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You might have noticed a variety of ports on the back of your CPU casing. There might even be some on the front, on the sides, or the top. Many people are familiar with USB and audio ports. But what are all the other ports, and why do we need them?

If you’ve been wondering this question, then we have this article that is tailored for you. Please read, and enjoy!

A computer port is a junction or a connecting point between a peripheral device and your computer. Peripherals such as keyboards, mice, monitors, speakers, external storage device, etc all need a method to communicate with your computer. 

This is where ports come in. By providing a junction point where the peripherals can attach, they enable the peripherals to communicate with the CPU and carry out their normal functionalities.

As to why there are so many different ports of varying shapes and sizes, the simple answer lies in the fact that various peripherals have varying compatibility, bandwidth, optimization, and shape requirements. There has been some initiative to unify all various port types in the form of USB-C in recent times, however, that does not change the fact that there is still legacy hardware that uses various different types of ports.

Now let’s take a look at the most common computer ports and their functions one by one.

PS/2 ports are 6-pin connectors that were used to connect legacy keyboards and mice. This port was invented by IBM. You usually see two of these ports in older computers, one for a keyboard and mouse each.  

The two PS/2 ports were color-coded and labeled for insertion of keyboard and mouse connectors separately. These two devices use different sets of commands which means the ports were not interchangeable for them even though the ports were physically identical and employed the same communication protocol.

Most modern computers have done away with these ports in favor of USB. Some may provide a single PS/2 port for legacy support, onto which you can insert either a keyboard or a mouse receptacle. 

This is because PS/2 devices do not require drivers, thus they can operate in BIOS. Some USB devices may not operate in BIOS.

The port also inherently supports N-key rollover, which makes them attractive to gamers.

Some corporations might choose PS/2 over USB ports for security reasons.

Also known as COM port, these are communication ports that are used to connect devices such as mice, keyboards, and modems. These ports had either a 9-pin or a 25-pin configuration. These ports support hardware compliant with the RS-232 standard. 

The port was designed for a serial communication interface. Information transfer occurred serially 1-bit at a time and the interface had a bandwidth capacity of 115 KB/s.

These devices have been mostly superseded by USB as well, however, they still find some use in modern hardware where peripherals do not demand much bandwidth capacity, such as Point-of-Sale terminals, industrial automation, some data acquisition systems, etc. 

Also known as LPT port, these ports were designed for the parallel communication interface. These ports had a 25-pin configuration.

In contrast to serial communication, parallel ports allow the transmission of multiple bits of data simultaneously.  These are also commonly identified as printer ports. These ports support the IEEE 1284 standard protocol of communication.

Once ubiquitous, these ports have also been largely replaced by USB ports. Some legacy printers and scanners might still use parallel ports.

FireWire Port was developed by Apple along with Sony and Panasonic, and other companies. It uses IEEE 1394 standard interface. It is also known as chúng tôi (Sony) and Lynx (TI).

FireWire ports come in 4-pin, 6-pin, and 8-pin configurations. They are capable of 40 – 500 MB/s data transfer rate. 

FireWire ports are used for transferring audio/video data from digital camcorders. They can also be used for storage media, and to set up improvised ad-hoc networks, which can be set up without the need for a router.

The game port, as the name suggests, was developed as a connector for joystick input for IBM-compatible PCs in the 1980s and 1990s. Like many other legacy ports, these have now been largely deprecated by the use of USB ports.

Game port uses a D-sub connector, also used by the VGA port, that was compatible with four analog channels and four buttons. At the time when they were widely used, they supported two joysticks with two buttons or a single gamepad with an analog stick and four buttons.

The small Computer System Interface (SCSI) interface is used for connecting disk drives and has been around since 1982. SCSI enabled daisy chaining of multiple devices using a single cable. Thus, as opposed to the competing IDE technology of the era, SCSI is capable of connecting up to 7/15 devices at a time. 

Even though the SCSI saw the most widespread adoption for storage devices, it is also able to interface with optical drives and scanners.

Video Graphics Array (VGA) is an analog video interface that uses a D-sub connector with 15 pins. It was first introduced in 1987 with IBM PS/2 computers. 

It is used to send video signals between the computer and a monitor or external display.

