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SATA is two different things: a physical connector standard and a logical communication bus. When SATA was first designed, the two were linked. In fact, the physical SATA connector can only use the logical SATA bus. However, the SATA bus can be accessed over newer physical connectors. In this article, we’ll cover both.

The SATA Bus

In computing, a logical bus is a communication protocol to transfer data. SATA stands for Serial AT Attachment. The AT isn’t technically an acronym to avoid patent infringements. It is based on IBM’s predecessing Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) standard, which was later renamed PATA. The P standing for Parallel to differentiate it from the Serial bus. The SATA protocol was first standardized in 2003.

The SATA Connector

The SATA protocol came with a new connector, a pair of connectors: one for data and one for power. Both connectors are long and thin with a small L shape at the end to ensure they’re connected the right way up. The power connector is wider than the data connector, making it easy to distinguish. The power cable plugs into the drive directly from the PSU. In contrast, the data cable will connect the drive to the motherboard.

Other Connectors

There are a small variety of secondary connectors included in the SATA standard. However, most were short-lived and can’t be found in modern devices. Outside of the SATA standard, the physical M.2 connector supports transferring data over the SATA bus. When purchasing M.2 SSDs, it’s important to double-check if the SSD is a SATA or NVMe drive.

SATA M.2 drives will use a B key, though most M.2 SATA drives also have an M key cut out. The M key has a cut-out after five pins from the right. The B key has the cut-out after 6 pins from the left. Most M.2 SATA drives have both keys cut out, making them easy to identify.

When looking over an M.2 connector, the key is a visual indicator of what bus the slot is connected to. Typically, it is connected to the NVMe bus for high-speed connectivity. But with the B key, data instead runs over the SATA bus. This has the same limitations as the standard SATA connectivity and does not support any extra bandwidth.

Any M.2 slot will only have a single key cut-out, depending on which bus it connects. This makes it impossible to accidentally connect an NVMe M.2 SSD to a SATA M.2 port. While a dual-keyed SATA SSD can physically plug into an NVMe M.2 slot, it is still limited to the SATA transfer speeds. Additionally, this would be non-standard and may not be supported by the BIOS.

What is SATA Good for in a Modern Computer?

SATA is primarily useful for storing data where the writing and reading of said data are not time-sensitive. This can work well for images, relatively low-resolution video, or standard documents where the read/write time is in a relatively short burst. Or the required transmission speed for real-time use is below the bandwidth restrictions of the drive over the SATA connection.

For example, suppose you want to save a word document. In that case, the amount of data to be read or written is so tiny that the relatively slow speed of SATA isn’t an issue. Similarly, the bitrate needed to watch or save 720p 30fps video is lower than the maximum data rate of the SATA connection.

SATA isn’t ideal when speed is an essential factor, or substantial transfers are likely to happen. For example, suppose you want to edit 4K 60fps video footage. In that case, the bandwidth SATA offers simply isn’t enough to do this in real-time. Loading times in video games are also slower on SATA drives as the data simply can’t get loaded into the RAM and VRAM fast enough. Similarly, these will take longer over a slow SATA connection if you want to perform large system backups. Critically it will also take longer to restore from a backup over SATA.


Due to speed limitations, SATA is a legacy connector and logical standard primarily useful for HDDs. Early SSDs used the connector because it was already standard, making market adoption easier. Additionally, early SSDs were much slower than modern drives due to low levels of technological maturity.

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Is Lastpass Safe? Here’S What You Need To Know

Joe Hindy / Android Authority

Password managers like LastPass offer to maximize your online security while also making logging into your accounts more convenient. The idea is simple — secure your vault with a single master password and generate complex random passwords for all of your other accounts. As one of the most popular password managers out there, however, is LastPass safe from attacks and should you use it?

In this article, let’s explore how password managers like LastPass work, whether they’re secure, and what it might take for an attacker to get their hands on your online credentials.

Zero knowledge encryption means that LastPass can never access your saved passwords.

That said, LastPass has recently found itself embroiled in controversy over multiple confirmed hacks and breaches. Very few password managers have reported as many successful attacks to date. Luckily, the aforementioned zero-knowledge security model has prevented attackers from accessing passwords.

Related: What is two-factor authentication and why should you use it?

How does LastPass store your passwords?

LastPass saves your usernames and passwords in an encrypted database, which is also commonly referred to as a vault. According to the company’s security disclosure, vaults are secured using 256-bit AES encryption. The key used to decrypt a vault is based on the account’s master password.

