Trending December 2023 # Top Points For Successful Erp Implementation # Suggested January 2024 # Top 18 Popular

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ERP systems are trusted by businesses from all industries. They streamline business processes, increase productivity, reduce wastage, encourage collaboration and increase profits. Advanced ERP solutions provide actionable insights that allow decision-makers to make better decisions. Although ERP has many benefits, implementation can be difficult as it involves a lot of time and money. Implementation is the key to ERP’s success. ERP implementations that are successful will ultimately improve the productivity and efficiency of operations. If ERP isn’t implemented correctly, it can cause a loss of time and money. We offer “Tips for Successful ERP Implementation” in this article.

Understanding Your Business Requirements

It is recommended to first identify the problem areas in your business if you don’t use any ERP or accounting software. You must monitor and control the movement of goods across different channels if your business involves a supply chain. If your accounting software is outdated, you should consider upgrading to a more sophisticated system that will not only increase organizational efficiency but also eliminate data silos.

How to Choose the Best ERP Solution

There are so many options on the market that it is difficult to find the right option for your business. Oracle NetSuite is one of the most widely used options. NetSuite, a cloud-based and true SaaS Business Manager Suite, automates both front- and back-office processes. This allows small and large businesses to quickly respond to market opportunities and make informed decisions. NetSuite offers core capabilities such as financial management, revenue management, fixed assets management, order management, and billing. It also provides real-time visibility of key performance indicators. Available as Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), NetSuite doesn’t require hardware, no large upfront license fee, no maintenance fees associated with hardware or software, and no complex setups. SaaS deployment allows even small businesses to benefit from digital transformation.

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Right Implementation Team

Be Precise and Realistic

Manage Change, Avoid Chaos

The installation of ERP can transform many processes and the way employees work. The success of the implementation depends on the quality of your change management planning. Proper planning and execution tactics will prevent confusion and buildup of resistance to impending changes. It would be great to educate your employees about the ERP solution’s benefits.

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Communicate, Collaborate, and Document

It is important to properly document the scope of the project, expectations, as well as concrete deliverables. For data migration and implementation strategies, it is a good idea to work with your ERP vendor. Every business is different, and each business will have its own requirements. Therefore, it is important to talk with your implementation consultants about the problems in your company. Clean data must also be migrated to the cloud to avoid data inefficiencies that can reduce ERP’s performance.

What are The Things to Consider When Choosing NetSuite Implementation Consultants?

You should be aware of these things if you’re looking for NetSuite Implementation Experts. There are many independent vendors that offer NetSuite Implementation services. It is a good idea to choose the NetSuite Consultants who are experienced. It is important to verify that the NetSuite Implementation Services provider has worked in your particular industry. You should also look for skilled resources. It is not enough to rely on the experience of an organization. You should verify whether the company has qualified resources such as technical consultants, functional consultants, and quality analysts. You should also check if the organization hiring you for implementation has a single point of contact. The cost is also important. Find out what kind of engagement model these organizations offer. What level of support is available? These points will ensure that you get reliable support from NetSuite Implementation Specialists.

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Top 10 Sql Interview Questions With Implementation

In today’s world, technology has increased tremendously, and many people are using the internet. This results in the generation of so much data daily. This generated data is stored in the database and will maintain it. SQL is a structured query language used to read and write these databases. In simple words, SQL is used to communicate with databases. SQL allows you to perform any database-related task. It is accessible and economical for the majority of organizations. If you plan to give an SQL interview then this article is a must read for you! Checkout the top SQL interview questions

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

Q1. What is common table expression in SQL?

A Common Table Expression (CTE) is a query’s result set that lives temporarily within the execution scope of a statement like SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, or MERGE. The output of a CTE is not kept and only exists while the query is being executed. Making complex queries more readable and simple makes it easier for users to create and maintain them.

The following demonstrates the typical SQL Server syntax for a CTE:

WITH expression_name[(columns [,...])] AS (CTE_definition) SQL_statement;

Use WITH clause to define a common table expression.

In the columns, specify the names of all the columns that need to be retrieved in the CTE

Define CTE after AS that retrieves a table with specified columns.

Finally, write an SQL query using a common table expression.

Let’s see an example to define a Common Table Expression as students_data with id, name, and roll_no columns. And then, a query to return the names of students that starts with the letter A among them.

WITH students_data[(id,name,roll_no)] AS ( SELECT id, name,roll_no FROM students ) SELECT name FROM students_data WHERE name LIKE 'A%'; Q2. How to replace null values with default values in MYSQL?