Although modern VGA adapters can support up to 2048×1536 resolution, they have largely been displaced by digital interfaces such as HDMI and DisplayPort in recent times.

An audio jack or a headphone jack is used with audio-in and audio-out ports for the transmission of analog audio signals. A standard audio jack is 6.35 mm in diameter. However, for use in personal computers, a miniature size (3.5 mm) is used.

Audio ports can be audio-in, which carries analog audio signals to the computer, for e.g., from a microphone, and audio-out, which carries signals from the computer to an external speaker or headphones.

Some computers have an integrated audio port that can transmit both audio-in and audio-out signals with a single jack.

You can also commonly see these ports in other devices such as your cell phone and speakers. 

The ethernet port or RJ45 is a type of 8 positions 8 contacts (8P8C) connector. They have 8 pins which are the terminal points of 4 sets of twisted pair cables in a cat5/5e/6/6e cable.

Ethernet ports are used for connecting to a network. The Internet Protocol is also carried over ethernet, so they are a key cornerstone in modern internet architecture.

They are capable of data transmission upto 5000 Mbit/s. However, they are commonly used for data transmission upto 1000 Mbit/s.

Digital Video Interface is a video transmission interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG) in 1999. The interface can transfer analog (DVI-A), digital (DVI-D), and both digital and analog (DVI-I) signals. The analog mode DVI-A is even compatible with the VGA standard.

The DVI Port has a matrix of square pins that consists of three rows on its left. There can be up to 24 such pins depending upon the mode of DVI interface that is being employed. In the center of the right side is a flat blade, and there can be up to four square pins around the flat pin on either side on the top and bottom. Thus, a DVI port has upto 29 connector pins in it.

DVI connectors come in either a single-link or dual-link variety. Single link DVI has support for resolutions up to 1920×1200 at 60 Hz and dual-link DVI has support for resolutions up to 2560×1600 at 60 Hz. There is even a DMS-59 variant of the DVI port, which can provide two DVI outputs in a single connector.

DVI ports are mostly used for computer video output to a monitor or external display. DVI interface supports High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) protocol, and hence it also sees widespread use in DVD players, HDTV sets, and projectors for transmitting copyright-protected, encrypted video signals.

HDMI Ports are connectors for High-Definition Multimedia Port (HDMI) interface that implements EIA/CEA-861 standards. Its development was started in 2002 by the HDMI founders, which consists of Hitachi, Panasonic, Philips, Sony, Toshiba, Silicon Image, and Thomson. 

There are various types of HDMI connectors available, but the one that is most used is type-A. The standard (type A) connector is 13.9mm x 4.45 mm with 19 pins. The latest version of HDMI (ver 2.1 as of 2023), has a theoretical maximum bandwidth of 48 Gbit/s and can support up to 10K 120 Hz displays. 

The signals carried by HDMI are compatible with DVI, and thus you can use a DVI-HDMI adapter without loss of video quality. Like DVI, HDMI also supports HDPC protocol.

HDMI is used to connect to external displays on PCs, Blu-ray and DVD players, digital cameras and camcorders, consoles, etc. Some cell phone devices also have HDMI video output in the form of a micro-HDMI port. 

HDMI interface is proprietary, hence manufacturers need to pay licensing fee per port for the implementation of HDMI in their devices.

DisplayPort is another video transmission interface based upon outlines standardized by VESA and developed by a consortium of PC and chip manufacturers. Designed in 2006 and starting production in 2008, DisplayPort is one of the latest graphics interfaces in widespread use today. 

There are two types of DisplayPort connectors. The standard connector is a 20-pin, and has dimensions 16.1 mm x 4.76 mm x 8.88 mm. It also has an option for a mechanical latch. The mini-DisplayPort connector also has 20 pins with dimensions 7.5 mm x 4.6 mm x 4.9 mm. It lacks the option for a mechanical latch.

The latest version, DisplayPort 2.0, was announced in 2023 and can support up to 16k @ 60 Hz resolutions on a single screen. It is compatible with HDMI and DVI standards with simple passive adapters. 

