Trending March 2024 # Sel Audits Reveal Hidden Dimensions Of Teaching And Learning # Suggested April 2024 # Top 6 Popular

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Social and emotional skills and mindsets shape how we think about, feel toward, and engage with ourselves, each other, and the world. These can include antiracism, collaboration, and resilience, to list just a few examples. Some educators may think that teaching social and emotional skills and mindsets is a choice: Either we do it or we don’t. But actually, social and emotional learning (SEL) is happening everywhere and all the time.

According to psychologist Albert Bandura, humans are constantly internalizing social  and emotional cues from their interactions and relationships with others, their physical environment, and the prevailing social norms and routines. And, because we can also learn unhealthy social and emotional skills and mindsets—like racism, aggression, and helplessness—from our surroundings, it’s especially important for educators to bring awareness and intentionality to the hidden SEL curriculum. 

This post provides a technique for examining the way that SEL shows up in teaching and leading. I facilitate this activity as part of the Social-Emotional Teaching and Learning Institute I run at the Penn GSE Center for Professional Learning. Each time, participants have expressed that this particular activity was one of the most useful in transforming their social and emotional teaching and learning practice. (Indeed, all of the examples cited in this proposal come from former institute participants).

Social and Emotional Audits

Using Ronald Heifetz and colleagues’ observe-interpret-intervene framework to conduct a social and emotional audit can help you identify some of the social and emotional lessons that you (or your colleagues) may be reinforcing without even realizing it. Such audits can be applied to teaching and leadership situations.

First, observe yourself or a colleague in action, either in person or via video. As you watch, ask yourself: What do I notice about the actions, interactions, classroom setup, norms and routines, activities, and assignments?

Next, interpret these observations through a social and emotional lens by asking yourself: What social and emotional skills and mindsets are these choices explicitly or implicitly cultivating? Are these the SEL lessons that we want to be teaching?

Based on these insights, decide how you will intervene and apply these interventions with a spirit of experimentation.

Of course, analyzing our professional practice in this way requires a lot of vulnerability, so make sure to take the time to build a strong sense of belonging, safety, and trust before engaging in this process with others.

SEL Audits in Action

Here are some examples of SEL audits conducted by workshop participants:

A high school English teacher observed that her co-teacher regularly begins class by thanking their students for being there, thereby reinforcing the social and emotional mindset of gratitude. The English teacher decided that she too wanted to reinforce this mindset and committed to telling her students more often that she appreciates them.

A high school history teacher examined her classroom and noticed that, while she regularly displays student work on her walls, she tended to select student work that had received higher grades. In reflecting on the SEL implications of this choice, she felt it might be conveying a narrow vision of success, rather than an inclusive one that celebrated progress as well. She resolved to display a wider range of student work that represents different forms of success and rotate the displays more frequently.

When a middle school social studies teacher filmed and observed a portion of their class, they noticed that they were the one asking all of the questions and providing most of the explanations. Moving forward, they decided to incorporate more student-driven questions and talking points as a way of cultivating students’ curiosity instead of encouraging apathy.

A middle school math teacher noticed that his reactions to correct answers were notably different than his reactions to incorrect answers. In this way, he felt that he may be implicitly reinforcing the idea that only correct responses have value, rather than teaching students that “even incorrect answers usually have good ideas behind them.” He decided to begin asking the class, “What is one thing this student did well?” before critiquing an incorrect response.

SEL Goal-Based Audits

Alternatively, you can conduct a social and emotional audit by first identifying a specific SEL goal and then asking: How is this specific skill or mindset showing up (or not) in my actions, interactions, classroom setup, norms and routines, activities, and assignments? For example, a French teacher identified empathy as an important SEL goal for himself and his students and then performed an empathy audit of the emails that he had sent to his colleagues and students over the course of a week. He did this by rereading every message he sent and asking himself the following questions:

Do I help this person feel valued as my colleague or student?

Does this message encourage the recipient to reach out to me again if they need help?

Does the content of this message in some way encourage the recipient to meet with me one-on-one to check in, so that I can hear more about their experience?

As you engage in this social and emotional auditing process, remember to observe with curiosity rather than judgment. Nonjudgmental observation is the first step to understanding what’s really going on and is itself a skill that we can develop. In addition to observing your own practice through a social and emotional lens, you can also observe team meetings, or any social interaction or environment, and look for the social and emotional behaviors and mindsets that are present but not necessarily named.