Sometimes, while using MySQL, you don’t want NULL values to be returned as NULL. But sometimes, you want NULL values to return a different default value. There are some ways in MYSQL to replace these null values with default values.

There are four ways to replace it-

Using IFNULL() function


COALESCE() function

Combination of IF() function and IS NULL operator

Combination of CASE expression and IS NULL operator

Let’s see them one by one.

1. Using IFNULL() function: 

The IFNULL() function takes two expressions and returns the first arguments if the first expression is not null. The second parameter is returned if the first expression returns null.

Let’s see the syntax.

IFNULL(expression, alternate_value) #Example SELECT IFNULL(Name,'N/A') FROM students 2. Using  COALESCE() function: 

The COALESCE() method returns the first non-null arguments from the given list of expressions. The function gives a null result if the expression is empty. Moreover, a specified default value can be used to replace null entries in a table.

Simply, it returns the first non-null argument in the given list of expressions. If there are no non-null values, then NULL is returned.

Let’s see some examples to understand.

SELECT COALESCE('one', 'two', 'three') AS result #result #one SELECT COALESCE(NULL, 'one', 'two', 'three') AS result #result #one SELECT COALESCE(NULL, NULL, 'two', 'three') AS result #result #two SELECT COALESCE('A', NULL, 'B', NULL) AS result #result #A SELECT COALESCE(NULL, NULL, 'P', NULL, 'Q') AS result #result #P SELECT COALESCE(NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL) AS result #result #NULL 3. Combination of IF() function and IS NULL operator:

We can also use IF() function and IS NULL operator to replace null values with default values. It works like if the value is null, then replace it with a default value; else, return the original expression. Let’s see how it works with some examples.

To replace null values with ‘N/A’ in the names column of a students_data table.

SELECT IF(names IS NULL, 'N/A', names ) AS result FROM students_data 4. Combination of CASE expression and IS NULL operator:

This is almost similar to the previous one. Here we use the CASE operator instead of the IF() function. So first, we will take cases where there is a null value, and then we will replace it with the given default value. Else the original expression will be returned. Let’s take an example to understand in detail.

SELECT CASE WHEN names IS NULL THEN 'N/A' ELSE names END FROM students_data

This code is for the same previous example. To replace ‘N/A’ in the names column when there are null entries.

Q3. What is the SQL Syntax for Auto Increment?


CREATE TABLE table_name ( column_name datatype AUTO_INCREMENT, );

For example,

CREATE TABLE students_data ( id INT AUTO_INCREMENT, name varchar, phone_number INT ); Q4. What are the Different Rank Functions in SQL?

There are four rank functions in SQL





Let’s see them one by one in detail.

1. RANK()

This function will return a number that will be applied to each row in the output partition. Each row receives a rank equal to one plus the rank of the row before it. The RANK function assigns the same rank number to two values that it discovers to be identical within the same partition. The following ranking number will also include duplicate numbers in addition to the preceding rank. As a result, this method does not always assign the ranking of rows in numerical order.

Let’s see the syntax

SELECT column_name RANK() OVER ( PARTITION BY expression ORDER BY expression) AS result FROM table_name; 2. DENSE_RANK()

This is almost similar to that of the rank function. Here also, each row receives rank, adding one to the previous rank. If two rows are identical, then they receive the same rank, and the next row directly receives plus one to the current rank. For example, if the 1st and 2nd rows are identical, then both receive rank 1, and the next third row receives rank 2 instead of rank 3, as in the case of using the RANK() function. That’s the difference.

Let’s see the syntax

SELECT column_name DENSE_RANK() OVER ( PARTITION BY expression ORDER BY expression) AS result FROM table_name; 3.ROW_NUMBER()

The row number function differs from the rank and dense rank functions. Starting from 1, this gives ranks adding 1 to the previous row. No matter if any two rows are identical.

let’s see the syntax

SELECT column_name ROW_NUMBER() OVER ( PARTITION BY expression ORDER BY expression) AS result FROM table_name; 4. NTILE()

The NTILE() function is the one you want to use when you want to distribute groups of rows over a partition evenly. You must tell this ranking function how many groups you want the rows to be equally divided into. According to the specified requirement, each row group receives its rank.

let’s see the syntax

SELECT column_name NTILE(N) OVER ( PARTITION BY expression ORDER BY expression) AS result FROM table_name; Q5. Explain Normalization and Denormalization in SQL.