See also: What is encryption?

Even with an extremely powerful computer, a hacker would need several years, bordering on centuries, to crack a single AES-256 key. While that could change in the future, AES encryption is used to secure everything from military secrets to bank accounts.

Needless to say, it’s extremely unlikely that an attacker will brute force their way into your LastPass vault.

Does LastPass have access to your master password?

No, LastPass does not have access to your master password. And since the company doesn’t store your master password, no employee or malicious actor can decrypt the contents of your vault either.

When you sign up for an account, the app generates an encrypted vault locally on your device. The vault is then uploaded to LastPass’ servers in this encrypted state, where it’s stored as a backup. Each time you log into your account on a new device, the app fetches this backup and asks you to input your master password to unlock it.

LastPass does not store a copy of your master password.

It’s extremely important that you use a secure master password. Moreover, you should never use your LastPass master password anywhere else. Doing so dramatically increases the chances of an attacker gaining access to your password from elsewhere. From there, they can simply use it to unlock your LastPass vault.

Can LastPass be hacked?

Joe Hindy / Android Authority

LastPass is a frequent target of hackers and malicious attackers. Moreover, the company has a poor track record of warding off such attacks. While user passwords haven’t been compromised to date, the frequency of successful breaches is not a good sign for a security-focused company.

LastPass’ encryption keeps passwords safe, but you should still consider alternative password managers.

In conclusion, LastPass has never been compromised in the traditional sense — user passwords remain encrypted and safe on the platform. However, if you care about all-round security, you should definitely look for an alternative. And regardless of which password manager you choose, always enable two-factor authentication for an additional layer of security.

See also: 5 best free LastPass alternatives and how to transfer

Headphones And Hearing Loss: What You Need To Know

What We Know

A report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States demonstrates that up to a quarter of Americans between the ages of 20 and 69 have some form of hearing loss due to consistent noise levels. The American Osteopathic Association takes this one step further, saying that headphones may be responsible for one in five teens suffering from some minor or major form of hearing loss.

The data shows that a significant majority of people who listen to headphones at high volume or use certain kinds of headphones may put themselves at risk for permanent damage. When you look into a light or work out too much your body begins to “tolerate” the excessive stimuli and numbs itself. This also happens to your ears when you have consistent noise. It’s why tractor drivers and crane operators often wear safety earmuffs. The constant noise of the engine can make you deaf!

What Makes Hearing Loss Worse?

Loudness isn’t the only factor that promotes hearing loss. Consistency of noise and its duration can also numb your ears to the point that they’re ringing. Once you reach that point, you’ve experienced a moderate amount of damage. If you have ever listened to an MP3 player using powerful headphones at 85% of the maximum volume for more than an hour, you might have noticed that after removing them you have to acclimate to your environment again. In other words, your ears got so numb that every bit of speech around you sounds muffled for at least a few seconds or even a minute. Don’t ever do that again!

Prevention Methods

Unfortunately there is no perfect cure to going deaf. Your only hope here is to actively prevent it from happening in the first place. Even if you’re not under 30, now is a good time to take every measure you can to preserve every bit of precious hearing you have. Here are a few ways to do that at least as far as headphones are concerned:

Avoid using earbuds. They shoot noise directly into your ear canal without allowing some of it to escape. Headphones that surround your ear provide a milder listening experience, although they are a little more expensive. If you plan to use them, do so sparingly and with a moderately low volume.

Can you have a conversation with someone next to you? If you have a very hard time hearing anything anyone says around you, the volume is probably louder than it should be. I say probably because noise-cancelling headphones can block sounds from your environment without needing to blast music into your ears at volumes that will rip them to shreds. Speaking of which, you should get some noise-cancelling headphones if you want to block the outside world. Don’t raise your volume on normal headphones to do that.

Ask a person to stand one meter from you, then listen to something through your headphones normally. Ask that person if they can hear what you hear perfectly. If they say yes, lower the volume. It’s too loud!

The Takeaway

Everything I said above might make you hesitant to ever pick up your MP3 player again, but you really shouldn’t worry too much. Just make sure you’re listening to things at a reasonable volume and make sure you’re not spending way too much time with your headphones on (especially if you are using earbuds).

Miguel Leiva-Gomez

Miguel has been a business growth and technology expert for more than a decade and has written software for even longer. From his little castle in Romania, he presents cold and analytical perspectives to things that affect the tech world.

