s. However, they are commonly used for data transmission upto 1000 Mbit/s.

Digital Video Interface is a video transmission interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG) in 1999. The interface can transfer analog (DVI-A), digital (DVI-D), and both digital and analog (DVI-I) signals. The analog mode DVI-A is even compatible with the VGA standard.

The DVI Port has a matrix of square pins that consists of three rows on its left. There can be up to 24 such pins depending upon the mode of DVI interface that is being employed. In the center of the right side is a flat blade, and there can be up to four square pins around the flat pin on either side on the top and bottom. Thus, a DVI port has upto 29 connector pins in it.

DVI connectors come in either a single-link or dual-link variety. Single link DVI has support for resolutions up to 1920×1200 at 60 Hz and dual-link DVI has support for resolutions up to 2560×1600 at 60 Hz. There is even a DMS-59 variant of the DVI port, which can provide two DVI outputs in a single connector.

DVI ports are mostly used for computer video output to a monitor or external display. DVI interface supports High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) protocol, and hence it also sees widespread use in DVD players, HDTV sets, and projectors for transmitting copyright-protected, encrypted video signals.

HDMI Ports are connectors for High-Definition Multimedia Port (HDMI) interface that implements EIA/CEA-861 standards. Its development was started in 2002 by the HDMI founders, which consists of Hitachi, Panasonic, Philips, Sony, Toshiba, Silicon Image, and Thomson. 

There are various types of HDMI connectors available, but the one that is most used is type-A. The standard (type A) connector is 13.9mm x 4.45 mm with 19 pins. The latest version of HDMI (ver 2.1 as of 2023), has a theoretical maximum bandwidth of 48 Gbit/s and can support up to 10K 120 Hz displays. 

The signals carried by HDMI are compatible with DVI, and thus you can use a DVI-HDMI adapter without loss of video quality. Like DVI, HDMI also supports HDPC protocol.

HDMI is used to connect to external displays on PCs, Blu-ray and DVD players, digital cameras and camcorders, consoles, etc. Some cell phone devices also have HDMI video output in the form of a micro-HDMI port. 

HDMI interface is proprietary, hence manufacturers need to pay licensing fee per port for the implementation of HDMI in their devices.

DisplayPort is another video transmission interface based upon outlines standardized by VESA and developed by a consortium of PC and chip manufacturers. Designed in 2006 and starting production in 2008, DisplayPort is one of the latest graphics interfaces in widespread use today. 

There are two types of DisplayPort connectors. The standard connector is a 20-pin, and has dimensions 16.1 mm x 4.76 mm x 8.88 mm. It also has an option for a mechanical latch. The mini-DisplayPort connector also has 20 pins with dimensions 7.5 mm x 4.6 mm x 4.9 mm. It lacks the option for a mechanical latch.

The latest version, DisplayPort 2.0, was announced in 2023 and can support up to 16k @ 60 Hz resolutions on a single screen. It is compatible with HDMI and DVI standards with simple passive adapters. 

It has support for Multi-Stream Transport (MST), which means multiple independent displays can be connected to a single DisplayPort port. Other features include DisplayPort Content Protection (DPCP), support for HDCP,  and implementation of High Dynamic Range (HDR) standards.

The Universal Serial Bus is a standard of data transfer, communication, and power supply that was first introduced in 1997. There exists a wide variety of USB ports (14 in total till date), of which type-A and type-C are the most prevalent.

The USB standard has undergone numerous revisions. The various version of USB so far are:

USB 1.0

USB 1.1 (12 Mbit/s data bandwidth)

USB 2.0/revised (480 Mbit/s data bandwidth)

USB 3.0/3.1/3.2 (5/10/20 Gbit/s data bandwidth)

USB 4 (40 Gbit/s data bandwidth)

The type-A plug has an elongated rectangular shape and has 4 pins in total. Two of them are for data transfer and two for power transfer. The pins for data transfer are slightly recessed compared to the power pins.  However, USB 3 and newer standards have 5 additional pins for increased bandwidth and power transfer capabilities, for a total of 9 pins.

The type-C connected is also an elongated rectangular, but with sides that are curved. The connector/plug has 24 pins and is double-sided. This port was designed with future-proofing in mind. 

Today, the USB standard has found its use in the following applications:

Transfer of data and media.

Carrying streaming data compatible with interfaces such as HDMI, DisplayPort, and Thunderbolt

Power transfer, capable of powering and charging peripherals and devices. USB ports compatible with PowerDelivery standards are capable of transporting power upto 100-240 W.