Normalization removes redundancy from the database, which means it is split across multiple tables instead of just one table. and non-redundant, consistent data is added. An improperly constructed database table is inconsistent and could cause problems when executing operations. Hence database normalization is an important step. An unnormalized table is transformed into a normalized table through this process.

Denormalization is used to aggregate data from several tables into one to be easily queried. Redundancy is added using it. In contradiction to normalization, denormalization reduces the number of tables. Denormalization is used when joins are expensive, and table queries are run frequently. Wastage of memory is the main drawback of denormalization.

Q6. What is the Difference Between SQL and MySQL?

SQLMySQLStands for Structured Query LanguageStands for “My Structured Query Language”Language used for managing relational databasesOpen-source relational database management system (RDBMS)Not a specific database system, but a language implemented by various DBMSsA specific DBMS that utilizes SQL as its query languageProvides a set of commands for creating, modifying, and querying databasesOffers a software platform for creating and managing databasesSupports data storage, retrieval, and manipulation using SQLSupports data storage, retrieval, and manipulation using SQLImplemented by multiple DBMSs such as MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, etc.Developed by MySQL AB, now owned by Oracle CorporationWidely used in various database systemsWidely used in web applications and compatible with multiple operating systemsCan be used with different DBMSs based on the specific implementationCan only be used with the MySQL database management system

Q6. What are the usages of SQL?

Creating and managing databases and their structures.

Inserting, updating, and deleting data within tables.

Querying and retrieving specific information from databases.

Filtering and sorting data based on specific criteria.

Aggregating and summarizing data using functions like SUM, COUNT, and AVG.

Joining multiple tables to combine data from different sources.

Creating views to present customized or filtered perspectives of data.

Implementing constraints to ensure data integrity and enforce rules.

Indexing columns to improve query performance and data retrieval.

Granting and managing user permissions to control access rights and data security.

Q7. What are the different subsets of SQL?

SQL encompasses several subsets or variations that are specific to different database management systems (DBMS) or have specialized purposes. Here are some notable subsets of SQL:

MySQL: SQL variant specific to the MySQL database management system.

PostgreSQL: SQL variant specific to the PostgreSQL database management system.

Oracle SQL: SQL variant specific to the Oracle Database system.

Microsoft T-SQL: SQL variant specific to Microsoft SQL Server, known as Transact-SQL.

SQLite: SQL variant specific to the lightweight, embedded database engine SQLite.

ANSI SQL: The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) SQL is a standardized version of SQL that sets the foundation for most SQL implementations. Different DBMSs may adhere to various versions of ANSI SQL, such as ANSI SQL-92, ANSI SQL:1999, ANSI SQL:2003, etc.

PL/SQL: A procedural extension to SQL used in Oracle Database for creating stored procedures, functions, and triggers.

NoSQL: Although not SQL in the traditional sense, NoSQL databases (e.g., MongoDB, Cassandra, Couchbase) represent a different approach to database management, often focusing on high scalability, schema flexibility, and distributed architectures, and they utilize their query languages that are different from traditional SQL.

Q8. What are some common clauses used with SELECT query in SQL?

When using the SELECT query in SQL, there are several common clauses that can be used to refine and customize the query results. Here are some frequently used clauses:

SELECT: Specifies the columns to be retrieved from the database table(s).

FROM: Identifies the table(s) from which to retrieve the data.

WHERE: Filters the rows based on specified conditions, allowing for data retrieval based on specific criteria.

DISTINCT: Removes duplicate values from the result set, returning only unique values.

ORDER BY: Sorts the result set in ascending (default) or descending order based on one or more columns.

GROUP BY: Groups the result set by one or more columns, often used in conjunction with aggregate functions.

HAVING: Filters the grouped rows based on specified conditions, similar to the WHERE clause but applied after the GROUP BY clause.

LIMIT: Specifies the maximum number of rows to be retrieved from the result set.

OFFSET: Specifies the number of rows to skip from the beginning of the result set before starting to return rows.

JOIN: Combines data from multiple tables based on related columns, allowing for retrieval of data from multiple sources.

UNION: Combines the result sets of two or more SELECT statements into a single result set.

IN: Tests whether a value matches any value in a specified list.

NOT IN: Tests whether a value does not match any value in a specified list.

LIKE: Performs pattern matching to retrieve rows based on specified patterns using wildcard characters.

BETWEEN: Retrieves rows with values within a specified range.

Q9. What is a view in SQL?