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What Is A Cryptocurrency Wallet? Everything You Need To Know

Edgar Cervantes / Android Authority

Cryptocurrencies are entirely digital, which means you can send or receive them with a corresponding digital wallet on a computer or smartphone. Still, you might be surprised to know that cryptocurrencies are not actually “stored” in a cryptocurrency wallet, or really anywhere.

Instead, your ownership is tied to a unique key. A cryptocurrency wallet offers a friendly interface to interact with this key, either to prove ownership or spend your balance. Wallet form factors are incredibly varied these days, ranging from mobile apps to USB stick-like devices.

Intrigued? Let’s decode how cryptocurrency wallets work, and what you should look for before picking one up for yourself.

What is a cryptocurrency wallet?

Edgar Cervantes / Android Authority

For decades, banks and other institutions were the only entities that could deliver financial inclusion to the masses. Now, cryptocurrency threatens to take over this role. What’s more, its proponents claim the technology can reach more people than traditional banking services. To understand how wallets fit into all of this, we must first distill how a cryptocurrency works under the hood.

Digital currencies are often understood to be a virtual equivalent to physical coins that can be pocketed or stored in a wallet. However, this is not exactly the case. Instead, a cryptocurrency is better described as a network of digital records, or a ledger of transactions.

In other words, you don’t own coins as much as you have a balance on the global cryptocurrency ledger. Your digital wallet then simply acts as a key to this balance — similar to how a password accesses your bank account. However, wallets are for more than just authentication.

As mentioned previously, the information about your balance is stored on the network. New changes, such as incoming or outgoing transactions, are also added to this ever-growing record and then propagated to others participating in the network. This is why cryptocurrencies are often credited with pioneering decentralized ledger technology, or more commonly, blockchain technology.

Read more: What is blockchain technology?

While a wallet’s primary utility is indeed to send and receive transactions, most modern options include quality-of-life features such as backup functionality as well. We’ll take a closer look at the various types of wallets later in this article.

To quickly summarize, wallets perform the following basic functions:

Display your cryptocurrency balance on the network.

Offer an interface to send and receive transactions.

Maintain a log of past transactions.

How do cryptocurrency wallets work?

Now that we know what a cryptocurrency wallet is and isn’t, let’s dig a little deeper and understand how it functions.

Cryptocurrency wallets come in a variety of shapes and sizes. A wallet may be a desktop program, mobile app, web-based app, or a dedicated hardware device.

Read more: What is cryptocurrency mining?

Private keys: Your gateway to owning cryptocurrency

Types of cryptocurrency wallets Software wallets

Software-based wallets represent the most widely-used kind of personal crypto wallets in recent years. These typically come in the form of a smartphone application or computer program. Getting started requires virtually no time. Download and install the wallet software on your device — that’s it!

The downside to using a software-based wallet is that your cryptocurrency holdings are only as secure as the underlying device. Sophisticated malware, for example, can scan for wallet-related files on your computer and drain your wallets in the background. And by the time you detect the intrusion, it may be too late.

Most wallets offer to encrypt your private keys to mitigate this risk, but in many cases, don’t do it by default. The Electrum Bitcoin wallet, for example, offers the ability to enable password-based encryption during initial setup.

Calvin Wankhede / Android Authority

Hardware wallets

Hardware wallets are purposely basic and minimal ,so as to eliminate any potential security flaws or attack vectors.

Hardware wallets also do not directly connect to the internet to minimize the chances of hacks or vulnerabilities. The companies that sell them also have a reputation at stake so they tend to fix bugs faster than software wallet developers.

Still, with modern devices such as the Ledger Nano X boasting Bluetooth connectivity, hardware wallets these days are only slightly less convenient than software-only alternatives.

Online wallets

Edgar Cervantes / Android Authority

If you have ever purchased or traded cryptocurrency, chances are you’ve used an exchange such as Coinbase or Binance.

These platforms offer online crypto wallets with one key distinction — they don’t give you full control. Any cryptocurrency balance you hold on an exchange is just a number associated with your account. This is because exchanges consolidate their users’ funds in a handful of wallets, much like a bank. Binance, for example, holds over $10 billion worth of Bitcoin in a single wallet.

Unfortunately, exchanges don’t have the best track record when it comes to safe cryptocurrency storage in the long-term. While the big names such as Coinbase and Gemini are less likely to lose funds these days, there’s still a non-zero probability of it happening. And you can’t expect governments to bail out cryptocurrency exchanges. Unlike banks, most exchanges aren’t insured.