List Of Chrome Urls And Their Uses

Google Chrome is one of the most valuable products for Google and it continues to grow and capture the largest portion of the browser market. From general consumers to developers, Chrome has something in store for everyone. Having such a broad user base, Chrome is bound to have lots of underlying features and tools which are hidden to make it seem approachable for general users. In plain terms, the browser has several hidden URLs which let you access many of its hidden features. So in this article, we bring you all the internal Chrome URLs which will allow you to open the treasure trove of Chrome features.

List of Chrome URLs and Their Uses in 2023

The list below will show you all the Chrome URLs and their usage. They will not only help you access the hidden features of Chrome but also allow you to debug it if you come across any problems. The picture below shows the list of all Chrome URLs that we will be discussing. Apart from them, we will also take a look at some other Chrome URLs which are strictly meant for debugging purposes.

1. chrome://about

It’s the central repository of all the internal URLs maintained by Chrome. We will cover all the URLs mentioned in this list. In case, you lose track of URLs, you can always open chrome://about to find all the links at one place.

2. chrome://accessibility 3. chrome://appcache-internals

It shows the list of web apps which have stored cache in Chrome. On my PC, Telegram and few other apps have stored 7MB of cache. Similarly, you can also find out the relevant web apps which have taken up space.

4. chrome://apps

It lists all the pre-installed web apps including YouTube, Google Docs, etc on your Chrome. If you install a new Chrome app, it will show up here. You can pin Chrome apps to your taskbar as well.

5. chrome://blob-internals

It displays a list of blobs which are stored on Chrome. Blobs are essentially large object data which are used to store images and videos.

6. chrome://bluetooth-internals

It displays whether the PC has Bluetooth functionality and other related information. Besides, it shows a list of Bluetooth devices which are connected to the PC.

8. chrome://chrome

9. chrome://chrome-urls

It shows all the internal Chrome URLs just like chrome://about. You can use either of those, but chrome://about is just so convenient.

10. chrome://components

It displays all the Chrome Components which are required by Chrome to function properly. For example, Widevine availability, Adobe Flash Player support, Chrome Recovery, etc. You can learn more about Chrome Components and their usage in detail by heading to the linked article.

11. chrome://conflicts

It captures conflicts between Chrome and PC and maintains a log for further analysis. Conflicts occur for all kinds of issues. Say, there is a time difference between system and Chrome or there is variation in TCP/IP protocol request and so on.

12. chrome://crashes 13. chrome://credits

It lists all the organisation and developers who have worked on Google Chrome with their license and homepage link. You can go through the long list of contributors who have made the Chromium project possible.

14. chrome://device-log

It records all the events that took place with PC like power, USB, Bluetooth, Network, etc. If there are any issues with the PC, you can find all the events here and fix it.

15. chrome://devices

It shows compatible devices which are connected to the PC. For me, it shows a wireless printer which is connected to my WiFi network. You can check yours too and configure accordingly.

16. chrome://discards

It displays some unique information about all the open tabs and whether they have been discarded from memory. You can go through the table to find more about the open websites and how well it’s optimized. Quite interesting.

17. chrome://download-internals

19. chrome://extensions

It displays all the Chrome extensions installed on your Google Chrome browser. You can go through the list and configure the extensions as you like. If you are a developer, you can enable the Developer mode from the top-right corner.

20. chrome://flags

It lists all the experimental features of Chrome which are not enabled by default. There are lots of interesting features and we have compiled a list of best Google Chrome flags for your perusal.

21. chrome://gcm-internals

It gives information about Google Cloud Messaging which is used by third-party developers to send push notifications. Besides, you can find all the website and apps which have permission to send push notification.

22. chrome://gpu 23. chrome://help

It opens the “About Chrome” page where you can check for Chrome updates. Additionally, you can report issues and go through the help guide as well.

24. chrome://histograms

It shows histograms of various service handlers as to how much time it took to render data. The graphs make it easy for developers to find the fault lines and optimize their code accordingly.

25. chrome://history

26. chrome://indexeddb-internals

It lists all the websites which have created a local database to store various information and blobs. These databases are actually app data and it’s encrypted so that no malware can access it.

27. chrome://inspect 28. chrome://interstitials

29. chrome://interventions-internals

It displays few internal flags, quality of the network, logs of intervention and blocklist status. Here, developers can check the intervention from scripts and external servers.

30. chrome://invalidations

It gives debug information about various service handlers so that developers can fix the issues. The service handlers are the primary components of Chrome, so the debug information significantly helps in quelling the bug,

31. chrome://local-state

It’s a debug page which lists all the local information tied to Google Chrome. The debug information is parsed in a programming language so that developers can easily go through the code.

32. chrome://media-engagement 33. chrome://media-internals

It lists all the media device like an audio speaker, webcam, etc available on the PC. You can also find a log which keeps all the media requests from various apps and websites.