It has support for Multi-Stream Transport (MST), which means multiple independent displays can be connected to a single DisplayPort port. Other features include DisplayPort Content Protection (DPCP), support for HDCP,  and implementation of High Dynamic Range (HDR) standards.

The Universal Serial Bus is a standard of data transfer, communication, and power supply that was first introduced in 1997. There exists a wide variety of USB ports (14 in total till date), of which type-A and type-C are the most prevalent.

The USB standard has undergone numerous revisions. The various version of USB so far are:

USB 1.0

USB 1.1 (12 Mbit/s data bandwidth)

USB 2.0/revised (480 Mbit/s data bandwidth)

USB 3.0/3.1/3.2 (5/10/20 Gbit/s data bandwidth)

USB 4 (40 Gbit/s data bandwidth)

The type-A plug has an elongated rectangular shape and has 4 pins in total. Two of them are for data transfer and two for power transfer. The pins for data transfer are slightly recessed compared to the power pins.  However, USB 3 and newer standards have 5 additional pins for increased bandwidth and power transfer capabilities, for a total of 9 pins.

The type-C connected is also an elongated rectangular, but with sides that are curved. The connector/plug has 24 pins and is double-sided. This port was designed with future-proofing in mind. 

Today, the USB standard has found its use in the following applications:

Transfer of data and media.

Carrying streaming data compatible with interfaces such as HDMI, DisplayPort, and Thunderbolt

Power transfer, capable of powering and charging peripherals and devices. USB ports compatible with PowerDelivery standards are capable of transporting power upto 100-240 W.

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Example, Types And Important Of Cost Centre

Definition of Cost Centre

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Cost centrecan be any department or unit if the business which is responsible only towards the costs incurred by it and it is not responsible towards generation of the revenue or the usage of the assets. They mainly focus on proper utilization of the resources of the company where performance in case of the cost centre is evaluation on the basis of the performing comparison between the budgeted costs of the company to its actual cost. The cost which these cost centres incurs are aggregated into one cost pool and then allocated to the other units of the business. In an organization, there could be multiple cost centre. Even within one department of company there could be several cost centre.

How does it Work?

Costs centres are the different sub units within the organization which are created not with the motive of earning revenues or profits directly from them rather they are created to track the expenses in the company. The main focus of the management is to keep the expenditure of the company at the minimum possible level with the help of its cost centreand to ensure optimum utilization of its resources as they help in providing the better understanding about how the resources are being used in the organization.

Example of Cost Centre

Other examples of Cost centre are maintenance department, customer service centre, Information technology department, Human resource department etc.

Types of Cost Centre

On the basis of nature of the business cost centrecan be categorized into six different types which are as follows:

Personal Cost Centre: The cost centre will be considered as the personal cost centre if it refers to any person or to the group of the persons. Example of this includes works manager, sales manager etc.

Impersonal Cost Centre: The cost centre will be considered as the impersonal cost centre if it refers to any equipment or to the group of the equipment or to any location.

Service Cost Center: The cost center will be considered as the service cost center if it performs any service rendering activity to its production centers or other service cost centers. Example of this includes personnel service centre which provides canteen facility to the employees of the company etc.

Production cost Centre: The cost center will be considered as the production cost center if it deals with any production activity of the company. Example of this includes assembly shop, machine shop etc.

Operation Cost Centre: The cost center will be considered as the operation cost center if itconsist of the persons or the machines that follows similar type of activities in the company.

Process Cost Centre: The cost center will be considered as the production cost center if it deals with any specific process or continuous sequence of the company’s operations.

Why are Cost Centers Important?

Cost centre are very important department for the businesses as it adds value to the entity and allows the entity to make profit. Hereunder the causes why it is important for the business:

They help the company in recovering the different overhead expenses.

The client service department is used by an entity to resolve the complaints of clients regarding final products or to give an understanding of companies policies and warranties to the clients. This will enhance the goodwill of the company in the market and it helps to attract large number of customers for the company.

IT Department and maintenance staff ensure that all equipment of the company is running appropriately and proper hygiene is maintained in the organization. It helps organizations to keep their employees healthy and make a profit for the company.

It helps the company in analyzing the market and the effectiveness of their business strategies.

Cost centre help the organization in managing their office related tasks like payroll, budgeting, etc.