Consequently, online wallets are the least secure option because they require you to trust a third-party’s security practices. If you can accept the responsibility of using a software or hardware wallet, you should aim to offload your holdings from exchanges as soon as possible.

Read more: 10 best crypto wallets for Android

Which wallet should you use? Back up your wallet!

If you ever lose access to the device containing your wallet, the seed phrase is all you need.

On the subject of good practices, make sure that you keep your wallet, seed phrase, and/or private keys in different places. Finally, create multiple copies and store them away from prying eyes. Many in the Bitcoin community swear by paper-based backups for their simplicity and resistance to cyber-attacks. Having said that, keep in mind that paper is also vulnerable to loss or destruction — so weigh these tradeoffs carefully.

Selecting the right cryptocurrency wallet for your needs may very well be the most important decision you make while starting out. Hopefully, this article has provided some insight into the inner workings of crypto wallets to help you make that decision. Either way, don’t be afraid to look around — software wallets are free to download, after all.

For further reading, check out our guide to buying cryptocurrency for information about exchanges, investing strategies, and taxation.

What Is Microsoft .Net Framework? Everything You Need To Know

While anyone can learn to code, software development is hard. This is why various Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) and tools have been created to bridge the gap between human and machine language.

One popular solution is Microsoft’s .NET Framework. So, whether you want to make software or use software developed with .NET, it’s worth knowing a little more about it.

Table of Contents

What Is the .NET Framework?

The .NET (aka. “Dot Net”) Framework is a software framework developed by Microsoft that provides a platform for building and running various applications, including desktop, web, and mobile applications. Like Java, it’s proven to be a popular development environment for programmers over the years.

.Net’s main purpose is to provide a common set of libraries and APIs for developers to use, making it easier to build and maintain applications. This saves you time and effort because you don’t have to worry about writing low-level code for common tasks, such as reading and writing data, handling security, etc.

One main feature that makes the .NET Framework popular among developers is its support for multiple programming languages. This means that developers can write their source code in a language they’re familiar with, such as C#, Visual Basic, or F#. It’s even possible to use .NET with the popular Python language if you use Python.NET.

Another important feature of the .NET Framework is security. The framework includes built-in security features that help protect against various security threats, such as malicious code, data theft, and unauthorized access to sensitive information.

The Components of .NET

The .NET framework is a collection of development tools with specific jobs. Developers who create software using .NET will rely on several components to make their jobs easier. Not every program uses every .NET component, but all these components are a part of .NET. The following are the main components most likely to feature in developing a .NET app.

CLR: The Common Language Runtime

CLR, or the Common Language Runtime, is the foundation of the .NET Framework. It executes your code and manages memory, security, and other system-level tasks. The CLR essentially acts as a bridge between your code, its compiler, and the underlying hardware and operating system, so you don’t have to worry about those low-level details.

Part of how this works is thanks to the CIL (Common Intermedia Language). It’s a low-level, intermediate language that is used in the .NET framework as a way of representing compiled code.

When you write a .NET application, the source code is compiled into CIL, which can then be executed by the .NET runtime. The CIL code is platform-agnostic, meaning it can run on any device with the .NET runtime installed, regardless of the underlying hardware or operating system.

FCL: The Framework Class Library

FCL (Framework Class Library), is a collection of reusable classes, libraries, and APIs that are available to all .NET developers. These classes and libraries provide a wide range of functionality, including file I/O, network communication, data access, and user interface components, to name a few. So, instead of writing all of this functionality from scratch, you can simply use the classes and libraries in the FCL to get the job done.

C#: .NET’s Bespoke Programming Language

C# is a programming language specifically designed for the .NET Framework. It’s a modern, high-level language that is easy to learn and use and provides many powerful features for building a wide range of applications. Whether you’re building a desktop application, a web application, or a mobile app, C# has you covered.

VB.NET: Visual Basic for .NET

VB, or Visual Basic, is another programming language supported by the .NET Framework. It’s known for its ease of use and rapid application development capabilities. With VB, you can quickly build applications that run on the .NET Framework.

ASP.NET: The .NET Web Development Platform

ASP.NET is a web development platform that allows you to build dynamic, interactive websites and web applications. It provides a robust set of tools and APIs for building modern, scalable web applications, and it integrates with other components of the .NET Framework, such as the CLR and FCL.