In SQL, a view is a virtual table derived from a query’s result. It allows you to encapsulate complex queries into a named, reusable object. A view can be used just like a regular table, enabling you to query its data or perform other operations on it.

Here’s the syntax for creating a view in SQL:

CREATE VIEW view_name AS SELECT column1, column2, ... FROM table_name WHERE condition;

Let’s break down the syntax:

CREATE VIEW view_name: This statement is used to create a view with a specific name, referred to as view_name. You can choose any suitable name for your view.

AS: This keyword indicates that the view definition is starting.

SELECT column1, column2, ...: Here, you specify the columns you want to include in the view. You can select specific columns or use * to select all columns.

FROM table_name: Specifies the table from which you want to retrieve data for the view. You can include joins or subqueries to define more complex queries.

WHERE condition: This part is optional and allows you to include a condition to filter the rows in the view based on specific criteria.

Q10. What is an Index in SQL?

In SQL, an index is a database object that improves the speed of data retrieval operations on database tables. It works like a table of contents, organizing and storing a sorted copy of selected columns from a table. By creating an index on one or more columns, the database engine can locate and retrieve data more efficiently, reducing the need for full-table scans. Indexes enable faster searching, sorting, and joining of data, resulting in improved query performance. However, indexes incur overhead during data modifications (insert, update, and delete operations) as they need to be updated to reflect the changes. Therefore, choose indexes carefully and balance them to optimize database performance.


Social media app users frequently share photographs and posts, which involves databases that can update information and simultaneously display content to millions of users. There are many tables in the database, and each table contains rows of data. SQL helps to maintain these databases. We learned some important topics in SQL in this article.

The media shown in this article is not owned by Analytics Vidhya and is used at the Author’s discretion. 


Knowledge Management Appears On Erp Radar

What you call it is up to you

Organizations pursuing knowledge management through their ERP systems usually are aiming at something a little more modest than knowledge. “They really want highly detailed reporting or OLAP analysis or data mining or business intelligence,” suggests Russom. While this may not constitute knowledge as purists understand knowledge management, it meets the needs of many organizations.

For example, Arvin Industries, of Columbus, Ind., a global manufacturer of automotive parts, uses a variety of data warehousing and data analysis tools from New York-based Information Builders to create a data warehouse containing information from its J. D. Edwards system as well as other legacy data. The company doesn’t specifically call this knowledge management, but “it is one piece of knowledge management,” acknowledges Perry Lipe, Arvin’s vice president/information technology.

Arvin is taking an incremental approach. Other pieces, as they fall into place, will include using the corporate intranet to enable people to share information and insights gleaned from the data, capturing knowledge of business processes and making everything accessible through a single Web portal. Is this knowledge management? Lipe’s goal is to bring more and better information and more sophisticated analysis to Arvin employees along with capturing insights into how to apply the information to the particular job at hand. What you call it is up to you.

Similarly, Carolina Power & Light has implemented the PeopleSoft human resources system and is in the process of adding Oracle Financials. Now, working with SAS, the company is embarking on a project to tap the information contained in its core ERP systems, beginning with human resources, to create a decision support system for strategic decision making. Although the company hasn’t dubbed the initiative knowledge management, it is certainly moving in that direction. “Right now this is focused on helping managers make strategic human resources decisions, such as analyzing how many linemen will be eligible for retirement next year and what the impact will be. But we’re not precluding anything down the road,” notes Gregory Wiley, manager/HRIS.

Many IT managers prefer to steer clear of calling anything knowledge management, at least as the purists think of it. “CIOs recognize the political danger in knowledge management. Too many people have been burned. It is like AI (artificial intelligence); people have a lot of scars,” says Joshua Greenbaum, an analyst with the Enterprise Applications Group, of Berkeley, Calif., explaining the cool reception knowledge management receives in IT organizations and in corporations in general. Like AI, knowledge management suffers from a perception of being too grandiose and too abstract. While managers endorse knowledge management in theory, they aren’t convinced it can deliver actual business value.

Yet, knowledge management is critical in organizations today, Greenbaum continues. Companies are being inundated with information from ERP systems and a host of other sources. Knowledge management offers a way to extract and propagate what is useful from this flood of information. But, he adds, “knowledge management is arriving through the back door–the ERP system.”

And why not? ERP systems provide as good a candidate as any to become the foundation for knowledge management. “The ERP system already is the repository of most of the business critical information in the organization,” suggests Jim Shepherd, vice president/research, AMR Research, of Boston. In addition, they are already widely deployed, widely used, and widely accepted.