Benefits of Cost Centre

Cost centre monitor the efficiency and effectiveness of all business operations within the company.

It will help the company to reduce its cost related to a particular function. Cost centre tries to reduce their costs by updating the processes and make it more effective which results in the generation of revenue or prevention of losses.

To analyze the profitability of the cost centre, cost data of different period are compared with each other. It will help managers to become more productive as they are held accountable for the expenses incurred in their control

Drawbacks of Cost Centre

Drawbacks of Cost centre are as follows:

Mangers of cost centers are only responsible for controlling the cost of their division or cost center. They have no control over the profit of the company.


Thus,cost centre are used by an organization for tracking all expenses related to a particular function. Their main objective is to minimize the cost. These departments does not generate revenue for the company but responsible for incurring cost for the company.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Cost Centre. Here we also discuss the definition and how does cost centre work? along with benefits and drawbacks. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

List Of Chrome Urls And Their Uses

Google Chrome is one of the most valuable products for Google and it continues to grow and capture the largest portion of the browser market. From general consumers to developers, Chrome has something in store for everyone. Having such a broad user base, Chrome is bound to have lots of underlying features and tools which are hidden to make it seem approachable for general users. In plain terms, the browser has several hidden URLs which let you access many of its hidden features. So in this article, we bring you all the internal Chrome URLs which will allow you to open the treasure trove of Chrome features.

List of Chrome URLs and Their Uses in 2023

The list below will show you all the Chrome URLs and their usage. They will not only help you access the hidden features of Chrome but also allow you to debug it if you come across any problems. The picture below shows the list of all Chrome URLs that we will be discussing. Apart from them, we will also take a look at some other Chrome URLs which are strictly meant for debugging purposes.

1. chrome://about

It’s the central repository of all the internal URLs maintained by Chrome. We will cover all the URLs mentioned in this list. In case, you lose track of URLs, you can always open chrome://about to find all the links at one place.

2. chrome://accessibility 3. chrome://appcache-internals

It shows the list of web apps which have stored cache in Chrome. On my PC, Telegram and few other apps have stored 7MB of cache. Similarly, you can also find out the relevant web apps which have taken up space.

4. chrome://apps

It lists all the pre-installed web apps including YouTube, Google Docs, etc on your Chrome. If you install a new Chrome app, it will show up here. You can pin Chrome apps to your taskbar as well.

5. chrome://blob-internals

It displays a list of blobs which are stored on Chrome. Blobs are essentially large object data which are used to store images and videos.

6. chrome://bluetooth-internals

It displays whether the PC has Bluetooth functionality and other related information. Besides, it shows a list of Bluetooth devices which are connected to the PC.

8. chrome://chrome

9. chrome://chrome-urls

It shows all the internal Chrome URLs just like chrome://about. You can use either of those, but chrome://about is just so convenient.

10. chrome://components

It displays all the Chrome Components which are required by Chrome to function properly. For example, Widevine availability, Adobe Flash Player support, Chrome Recovery, etc. You can learn more about Chrome Components and their usage in detail by heading to the linked article.

11. chrome://conflicts

It captures conflicts between Chrome and PC and maintains a log for further analysis. Conflicts occur for all kinds of issues. Say, there is a time difference between system and Chrome or there is variation in TCP/IP protocol request and so on.

12. chrome://crashes 13. chrome://credits

It lists all the organisation and developers who have worked on Google Chrome with their license and homepage link. You can go through the long list of contributors who have made the Chromium project possible.

14. chrome://device-log

It records all the events that took place with PC like power, USB, Bluetooth, Network, etc. If there are any issues with the PC, you can find all the events here and fix it.

15. chrome://devices

It shows compatible devices which are connected to the PC. For me, it shows a wireless printer which is connected to my WiFi network. You can check yours too and configure accordingly.

16. chrome://discards

It displays some unique information about all the open tabs and whether they have been discarded from memory. You can go through the table to find more about the open websites and how well it’s optimized. Quite interesting.

17. chrome://download-internals

19. chrome://extensions

It displays all the Chrome extensions installed on your Google Chrome browser. You can go through the list and configure the extensions as you like. If you are a developer, you can enable the Developer mode from the top-right corner.