34. chrome://nacl

It displays information about the operating system, Chrome’s version and support for Portable Native Client. The Portable NaCl lets developers test their apps and website for ARM, x86 and other platforms in a sandbox.

35. chrome://net-export

It lets developers export log of Chrome’s network activity. It can be used to find all the illegitimate outbound connections which were established with the PC.

36. chrome://net-internals

It lets you access various network settings like DNS, Proxy, Sockets and Domain Security Policy. Most of these network features are not available in Chrome’s main Settings page, so you can configure here.

37. chrome://network-error 38. chrome://network-errors

39. chrome://newtab

It opens a fresh new tab. Shortcut: CTRL+T

40. chrome://ntp-tiles-internals

It lists all the top websites which are displayed on the homepage with their URL and favicon address. You can add or remove top websites with your custom address as well.

41. chrome://omnibox

It lets developers debug Omnibox functionality with various tools. There are various parameters to test Omnibox with incomplete results, no suggestion and XML importing.

42. chrome://password-manager-internals 43. chrome://policy

It displays all the user and security policies running on Chrome. My PC is running two sets of policies: Chrome and Google Account Policy. You can check for your Chrome too.

44. chrome://predictors

It lists all the probable key strings which can be used to predict websites. The most interesting part is that Chrome keeps a log of hits and misses in a table and you can see it right here with all the website strings.

45. chrome://print

It opens Chrome’s default Print setting where you can customize the page layout and other relevant options. From here, you can save the web page in a printable format directly to your Google Drive.

46. chrome://process-internals

It lists all the websites and extensions running in Chrome with their frame information. It’s very similar to Task Manager’s process tab. However, you can’t forcefully kill a process in Chrome.

47. chrome://quota-internals 48. chrome://safe-browsing

It keeps a log and updates its database about all kind of malware and suspicious websites. It’s very similar to the anti-virus definition update we do on our desktop. However, for Chrome, Google maintains its database of nefarious websites and malware.

49. chrome://serviceworker-internals

It lists all the websites which have stored javascript on Chrome. While javascript is essential for the web, sometimes harmful scripts make their way to the computer. So go through the list and unregister the ones which seem odd to you.

50. chrome://settings

51. chrome://signin-internals

It displays sign-in information of all the accounts signed into Chrome. Here, you can see all the essential data points like token ID, authorization flag, timestamp, and cookie information. All these parameters are required for seamless sign-in.

52. chrome://site-engagement 53. chrome://suggestions

It gives you suggestions about Chrome. I got no suggestion, though.

54. chrome://supervised-user-internals

It provides information about the user, whether the user is adult, if supervision is required and so on. There is also an option for site filtering, but it didn’t work.

55. chrome://sync-internals

It provides several options to customize sync intervals for various service handlers. Chrome is preferred because it seamlessly syncs with your Google account. Here, you can find all the service handlers in action.

56. chrome://system

It displays information about the system, the OS version, keyboard layout, and installed extensions.

57. chrome://terms 58. chrome://tracing

It lets the developers test their web pages and apps with various internal tools. There are several testing options like latency, UI rendering, javascript loading time, etc.

59. chrome://translate-internals

It gives information about user’s default language, translation preference and supported languages. There is also an event viewer where developers can analyze internal logs during translation session.

60. chrome://usb-internals

It displays compatible USB devices connected to the PC. You can even add a USB device with the serial number and verify your account. Perhaps, the Titan Security Key works on this technology.

61. chrome://user-actions

62. chrome://version 63. chrome://webrtc-internals

It lets developers create a dump of audio streams or event data to analyze audio related issues. It can help developers who are trying to build apps and websites based on real-time communication (RTC) technology.

64. chrome://webrtc-logs

It displays the event logs captured during real-time communication so that developers can debug WebRTC issues.

Chrome URLs to Debug Google Chrome

There are a few Chrome URLs which are used for debugging purpose. At the moment, few URLs seem to function properly, but most of them don’t work at all. Here are a few working URLs which may help in debugging.

1. chrome://gpuclean

It clears the old GPU configuration and starts afresh.

2. chrome://quit 3. chrome://restart

It restarts Chrome instantly.

4. chrome://crash/

It crashes Chrome.

Other Chrome URLs

Apart from the above mentioned Google Chrome URLs, there are a few other Chrome URLs which are meant for debugging Chrome but do not appear to be working at the time of publishing this article.

chrome://badcastcrash

chrome://inducebrowsercrashforrealz

chrome://crashdump

chrome://kill

chrome://hang

chrome://shorthang

chrome://gpucrash

chrome://gpuhang

chrome://memory-exhaust

chrome://ppapiflashcrash

chrome://ppapiflashhang

chrome://inducebrowserheapcorruption

chrome://heapcorruptioncrash

Make Use of Chrome URLs

Hierarchy Of Civil Courts And Their Jurisdiction

Legal Provisions for the Hierarchy and Jurisdiction of Court

To understand the hierarchy of civil courts working in India, we have to look at the provisions precisely mentioned in the Code of Civil Procedure (1908). Information about the types of courts and their hierarchies is provided in Sections 3, 7, 8, 23, 24, and 25 of the Code of Civil Procedure. Whereas to understand the jurisdiction of various courts, one has to look at the provisions provided under Sections 6, 9, and 15 to 25.