The more you practice conducting social and emotional audits, the more hidden SEL lessons you will come to see over time. What we notice and how we make sense of our observations is shaped by our own identities and experiences, so engaging with diverse perspectives can make this auditing process a rich learning experience. And finally, in addition to acknowledging areas of growth, remember to celebrate all of the important and healthy SEL lessons that you’re already teaching along the way.

Thank you to all of the insightful and generous educators who helped me create the examples in this article: Adrienne S., Alaya B., Meghan L., Megan B., Michael M., and Kevin Medansky.

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Developing Sel Skills With Service Learning

The conversation around the importance of social and emotional learning (SEL) has seen a resurgence in recent years. The effects of the pandemic, combined with the ongoing trauma that young people are experiencing due to increasing violence, among other factors, have educators quickly searching for solutions to bring SEL practices into their classrooms. 

SEL is the process whereby students acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to develop healthy identities, manage emotions and achieve personal and collective goals, feel and show empathy for others, establish and maintain supportive relationships, and make responsible and caring decisions. SEL connects students to each other and to the world around them while providing the skills necessary to succeed in school and beyond. 

Incorporating SEL into academic courses like English, math, or even physical education can seem impossible. In 2023, nearly two-thirds of educators said that weaving SEL skills into academic subjects was challenging. Service learning provides a research-based solution to meeting both academic and SEL outcomes for students. The National Youth Leadership Council (NYLC) defines service learning as an approach to teaching and learning in which students use academic and civic knowledge and skills to address genuine community needs. 


Service learning is a type of experiential learning that drives students’ academic interests and passions toward addressing real community needs. Students don’t just serve during school hours; rather, they investigate and plan and prepare to take action, all the while reflecting on their experience, and then they end with a demonstration of learning. The process looks different depending on the ages and interests of the students but provides an engaging and dynamic learning experience.

Take, for example, the middle school students in Minneapolis who are majority Somali American. They discovered through investigation that most Minneapolis schools didn’t offer bilingual children’s books (Somali/English), although most Somali American children are growing up in bilingual households. So they wrote, designed, and printed simple picture books that were bilingual and distributed them to schools across the district.

Middle school students in New Orleans investigated the damage caused by repeated hurricanes to their coastal region. Today, they’ve reclaimed the land and offer tours of the coastal restoration project that has become a nature center and their outdoor classroom.

Elementary students in Oklahoma are learning math skills by calculating their body mass indexes anonymously, then aggregating them to assess the relative health of their student population. They did some primary research before they recorded their total walks to schools and elsewhere in an effort to lower their collective BMI. Their project led to state-level legislation and a website to track Oklahomans walking toward a healthier future.

Such high-quality service learning experiences compel students to answer questions like these: What are the true needs in my community? What are the root causes of these needs? How, where, and from whom can I learn more? How can I contribute to a solution?

This connection between students and the community within the service learning experience fosters empathy, improves language and communication skills, and improves the concepts of sharing and teamwork. Students grow more confident and are better prepared for learning. One of the benefits of service learning is the fostering of reciprocal collaboration among students, faculty/staff, community members, community organizations, and educational institutions to fulfill shared objectives and build capacity among all partners.


A 2023 report by Civic shared results from two nationally representative surveys of parents and teachers that reported encouraging results: Both parents and teachers endorse a holistic view of education and student success that includes SEL and service learning. They believe SEL and service learning have a reciprocal, mutually reinforcing relationship. These results echo research from the past two decades that asserts that schools must engage the whole child by integrating social, emotional, and academic development with relevant instruction (like service learning). 

High-quality implementation, however, remains key to achieving student outcomes. Teachers are encouraged to use the backward planning approach for designing service-learning experiences that provide adequate opportunities to master content standards and SEL outcomes. The K–12 Service Learning Standards for Quality Practice are an essential resource for quality implementation. Published by NYLC in 2008, each of the eight standards—meaningful service, link to curriculum, reflection, diversity, youth voice, partnerships, progress monitoring, and duration and intensity—includes indicators to guide teachers in improving their practice. 