20. chrome://flags

It lists all the experimental features of Chrome which are not enabled by default. There are lots of interesting features and we have compiled a list of best Google Chrome flags for your perusal.

21. chrome://gcm-internals

It gives information about Google Cloud Messaging which is used by third-party developers to send push notifications. Besides, you can find all the website and apps which have permission to send push notification.

22. chrome://gpu 23. chrome://help

It opens the “About Chrome” page where you can check for Chrome updates. Additionally, you can report issues and go through the help guide as well.

24. chrome://histograms

It shows histograms of various service handlers as to how much time it took to render data. The graphs make it easy for developers to find the fault lines and optimize their code accordingly.

25. chrome://history

26. chrome://indexeddb-internals

It lists all the websites which have created a local database to store various information and blobs. These databases are actually app data and it’s encrypted so that no malware can access it.

27. chrome://inspect 28. chrome://interstitials

29. chrome://interventions-internals

It displays few internal flags, quality of the network, logs of intervention and blocklist status. Here, developers can check the intervention from scripts and external servers.

30. chrome://invalidations

It gives debug information about various service handlers so that developers can fix the issues. The service handlers are the primary components of Chrome, so the debug information significantly helps in quelling the bug,

31. chrome://local-state

It’s a debug page which lists all the local information tied to Google Chrome. The debug information is parsed in a programming language so that developers can easily go through the code.

32. chrome://media-engagement 33. chrome://media-internals

It lists all the media device like an audio speaker, webcam, etc available on the PC. You can also find a log which keeps all the media requests from various apps and websites.

34. chrome://nacl

It displays information about the operating system, Chrome’s version and support for Portable Native Client. The Portable NaCl lets developers test their apps and website for ARM, x86 and other platforms in a sandbox.

35. chrome://net-export

It lets developers export log of Chrome’s network activity. It can be used to find all the illegitimate outbound connections which were established with the PC.

36. chrome://net-internals

It lets you access various network settings like DNS, Proxy, Sockets and Domain Security Policy. Most of these network features are not available in Chrome’s main Settings page, so you can configure here.

37. chrome://network-error 38. chrome://network-errors

39. chrome://newtab

It opens a fresh new tab. Shortcut: CTRL+T

40. chrome://ntp-tiles-internals

It lists all the top websites which are displayed on the homepage with their URL and favicon address. You can add or remove top websites with your custom address as well.

41. chrome://omnibox

It lets developers debug Omnibox functionality with various tools. There are various parameters to test Omnibox with incomplete results, no suggestion and XML importing.

42. chrome://password-manager-internals 43. chrome://policy

It displays all the user and security policies running on Chrome. My PC is running two sets of policies: Chrome and Google Account Policy. You can check for your Chrome too.

44. chrome://predictors

It lists all the probable key strings which can be used to predict websites. The most interesting part is that Chrome keeps a log of hits and misses in a table and you can see it right here with all the website strings.

45. chrome://print

It opens Chrome’s default Print setting where you can customize the page layout and other relevant options. From here, you can save the web page in a printable format directly to your Google Drive.

46. chrome://process-internals

It lists all the websites and extensions running in Chrome with their frame information. It’s very similar to Task Manager’s process tab. However, you can’t forcefully kill a process in Chrome.

47. chrome://quota-internals 48. chrome://safe-browsing

It keeps a log and updates its database about all kind of malware and suspicious websites. It’s very similar to the anti-virus definition update we do on our desktop. However, for Chrome, Google maintains its database of nefarious websites and malware.

49. chrome://serviceworker-internals

It lists all the websites which have stored javascript on Chrome. While javascript is essential for the web, sometimes harmful scripts make their way to the computer. So go through the list and unregister the ones which seem odd to you.

50. chrome://settings

51. chrome://signin-internals

It displays sign-in information of all the accounts signed into Chrome. Here, you can see all the essential data points like token ID, authorization flag, timestamp, and cookie information. All these parameters are required for seamless sign-in.

52. chrome://site-engagement 53. chrome://suggestions

It gives you suggestions about Chrome. I got no suggestion, though.