Hierarchy of Courts in India

We have a three-tier hierarchy of civil courts in India. At the bottom of the echelon, we have the subordinate court. They are also called “District Courts,” as they function in a particular district of the state. Each district has a distinct district court, which is presided over by the district judge. The district judges are administratively superior to all the judges in that district. Now, within a district, there are other civil courts that are subordinate to district courts and presided over by a civil judge in the junior or senior division, functioning under the supervision of the district judge.

The second level in the hierarchy of courts is the High Court, which functions in each state. The High Court is the superior judicial body in the state. The High Court supervises the judicial functions of the District Court and the court below the district court. The High Court is the body that is responsible for the recruitment of district judges and subordinate judges within a state. The High Court exercises its administrative control over the subordinate judges, including the District Court judge. In terms of judicial functions, the High Court hears appeals from district court decisions in addition to having its own ordinary original jurisdiction.

Then at the third and top level in the hierarchy of courts is the Supreme Court of India, which exercises supervisory control over the high courts. The judges of the Supreme Court play a crucial role in the appointment of the judges of the high courts. The High Court judges are being appointed by the Government of India on the recommendations of the collegium, which consists of the senior judges of the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court hears appeals from the judgments and decisions of the High Court.

Jurisdiction of the Courts

After understanding the court hierarchy, it should be a little easier to understand the jurisdiction of these courts. The power of the court to decide a dispute is referred to as “jurisdiction.” The jurisdiction of a civil court is based on two aspects, namely, territory and the valuation of the subject matter in dispute.

Types of Jurisdiction

The jurisdiction of the court in India may be into classified into three categories namely −

Territorial Jurisdiction

Pecuniary Jurisdiction

Appellate Jurisdiction

Let’s discuss each one of them separately in brief −

Territorial Jurisdiction

Territorial jurisdiction is an extension of the regions within the limits of which the court exercises its judicial function. It means the civil disputes that arise in a specific region or territory are being assigned to a particular court for trial and adjudication. This particular territory is called the territorial jurisdiction of the court.

Pecuniary Jurisdiction Appellate Jurisdiction Conclusion

To sum up the entire topic, we have at the lowest level of hierarchy a District Court in each district, under which there are subordinate courts, namely the Court of Civil Judge Senior Division and the Court of Civil Judge Junior Division. The District Judge has unlimited peculiar jurisdiction in civil matters and territorial jurisdiction over the entire district. The subordinate District Court has limited pecuniary jurisdiction over civil disputes up to a few thousand rupees. The territorial jurisdictions of these subordinate courts are also limited, extending either up to the local limit of a town or up to a certain part of a district.

Then, at the second level, the High Court has unlimited pecuniary jurisdiction. With regard to any civil dispute, however, the territorial jurisdiction of the High Court is confined to the territory of the respective states within which the High Court is located. Then, at the top level, the Supreme Court of India has territorial jurisdiction over the entire territory of the country and unlimited pecuniary jurisdiction in relation to a civil dispute, which is of course conditional, and the condition is either the dispute should have been first tried and decided by the High Court of the state within which the civil dispute arises or the dispute should have a special case wherein some sort of grave injustice has been done by any court, a special leave petition has been allowed by the Supreme Court, and the permission to hear that particular and peculiar case has been granted in that particular and peculiar case.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What are the different levels of courts in India?

Ans: In India, there are three levels of courts, the Supreme Court at the highest level, the high courts at the middle level, and the district courts at the lowest level.

Q2. What is the pecuniary jurisdiction of the court?

Ans: The pecuniary jurisdiction of a court is decided on the basis of the limit of the monitory value of a civil dispute, over which the court is empowered to decide.

Q3. What is the territorial jurisdiction of a court?

Ans: Territorial jurisdiction is an extension of the regions within the limits of which the court exercises its judicial function.

Q4. What is the appellate jurisdiction of a court?

Ans: Appellate jurisdiction is the power of the court to hear appeals from the decisions of the lower court. Generally, the superior court has the power to hear appeals from the decisions of the lower court. Therefore, the Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction over the High Court. The high court has appellate jurisdiction over the district court and the district court hears appeals from the decisions of the civil court of the senior division and junior division.

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