Information aids strategic decision making

Driving the latest interest in knowledge management, Shepherd confirms, is the massive amount of information confronting organizations today. “Organizations struggle with how to manage and disseminate information, with issues around strategic decision making,” he explains.

The strategic decision-making implications of the information contained in the ERP system led DTE Energy, formerly Detroit Edison, to undertake what amounts to a major knowledge management initiative. The $4.2 billion diversified energy company was struggling to make the shift from a vertically integrated electric utility–a regulated monopoly–to an effective competitor in deregulated global energy markets.

Suddenly, the company had to shift focus from managing by rate case, in which management decisions are based on how they are justified to the regulators who approve rates and guarantee a fixed level of profit, to managing for business profitability in a competitive environment. DTE managers for the first time faced questions they never had to answer before about markets, customers, profitability, channels, and such, explains Janet Seefried, DTE’s director of cost management.

The company had implemented a PeopleSoft financial package. The information managers needed was there in the form of raw data, most of it contained in the G/L. The problem was getting it out in a form that was useful to managers faced with making decisions that would impact profitability.

DTE, partnering with KPMG Consulting of Chicago turned to PeopleSoft’s Activity-Based Management (ABM) module, which implemented activity-based costing (ABC). This would give managers a true understanding of costs and how those costs related to profitability, according to Seefried. Initially, the company created five cost models for three different lines of business–power generation, transmission and distribution, and corporate support. Using these models, managers were able to identify process improvements and cost reduction opportunities worth millions of dollars in savings, she reports.

While any number of reporting tools could have extracted cost information from DTE’s G/L, it was the knowledge of ABC and the knowledge of the DTE operation built into the PeopleSoft ABM cost models that appealed to DTE managers. ABM enables the system to serve up knowledge–something that can be used to make a strategic decision–rather than just delivering raw data or even aggregated information.

Using Iframe: Seo And Accessibility Points

IFrame (inline frame) is an HTML element that makes it possible to embed another HTML document inside the main one. It has become one of the most popular ways to embed interactive and multimedia content inside the block of text.

Thus, many people use it and many of them are wondering how SEO-friendly this HTML element is. So let’s overview the SEO and accessibility of an iframe:

1. SEO:

Points to remember:

The content in an iframe is not considered part of the parent page.

The page within an iframe may be spidered and indexed (or it may be not) but no PR is definitely passed.

I wouldn’t count on content which you are including as an iframe on being crawled and indexed within the context of your pages… If you want to make sure that they aren’t indexed at all, you may want to use “noindex” robots meta tags…

Here’s a good example of SEO-friendly iFrame usage:

The iFrame source code looks as follows:

Google’s text version has the following in place of the iframe (the iframe is rendered as a direct link):

2. Accessibility

A screen reader will normally turn the iFrame into a link to the source page (like Lynx) (unless they have a better alternative like text, see the last point here);

Links within the iframe element are accessible via the keyboard as if the content were within the web page containing the iframe.

To make an iFrame accessible, include a text description right within the iFrame (in this case, browsers that do not support frames, will display the text in bold in place of the iframe):

Note: title=”” attribute can also be effective for this.

More available iFrame attributes can be found here.

3. Usability

The text description works good for those who have frames disabled.

Scrolling: most usability issues of iFrames have something to deal with scrolling. Let’s discuss it in a little bit more detail here:

scrolling=”no” (scroll bars are disabled no matter what);

4. Examples of Creative Usage:

1. Embed a Puzzle

ProProfs allows to create crosswords and puzzles and embed them right to your page. I find it a great way to entertain and engage your readers.

You can see a few examples in my recent post with a couple of SEO puzzles. For a sliding puzzle you can use an image from Google search, direct URL or your computer. The result looks like this:

2. Embed a Mind Map

A mind map is a great way to visualize your post content. Mind Meister is my favorite mind-mapping utility that allows to embed a mind map in an iframe:

3. Embed a Google Element

Google uses iFrames to allows users to embed the following Google content types:

Google calendar;

Conversation element;

Custom search;

Google maps;

Google news;


YouTube news:

The Importance Of Web Design For A Successful Ecommerce Business

As an eCommerce business, your website is much like a physical store. Its appearance needs to entice customers just like a good shop window, then its layout should be logical to help them find their way around. Your website content needs to be helpful, much like in-store customer service staff, while the checkout process ought to be smooth to avoid building frustration.