54. chrome://supervised-user-internals

It provides information about the user, whether the user is adult, if supervision is required and so on. There is also an option for site filtering, but it didn’t work.

55. chrome://sync-internals

It provides several options to customize sync intervals for various service handlers. Chrome is preferred because it seamlessly syncs with your Google account. Here, you can find all the service handlers in action.

56. chrome://system

It displays information about the system, the OS version, keyboard layout, and installed extensions.

57. chrome://terms 58. chrome://tracing

It lets the developers test their web pages and apps with various internal tools. There are several testing options like latency, UI rendering, javascript loading time, etc.

59. chrome://translate-internals

It gives information about user’s default language, translation preference and supported languages. There is also an event viewer where developers can analyze internal logs during translation session.

60. chrome://usb-internals

It displays compatible USB devices connected to the PC. You can even add a USB device with the serial number and verify your account. Perhaps, the Titan Security Key works on this technology.

61. chrome://user-actions

62. chrome://version 63. chrome://webrtc-internals

It lets developers create a dump of audio streams or event data to analyze audio related issues. It can help developers who are trying to build apps and websites based on real-time communication (RTC) technology.

64. chrome://webrtc-logs

It displays the event logs captured during real-time communication so that developers can debug WebRTC issues.

Chrome URLs to Debug Google Chrome

There are a few Chrome URLs which are used for debugging purpose. At the moment, few URLs seem to function properly, but most of them don’t work at all. Here are a few working URLs which may help in debugging.

1. chrome://gpuclean

It clears the old GPU configuration and starts afresh.

2. chrome://quit 3. chrome://restart

It restarts Chrome instantly.

4. chrome://crash/

It crashes Chrome.

Other Chrome URLs

Apart from the above mentioned Google Chrome URLs, there are a few other Chrome URLs which are meant for debugging Chrome but do not appear to be working at the time of publishing this article.














Make Use of Chrome URLs

Hierarchy Of Civil Courts And Their Jurisdiction

Legal Provisions for the Hierarchy and Jurisdiction of Court

To understand the hierarchy of civil courts working in India, we have to look at the provisions precisely mentioned in the Code of Civil Procedure (1908). Information about the types of courts and their hierarchies is provided in Sections 3, 7, 8, 23, 24, and 25 of the Code of Civil Procedure. Whereas to understand the jurisdiction of various courts, one has to look at the provisions provided under Sections 6, 9, and 15 to 25.

Hierarchy of Courts in India

We have a three-tier hierarchy of civil courts in India. At the bottom of the echelon, we have the subordinate court. They are also called “District Courts,” as they function in a particular district of the state. Each district has a distinct district court, which is presided over by the district judge. The district judges are administratively superior to all the judges in that district. Now, within a district, there are other civil courts that are subordinate to district courts and presided over by a civil judge in the junior or senior division, functioning under the supervision of the district judge.

The second level in the hierarchy of courts is the High Court, which functions in each state. The High Court is the superior judicial body in the state. The High Court supervises the judicial functions of the District Court and the court below the district court. The High Court is the body that is responsible for the recruitment of district judges and subordinate judges within a state. The High Court exercises its administrative control over the subordinate judges, including the District Court judge. In terms of judicial functions, the High Court hears appeals from district court decisions in addition to having its own ordinary original jurisdiction.

Then at the third and top level in the hierarchy of courts is the Supreme Court of India, which exercises supervisory control over the high courts. The judges of the Supreme Court play a crucial role in the appointment of the judges of the high courts. The High Court judges are being appointed by the Government of India on the recommendations of the collegium, which consists of the senior judges of the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court hears appeals from the judgments and decisions of the High Court.

Jurisdiction of the Courts

After understanding the court hierarchy, it should be a little easier to understand the jurisdiction of these courts. The power of the court to decide a dispute is referred to as “jurisdiction.” The jurisdiction of a civil court is based on two aspects, namely, territory and the valuation of the subject matter in dispute.

Types of Jurisdiction

The jurisdiction of the court in India may be into classified into three categories namely −

Territorial Jurisdiction

Pecuniary Jurisdiction

Appellate Jurisdiction

Let’s discuss each one of them separately in brief −

Territorial Jurisdiction

Territorial jurisdiction is an extension of the regions within the limits of which the court exercises its judicial function. It means the civil disputes that arise in a specific region or territory are being assigned to a particular court for trial and adjudication. This particular territory is called the territorial jurisdiction of the court.