The challenges of the current moment require a generation of youth leaders with the knowledge, skills, resilience, and civic dispositions to innovate through times of crisis. SEL and service learning are two practices with clear results in boosting outcomes for students. Student A’Zealya White, from the Satellite Center, St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, says it best: “Service learning helps us talk with people, learn to get things done with a deadline, and prepare for the future. Also, we learn how to identify a problem and solve it.” 

Teaching Business With Frankenstein, Jazz, And Gps Tours

Teaching Business with Frankenstein, Jazz, and GPS Tours Instructional Innovation Conference features SMG class

BU’s Quarter to Six jazz ensemble performs for SMG students as part of Jack McCarthy’s Organizational Behavior class. Photos by Vernon Doucette

For its first hour and a quarter, Jack McCarthy’s Organizational Behavior 221 class serves up your standard-issue business lecture, replete with corporate-ese—“task interdependence,” “mutual accountability,” “the five dysfunctions of a team”—and organizational flow charts. McCarthy enlivens things some by playing movie clips and an interview with Hollywood director J. J. Abrams to underscore points about teamwork.

But no one is prepared when he walks stage left in the School of Management auditorium, opens a door, and admits a strolling saxophonist, followed by the rest of the BU Quarter to Six jazz ensemble. Punctuated by applause and whoops, the half dozen musicians improvise a performance, and at the end McCarthy, sounding more talk show emcee than academic, exhorts the room “to give it up once more for the BU jazz ensemble!”

“I don’t think I’ve ever been in another class where you have a jazz ensemble casually walk on stage in the middle of class and play a 20-minute set,” said Max Hamburger (SHA’14) afterward. He ain’t seen nothing yet. The class also taps Frankenstein, Seabiscuit (the 1930s champion racehorse), and GPS-guided Boston tours to teach business teamwork and leadership.

We’ll get to those shortly; meanwhile, Organizational Behavior is among the inventive courses being discussed at today’s fourth annual Instructional Innovation Conference, sponsored by the Center for Excellence and Innovation in Teaching. At the conference, faculty share their classroom innovations with their BU colleagues.

Four years ago, when McCarthy, an SMG associate professor of organizational behavior, became the course’s head, he, Lloyd Baird, an SMG professor and chairman of the organizational behavior department, and course coordinator Sandi Deacon decided on a radical revamping. Where once there was a lecture a week, now there’s just one a month, freeing up time for weekly three-hour small-group discussions, comprising between 30 and 36 students each, moderated by McCarthy and 10 other professors (it takes an organization to teach Organizational Behavior). Beyond merely discussing, the groups practice hands-on learning. Last month, for instance, professors broke their groups into smaller teams and gave them handheld GPS devices, programmed to find various historic sites in Boston, along with envelopes containing team-building exercises and puzzles to solve before moving to the next site.

Afterward, the students in McCarthy’s discussion group debriefed one another. There had been obstacles to overcome: one team had to plot site coordinates with their iPhones after their GPS malfunctioned. A student regaled the class with the story of how his team was having fun snapping photos of themselves scaling the State House fence, “and then a cop went by. So we stopped doing that.” Members of each team presented their account as photos and videos of their day splashed on the classroom screen.

“We were able to bond really easily,” one woman said in applauding her group’s teamwork, while confiding that the GPS exercise also revealed their team’s weaknesses. A lack of sufficient planning beforehand prevented them from completing the exercise, and they didn’t communicate efficiently, often talking over each other; a teammate recalled how she’d asked another woman “what her favorite food was, and she pointed to a dog.”

Later this month, actors will perform excerpts from Monster, the College of Fine Arts recent Frankenstein adaptation. Few firms are in the business of making creatures from the dead, but that week’s curricular themes of conflict and power dynamics are “exhibited unbelievably in the play,” McCarthy says. Another session will review how teamwork among owners, trainers, and jockeys made Seabiscuit a prizewinning racehorse.

“We often think about education backwards,” says McCarthy. “We think about education as being the lecture, and that there’s this wise professor who imparts wisdom once a week.” That’s wrong: “The best way to learn is through application and doing. We need experiential exercises, and we need something outside the box.” The approach spins off of psychologist Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory that different people learn best in different ways. “When you have students engaged, and when you have creative examples from different domains,” McCarthy insists, “you’re much more likely to tap into diverse learners and diverse learning styles.”

Yet happy land is a not a gimmick: CEOs tell him they want employees who can collaborate and improvise, says McCarthy, and “who collaborates and improvises? Musicians, dancers.”