Below, read five reasons why good web design is crucial for a successful e-commerce business, along with actionable tips to help improve yours.

First Impressions

In fact, studies have shown it takes people 50 milliseconds to judge a website’s visual appeal. However people are finding your site, and high bounce rates suggest that they’re not satisfied with the results.

If that’s the case, keep things clear and simple and take steer from how your best competitors are doing things.

Brand Image

Web design is also critical for how people perceive your brand. Aesthetic elements such as layout, typography, color scheme, and imagery all contribute to the feelings and connotations you create. How does that translate to your proposition and audience?

User Experience

Web design is just as much about functionality as it is about aesthetics. In essence, that means making it easy for customers to get from A to B and perform the actions they want to with minimal friction. Factors such as navigation, calls-to-action, responsiveness, and loading times all play a part in convincing customers to part with their cash.

Whether you’re building from scratch or re-platforming, user experience isn’t a consideration you should take lightly. Working with external web design experts can provide an objective view if you’re struggling to see the wood for the trees.

Mobile Users

While desktop order values can be higher, smartphones accounted for 72% of retail site visits in the UK in the second quarter of this year. These numbers make it crucial to have a mobile-friendly e-commerce website in 2023 and beyond.


Crucially, your web design shouldn’t be a set-and-forget task that’s kept internal. It’s important to test your design on different people, from friends to existing customers and strangers, to see how they respond.

Their suggestions could help boost your conversion rates, so testing is just as much in your interest as it is in the customers. Even small changes like headline text and button color can make a big difference.

Is poor web design holding your e-commerce business back? Address the topics above to build trust and ultimately benefit your bottom line.

Implementation Of Or Gate From Nor Gate

An OR Gate is a basic logic gate that gives a HIGH or Logic 1 output, when any of its inputs is HIGH. Whereas, the NOR gate is a universal logic gate, which gives a HIGH output only when all its inputs are LOW or Logic 0. Before, going into the implementation of OR Gate using NOR Gate, let us discuss the basic theory of OR gate and NOR gate first.

What is an OR Gate?

An OR Gate is a basic logic gate. An OR gate can have two or more than two inputs, but has only one output. The OR gate gives a HIGH (Logic 1) output if any one of its inputs is in the HIGH or Logic 1 state, otherwise, it gives a LOW (Logic 0) state as output. Therefore, the output of the OR gate is LOW or Logic 0 state, only if all its inputs are LOW or Logic 0 state.

The OR gate is also known as an “any or all gate” or “an inclusive OR gate”. The logic symbol of a two input OR gate is shown in Figure-1.

If variables A and B are the inputs to the OR gate and Y is the output variable, then the output equation of the OR gate is given by,


Where, the ‘+’ symbol represents the OR operation. It is read as “Y is equal to A OR B”.

The table that show the relationship between inputs and output of an OR gate is referred to as a truth table of the OR gate. The following is the truth table for the OR Gate.





Y = A + B













What is a NOR Gate?

NOR Gate is a universal logic gate, and hence it can be used for implementation of any other type of logic gate.

NOR means NOT + OR. That means, the OR output is NOTed or inverted. Therefore, the NOR gate is a combination of OR gate and a NOT gate, i.e.,


A NOR gate is a type of logic gate whose output is HIGH (Logic 1), only when all its inputs are LOW (Logic 0), and it gives an output LOW (Logic 0), even if any of its inputs becomes HIGH (Logic 1). The logic symbol of a two input NOR gate is shown in Figure-2.

If variables A and B are the input variables to the NOR gate and Y is the output variable of the NOR gate, then the output of the NOR gate is given by,


It is read as “Y is equal to A plus B whole bar”.

The following is the truth table of the NOR gate −





Y = (A + B)’













Now, let us discuss the implementation of OR Gate from NOR Gate.

Implementation of OR Gate from NOR Gate

As we know, the NOR gate is a type of universal logic gate, therefore, using NOR gates only, we can implement the OR operation. The logic diagram of OR Gate using NOR Gate is shown in Figure-3.

Hence, from the logic circuit, it is clear that we require only two NOR gates for the realization of OR operation.

The first NOR gate performs the NOR operation on variables A and B, thus the output of the first NOR gate is,


The second NOR gates perform the NOT operation on the output of the first NOR gate. Therefore, the output of the second NOR gate is,


This is the output expression of an OR gate. Therefore, we can realize an OR gate using NOR gates only as shown in Figure-3.

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