Windows Forms:- Making Desktop App Design Simple

Windows Forms is a toolkit for building desktop applications. With Windows Forms, you can build rich, interactive desktop applications that run on Windows without worrying about the underlying operating system.

WPF: Windows Presentation Foundation

This is a toolkit for building modern, immersive desktop applications. With WPF, you can create highly-responsive, visually attractive applications that run on Windows, and it provides many powerful features for building rich user experiences.

Entity Framework: Easy Databases Without SQL

Entity Framework is an Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) framework for .NET that makes it easier to work with databases in your applications. With Entity Framework, you can work with your database using strongly-typed .NET objects instead of writing raw SQL. It provides many powerful features for querying, updating, and working with your data.

LINQ: Language Integrated Query

This is a set of APIs for querying and manipulating data in .NET. With LINQ, using a concise and readable syntax, you can write expressive, type-safe queries against data in various forms, including databases, XML, and in-memory collections.

WCF: Windows Communication Foundation

This is a set of APIs for building service-oriented applications in .NET. With WCF, you can build services that can communicate with each other over various protocols, including HTTP, TCP, and MSMQ. It provides many powerful features for building secure, reliable, and scalable service-based applications.

CLI: The .NET Command-Line Interface

This is a cross-platform tool for managing .NET applications and libraries. It provides a simple, unified way to manage .NET projects, packages, and dependencies from the command line, regardless of the platform or development environment you’re using.

These are just a few of the many components and features available in the .NET Framework. The .NET Framework is a comprehensive platform that provides many tools and APIs for building high-quality applications, so there’s always something new to learn and explore!

The Flavors of .NET

These are the three main flavors of .NET, each with its strengths and use cases. Whether you’re building a traditional desktop application, a cloud-based service, or a mobile app, there’s a flavor of .NET that’s right for you.

.NET Framework: The Classic Flavor

.NET Framework is the original implementation of the .NET platform, providing a comprehensive set of APIs and libraries for building Windows-based applications. It’s been around for over a decade and provides many features for building robust, scalable applications for the Windows platform. If you’re building a traditional desktop application for Windows, the .NET Framework is probably the right choice.

.NET Core: The Cross-Platform Flavor

.NET Core (now just “.NET”) is a cross-platform, open-source implementation of the .NET platform. It provides a subset of the APIs and libraries available in the .NET Framework, but it has been designed to be highly modular, lightweight, and fast, making it ideal for building cloud-based applications and microservices. With .NET Core, you can build applications that run on Windows, Linux, and macOS, so you can reach a wider range of users and platforms.

Xamarin: The Native Mobile Flavor

Xamarin is a set of APIs and tools for building native mobile applications for iOS, Android, and other mobile platforms using .NET and C#. With Xamarin, you can reuse your existing .NET skills and code to build high-quality, native mobile apps. It provides many powerful tools and APIs for building rich user experiences on mobile devices.

Troubleshooting Common .NET Problems

As with any software toolset, there are bound to be bugs either in .NET itself or the apps developed using the system. Let’s look at common issues you may face as a .NET developer and as a regular user of apps made with .NET.

Common Issues for Developers

If you’re making software with .NET, there are three common issues you may encounter while coding the night away.

Package Management Issues

If you’re using .NET for a project, you’ll probably be relying on packages and libraries from the .NET ecosystem. Sometimes, these packages can cause conflicts or break your build. If you’re having trouble with packages, try using a package manager like NuGet to manage your dependencies. This can help ensure that you have the right versions of packages and that they’re installed correctly.

Performance Issues

If your .NET application is running slowly or is taking up too much memory, it’s important to identify and resolve the issue. Try using performance profiling tools to see what’s taking up time and resources in your application, and then make changes to optimize your code. You can also optimize your database queries and improve the overall architecture of your application.

You may also want to use.NET’s Garbage Collection (GC) feature, a memory management feature in the .NET framework that automatically frees up memory that is no longer being used by an application.

Deployment Issues

Deploying a .NET application can be challenging, especially if you’re deploying to a new environment. If you need help with deployment, try using a tool like Octopus Deploy to automate the process and ensure everything is installed and configured correctly.

These are just three examples of common classes of problems you might face if you want to develop using .NET, but with such a complex suite of tools and resources, there are bound to be many different and specific ways for things to go wrong. No one said coding was always easy!