Pecuniary Jurisdiction Appellate Jurisdiction Conclusion

To sum up the entire topic, we have at the lowest level of hierarchy a District Court in each district, under which there are subordinate courts, namely the Court of Civil Judge Senior Division and the Court of Civil Judge Junior Division. The District Judge has unlimited peculiar jurisdiction in civil matters and territorial jurisdiction over the entire district. The subordinate District Court has limited pecuniary jurisdiction over civil disputes up to a few thousand rupees. The territorial jurisdictions of these subordinate courts are also limited, extending either up to the local limit of a town or up to a certain part of a district.

Then, at the second level, the High Court has unlimited pecuniary jurisdiction. With regard to any civil dispute, however, the territorial jurisdiction of the High Court is confined to the territory of the respective states within which the High Court is located. Then, at the top level, the Supreme Court of India has territorial jurisdiction over the entire territory of the country and unlimited pecuniary jurisdiction in relation to a civil dispute, which is of course conditional, and the condition is either the dispute should have been first tried and decided by the High Court of the state within which the civil dispute arises or the dispute should have a special case wherein some sort of grave injustice has been done by any court, a special leave petition has been allowed by the Supreme Court, and the permission to hear that particular and peculiar case has been granted in that particular and peculiar case.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What are the different levels of courts in India?

Ans: In India, there are three levels of courts, the Supreme Court at the highest level, the high courts at the middle level, and the district courts at the lowest level.

Q2. What is the pecuniary jurisdiction of the court?

Ans: The pecuniary jurisdiction of a court is decided on the basis of the limit of the monitory value of a civil dispute, over which the court is empowered to decide.

Q3. What is the territorial jurisdiction of a court?

Ans: Territorial jurisdiction is an extension of the regions within the limits of which the court exercises its judicial function.

Q4. What is the appellate jurisdiction of a court?

Ans: Appellate jurisdiction is the power of the court to hear appeals from the decisions of the lower court. Generally, the superior court has the power to hear appeals from the decisions of the lower court. Therefore, the Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction over the High Court. The high court has appellate jurisdiction over the district court and the district court hears appeals from the decisions of the civil court of the senior division and junior division.

Types Of Cloud Computing Platforms


Types of cloud computing platforms

This article is a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

What is Cloud Computing?

By harnessing the potential of remote servers spread across the internet, cloud computing liberates us from physical infrastructure constraints. Rather than depending on localized servers, cloud technology empowers users to store data and access web-based applications from any location with an internet connection. This newfound flexibility and accessibility revolutionize how we manage information and utilize software, enabling seamless connectivity and productivity across diverse environments.

Source: Unsplash

Benefits of Cloud Computing

The main benefits of cloud computing include the following:

Cost savings – Cloud computing eliminates the need to purchase and maintain physical servers, which can be expensive. Additionally, cloud services are o on a pay-as-you-go basis, so you only pay for what you use.

Scalability – Cloud computing allows businesses to scale up or down depending on their needs. This can be done quickly and with minimal disruption.

Flexibility – Cloud computing gives users acce o their data and applications using a device with an internet connection.

Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)

Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) emerges as a dynamic cloud computing solution, providing users with a comprehensive suite of hardware, software, and resources to seamlessly develop, deploy, and manage applications without additional hardware or software investments. PaaS proves invaluable for developers and individuals tasked with creating custom applications or seamlessly integrating existing ones into the cloud environment. With PaaS, innovation knows no bounds as users unlock the power to shape their digital landscape without the complexities of infrastructure provisioning.

Use Cases for PaaS

Web Application Hosting: PaaS can host applications requiring frequent updates without managing the underlying infrastructure. This makes it easier to deploy and scale applications.

Mobile App Development: PaaS can be used to develop and deploy mobile applications more quickly, as it provides access to ready-made components and services.

Big Data Analytics: PaaS can process and analyze large amounts of data quickly and cost-effectively, as it provides access to powerful computing resources.