The jazz ensemble lingered after performing to take student questions about the mechanics of effective teamwork—the nub of McCarthy’s preceding lecture. Asked how the group would handle an individual member’s mistake, tenor sax Richard Rakowski (ENG’12) said, “You carry on.”

“A mistake usually means you’re trying something new, and that’s a good thing,” he explained. Added trumpeter Josh McDonald (GRS’14), “We made a lot of mistakes up here. Hopefully, you didn’t notice any of them.” That’s because on a good team, members have confidence that their mates will help them, McDonald said, the takeaway McCarthy had hammered in his lecture.

“I’ve never met you,” the beaming prof told McDonald, “but I’m going to pay you for that statement.”

Other required courses feature a “very boring two-hour lecture,” says Hamburger. Not McCarthy’s, “one of the only SMG lectures I’ve had so far that I actually really enjoy the whole two hours.”

“I don’t think I’ve ever seen a lecture that’s been as touching as this one,” said Eduardo de la Garza (SMG’13, CAS’13) after the jazz performance. “He always has a way to reach us on a very personal level. He shows us in a very creative way, and it’s all very inspiring.”

The Instructional Innovation Conference is in the Metcalf Trustee Ballroom, One Silber Way, ninth floor, beginning with registration and breakfast at 8 a.m. It is scheduled to run until 3:35 p.m.

Explore Related Topics:

Integrating Sel Into Writing Instruction

Social and emotional learning is gaining traction in schools across the United States as educational organizations and inquisitive teachers rethink, adapt, and reinvent traditional classroom practices to find ways to integrate SEL into academics. There’s still large-scale work to be done; traditional curricula that teachers have access to and are routinely expected to follow often don’t offer comprehensive support for developing emotional awareness or social skills. Nor do they scaffold strategies for emotional regulation or how to resolve conflicts.

With creativity and research, however, and the gumption to back it up, teachers can integrate SEL into virtually any lesson.

The Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) is at the forefront of helping to make research-based social and emotional learning an integral part of education from preschool through high school by working with schools, districts, teachers, families, communities, and legislators. On the federal and state levels, CASEL engages with policy makers and promotes legislation that supports evidence-based SEL policies. CASEL works directly with educators in partner schools, offers workshops, and provides a plethora of free resources for schools.

SEL: A Base for Academic Success

For some perspective on why integrating SEL into academics is so important, consider the following. For our youngest learners, research shows that prosocial behaviors in the classroom are a better indicator of future academic success than students’ early reading levels.

As a first-grade teacher in a Title 1 elementary school in Central Los Angeles, I witnessed this dynamic firsthand. Some of my brightest students and highest readers had the most meltdowns that prevented them from completing work, accessing lessons, or participating. Where might they be academically in three or five years with the same behavior? Fortunately, my school believed in the value of SEL and encouraged teachers to incorporate this learning as we saw fit.

CASEL provides a framework for educators to reference and use as guidance for implementing age-appropriate SEL in their classrooms. The CASEL framework “addresses five broad and interrelated areas of competence and highlights examples for each: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills, and responsible decision-making.” Educators take the stage of their students’ development and skill level into account in applying the framework to lesson design.

A Writing Unit for SEL Integration

I designed a writing unit incorporating the CASEL framework, focusing on the self-awareness competency: the ability to understand one’s own emotions, thoughts, and values and how they influence behavior across contexts. As a school, we used Lucy Calkins’s Units of Study in our English language arts curriculum. These units include reading and writing workshops that are essentially inquiry-based and interwoven with state literacy standards.

Carefully swapping out books and altering writing prompts while maintaining the structure of literacy skills development (reading comprehension, phonics, writing components), I designed a four-week-long narrative unit to explore emotional awareness.

During our Writer’s Workshop block, we read four different picture books from the acclaimed Trace Moroney’s Feelings Series (also available in Spanish) that explore emotions一how to identify our or others’ emotions and strategies for changing how we feel. We read When I’m Feeling Happy, When I’m Feeling Sad, When I’m Feeling Angry, and When I’m Feeling Nervous. Our week began with a read-aloud and opened into days of discussions, writing, and art. Through those weeks, I watched my students’ writing come alive and their relationships blossom.