Common Issues for Users

Logically, there are far more people using apps developed using .NET than those developing them, so chances are more likely that you’ll run into issues as a user rather than a developer. Let’s look at some common problems .NET apps can exhibit.

Error Messages

Like other app development platforms. .NET comes with an extensive collection of error messages. So one of the most common problems you’re likely to run into when using is an error message specific to .NET. There are far too many to list, but examples include:


: This error message occurs when the app is unable to find a required file. Try reinstalling the app or checking for any available updates.


: This error message occurs when the app is trying to access an object that doesn’t exist. Try restarting the app or your device. If the issue persists, try contacting the app developer for assistance.


This error message occurs when there’s an error in the configuration of the .NET Framework. Try reinstalling the app or checking for any available updates.


This error message occurs when the app is not authorized to access a resource. Check your permissions, or try restarting your device.

These are some more common examples, but you can simply paste the error message into a search engine like Google to see the specific problem.

Bad Performance

A common complaint with apps built on .NET is that they can be sluggish or have other general performance issues.

If the app is running slow or freezing, try closing other running apps, restarting your device, or clearing the app’s cache. If the issue persists, try reinstalling the app or checking for any available updates.

.NET Framework Mismatches

The .NET Framework is cumulative, meaning that each new version of the framework includes all the features and bug fixes from previous versions. This makes it easier for developers to target a specific version of the .NET Framework and be confident that it will include all the necessary components and bug fixes.

For example, if an app targets .NET Framework 4.7, it will also have access to all the features and bug fixes included in .NET Framework 4.6.2 and earlier versions. This allows for a more seamless development experience and helps reduce the number of compatibility issues.

However, you may run into errors or other issues if you have an older .NET Framework version than the required installed version. So it’s best to check that you have the latest version of .NET installed.

General .NET App Crashes

Like any software application, .NET programs can crash on you. The fix for the crash depends on the cause, and in general, the troubleshooting process is similar to apps developed with any other platform:

Restart the application

Check for updates

Disable add-ons or extensions, if applicable

Check that the app is compatible with your hardware and software environment

Collect crash logs

Use the .NET Framework Repair Tool

Contact the developer and provide them with information about the crash, such as the logs mentioned above

If the crashes are caused by bugs in the software, then only the developer or whoever has access to the source code can fix the issue!

.NET Learning

Whether you love or hate it, .NET is sure to be around for many years, and on most devices you use. If you decide to make your own software, it’s definitely an option that should be on your shortlist.

Quality Score Update: What You Need To Know

AdWords Quality Score Changes Sept. 12, 2024

The change from Google is that keywords with insufficient data, either new keywords or keywords with sparse recent history will now get a null QS. I think this is a useful change because it gives us cleaner data to monitor what Google really thinks about our accounts’ QS.

What Changes From the 2024 QS Update

The problem with the 2024 update was that it created two possible reasons why a keyword might have a QS of 6:

The keyword earned a QS of 6 based on its history

The keyword had too little data and was defaulted to QS 6

You can see why that can create some confusion: it’s very hard to determine if a keyword with a QS of 6 is worth optimizing or if it might improve on its own given a bit more time. In our research at Optmyzr we concluded that after approximately 100 impressions, an ad with a QS of 6 was probably really a QS 6 keyword and not merely waiting for more data.

For people who were monitoring account-level QS through scripts like the one I published or tools like the Quality Score Tracker from Optmyzr (my company), the 2024 change resulted in all accounts moving closer to an account-level QS of 6. In the example shown here, an account with great QS dropped a bit because a lot of keywords with sparse data got defaulted to QS 6.

What is Not Changing

If the ad is eligible to appear for the query

In what position the ad will appear (rank and top-of-page promotion)

The actual CPC needed to beat the next competitor

What extensions and other features like dynamic keyword insertion (DKI) the ad is eligible to use

Free AdWords Script to Calculate Account Quality Score

If you’re interested to track how the Sept 2024 change impacts your account QS, be sure to start calculating it before the change with a script like this one. By calculating the score before and after the change using the same methodology, you can get a good understanding of how the change impacts you directionally.

I first published a version of this script in 2013 and have now updated it in a few important ways:

It only uses QS data when the QS is a number from 1 to 10. Keywords with no QS, i.e. ‘–’ are excluded from the calculation.

The script still calculates the score using only data from Google Search. This is because different ad layouts on search partners could impact the score, so Google removes this variation by excluding data from search partners.

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