Earlier in the year, I had already introduced my students to Zones of Regulation, a curriculum that educators use to teach students about emotions and emotional control, which set the foundation for some emotional vocabulary and more academic exploration. We discussed which feelings zones our emotions fall into and the times we felt these emotions. I was amazed by how passionate my students were in their verbal sharing and writings. Everyone was bursting to participate.

Validating Emotions

“When was a time you were angry?” I asked during our Anger week. “Have you ever gotten in trouble for something you didn’t do?” My students poured out stories about being framed and blamed by siblings, about being embarrassed by a parent; they listened to each other intently and even laughed at the right moments. It was important to me to give them space to share their own stories, for them to not feel that they had to give me a “right” answer.

Once we exhausted sharing about what made us feel a certain way, we discussed what made us feel better either at home or at school. My students described taking a break at the Calm Table, focusing on their breathing, talking to an adult or friend, coloring, being alone, reading a book, and more. Midweek, I initiated a Shared Writing lesson, and we made a book together about our “emotion of the week” based on student responses. I also added their ideas to a Strategy anchor chart that was filled with ideas for regulating emotions in the classroom.

To conclude the week, students wrote and drew independently about the emotion. I collected their writings each week and bound them into a big book that stayed on our Calm Table for students to read. When I presented the books to them, students glowed with pride.

I began noticing that when my students needed a break to calm down when frustrated or when they needed cheering up, they would often read through these books on their own to get support from their classmates’ stories. Interestingly, before our unit there had been a culture among my students, most notably the boys, that talking about feelings was taboo or babyish. As our unit unfolded, all my students began talking to each other about how they felt, and there was a softer tone in the classroom.

In tandem with our other SEL work, my class transformed over months from a space rife with meltdowns and arguments to a more friendly, functional place. I watched my students use the strategies they generated together in the classroom when they needed them. References to this work showed up in our morning circles of emotional check-ins. My students also began helping remind other students to use strategies to cope when they could tell someone was upset or sad.

It can be intimidating for educators to deviate from standard, traditional curricula, and some schools won’t allow teachers to do so. However, if teachers understand state learning standards, the skills that students need to master, and effective teaching strategies, there is room for creativity. Often, teachers do versions of this regardless; veteran teachers know that the exact lessons and activities that worked for a class of students one year may not work at all for their next year’s students. Why not redesign certain lessons with SEL goals in mind?

Machine Learning: Reality, Fiction And The Future Of Marketing

An immense amount of data is currently generated through different sources, known as big data. Due to its volume and complexity, Data Science is used, for its interpretation, through algorithms and scientific methods. 

Companies can leverage this information to optimize their behavior-based digital marketing strategies.

Machine learning is a discipline that creates automated learning systems from data analysis. 

The impact of machine learning on digital marketing

In such a competitive market, intuition and subjectivity have no place. With big data and machine learning, brands create scientifically based strategies to attract and retain customers.

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Personalized recommendations

With machine learning, it is possible to provide relevant recommendations for each user. 

This is what streaming platforms like Netflix do when suggesting series or movies according to the history and profile of their subscribers.

Content creation

Customize customer experience

In content marketing, AI and machine learning can determine what information will be most relevant to each visit to a website and show it to you. 

With machine learning, brands gain a better understanding of the public and can anticipate their wishes, even before the customer identifies a need.

Now is a great time to work in the marketing department, as in the modern information world, marketing is becoming increasingly important in most organizations. 

But it also means that the life of the marketer has become more complicated, despite all the tools at his disposal.

Marketing specialists have to solve many problems: how to get ahead in the conditions of fierce competition; how to increase customer loyalty; reorientation of business from product to client; the saturation of social networks, where everyone is now a content provider; how to better understand the buyer; how to justify the return on investment within the company; how to keep up with technology, etc. 

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Can marketers do anything else to solve these problems?

Yes, and the solution to some problems will tell machine learning, it’s time to seriously think about it! As we move from a hypothesized world to a data-based world, we realize that theories are no longer needed. 

Practical decisions need to be based on data. I do not mean reading and digesting hundreds of reports myself. I mean the data, the analysis of which you will receive guidance on specific actions, and this can only be achieved through machine learning.

If companies rely on the creation of self-driving cars using machine learning, then I am sure that ML can help you in solving some problems. 

Many people consider the involvement of machine learning in marketing one of the most important innovative opportunities for marketers, because now there is more data than ever, and a person can not process and analyze it without using these technologies. 

Of course, machine learning cannot solve all your problems, but it will provide you with logical ways to solve many marketing issues.

So why is everyone talking about machine learning now?

Machine learning is a separate branch of artificial intelligence (AI). In simple terms, this technology is used in the development of computer programs with the ability to independently develop and improve when introducing new data. 

ML is a kind of intelligent assistant that addresses areas such as artificial intelligence, statistics, data mining, and optimization.

In reality, machine learning technology has been around for decades, but two trends have contributed significantly to its phenomenal growth:

Large amounts of data. More data. the more useful and relevant machine learning becomes.


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How can machine learning be useful to a marketer?

Anticipating customer needs is far from a new phenomenon. Qualitatively new is the ability to automatically respond to these needs in real-time and in full scale through machine learning. The most common examples of using ML in marketing are:

Search and forecasting of the most and least valuable customers in terms of their “life cycle”;

Creating images based on client clusters and creating appropriate content and services for them;

The recommendation of new products and content with the greatest prospects of purchase;

Testing the many possible routes that consumers can follow after using the content;

Optimization of customer interest through personalization of content;

Preliminary assessment of potential customers.


As we already know what is big data and how to apply it to your online business, Webchefz had a successful experience in implementing this technology in a marketing platform to build recommended audience segments. 

You need to understand that ML is something that will very soon become the standard for automation systems of any client business. 

Gurbaj Singh

Gurbaj Singh is a fun-loving guy and keeps a vision to explore the common things “Uncommonly”. The man is fond of cars, technology and not to miss, Whiskey. His professional career is as interesting as him where he applies his SEO dexterities every day, thus, challenging the Google algorithms.

3D Color Images Of The Brain Reveal Its Glorious Unseen Detail

The human brain remains one of the most mysterious organs in the human body. However, an imaging technique tested on mice brains and developed by a group of researchers including from Harvard, MIT, and Boston University, may bring them one step closer to understanding the human brain’s intricacies. Their results were published yesterday in the journal, Cell.

The approach will allow scientists to see the brain’s beautifully layered 3D structure on the nanoscale with different colors to separate and distinguish cell types. They first created the 3D structure of a mouse dendrite by combining electron microscope (EM) images of the brain structure together. Then, they achieved the color differentiation using VAST, an annotation tool–developed at Harvard by a co-author of this study–that allows users to manually add color to EM images. This is the first time VAST was used to create color images of the brain.

The point of this study was simply to see what could be learned from seeing the brain, anatomized into its parts using different colors. But going forward, the researchers think this tool could be used to see what a neurological disorder actually looks like in the brain and how the human brain differs from that of other animals as well as how individual human brains differ from each other.

To see if the application would actually work, the researchers chose to visualize parts of a mouse’s neocortex–the area of the brain that receives sensory information from mouse whiskers, which are even more sensitive than human fingertips. They first took EM images of the structure, combined them, then, using VAST, they assigned different colors to piece apart the individual structures and cell types, allowing them to see each type individually and how they come together to create the brain structures. In the video below, they use color coordination to reconstruct the structures that surround two dendrites–the tree-like branches of a neuron that receive sensory information from other neurons. The objects are initially shown as they would appear in the brain. Then, they are sorted by category–axonal, dendritic, or glial–then further by functional type–excitatory or inhibitory for axons and dendrites and when applicable, by type of glial cell.

“The complexity of the brain is much more than what we had ever imagined,” said Narayanan Kasthuri, an assistant professor at Boston University School of Medicine and lead author of the study, in the press release.

Here’s a breakdown of the color-coordinated brain structures in .gif form:

However, despite the beauty of the finished product, whether or not the technique will actually be put to use is still up in the air. During their testing, the researchers found that the sheer magnitude of neuronal connections that make up the brain imposed a huge challenge–one that the authors conclude in their study made them question whether the finished product justifies its use. They write that their effort “lays bare the magnitude of the problem confronting neuroscientists who seek to understand the brain.” They also used a mouse’s brain and note that a human brain has far more neuronal complexity. But despite the brain’s so-called near impossible-to-understand intricacies, they remain hopeful: “In the nascent field of connectomics there is no reason to stop doing it until the results are boring.”

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