IoT Solutions: PaaS can be used to develop and manage connected devices and applications, as it provides access to scalability and secure communication infrastructure.

DevOps Automation: PaaS can be used to automate development and operations processes, such as deployment, testing, and monitoring, which helps to ensure faster and more reliable softw

Examples of PaaS

Windows Azure: Windows Azure is Microsoft’s cloud computing platform, which provides an operating system, a set of services, and tools for developers to create, deploy and manage applications in the cloud. It supports various programming languages and frameworks, such as .NET, Java, PHP, and chúng tôi and provides data storage, networking, computing, and analytics services.

Heroku: Heroku is a cloud-based Platform as a Service (PaaS) that allows developers to construct, operate, and expand programs on the cloud. It is powered by a managed container system that makes it easier to distribute, scale, and manage applications. It is compatible with many programming languages and frameworks, such as Ruby, Java, chúng tôi and Python, and features a wide range of services and added features.

Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)

Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) is a cloud computing solution that furnishes users with virtualized computing components such as servers, storage, networks, and operating systems. It is optimal for those seeking more control over their infrastructure while avoiding physical hardware costs.

Use Cases for IaaS

Web Hosting: IaaS can host web-based applications and websites, providing users access to the underlying infrastructure and computing resources.

Application Development and Testing: IaaS can be used to develop and test software applications, as it provides users with access to the underlying infrastructure and computing resources.

Database Hosting: IaaS can host databases as it provides users access to the underlying infrastructure and computing resources.

Disaster Recovery: IaaS can be used for disaster recovery, as it allows users to quickly provision additional resources from the cloud to restore their data and systems.

Big Data Analytics: IaaS can store, process and analyze large amounts of data, providing users with access to the underlying infrastructure and computing resources.

IoT Deployment: IaaS can deploy and manage large-scale Internet of Things (IoT) solutions, as it provides users with access to the underlying infrastructure and computing resources.

Service Examples of IaaS

Linode: A cloud infrastructure provider that offers virtual private servers (VPSs). Linode provides a wide range of VPS plans and custom solutions to fit the needs of any size organization. They also offer a suite of developer tools and services such as managed databases, object storage, and load balancers.

Rackspace: Rackspace is a cloud infrastructure provider that offers managed cloud services, such as virtual private servers (VPSs), dedicated servers, and cloud servers. They provide various services and solutions, including managed databases, application hosting, and cloud storage. Rackspace also offers managed security services and 24/7 customer support.

Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)

Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) revolutionizes the way software is accessed and utilized. As a cloud computing solution, it provides users seamless access to software applications via the internet. These web-based programs can be utilized from any device with an internet connection, eliminating the need for local installations. SaaS caters to individuals and organizations seeking efficient access to specific software programs, enabling enhanced collaboration, scalability, and flexibility without the burden of software management.

Use Cases for SaaS

Email and Collaboration: Email and collaboration tools such as Google Apps and Office 365 are popular SaaS applications for communication and productivity.

CRM: Customer relationship management (CRM) tools such as Salesforce and Zendesk provide businesses with a platform to manage customer data, automate sales and marketing operations, and track customer engagement.

E-commerce: E-commerce platforms such as Shopify, BigCommerce, and Magento provide businesses with a complete solution to create and manage their online stores.

Project Management: Project management and task management tools such as Asana, Trello, and Basecamp are popular SaaS applications used to manage projects, tasks, and timelines.

Accounting: Accounting and bookkeeping tools such as QuickBooks Online and Xero provide businesses with an easy way to track financials and keep their books in order.

Human Resources: Human resource management (HRM) tools such as BambooHR and Zenefits provide businesses with a platform to manage employee data and automate HR processes.

Service Examples of SaaS

Google Workspace (formerly GSuite): Google Workspace (formerly GSuite) is a suite of cloud-based productivity and collaboration tools that includes Gmail, Docs, Sheets, Slides, Calendar, Meet, and more. It provides businesses with an easy way to collaborate, share documents, and store data in the cloud.

Dropbox: Dropbox is a file storage and sharing service that enables users to store and access their data from any device with an internet connection. It also provides real-time collaboration tools to collaborate on projects in the cloud.

Salesforce: Salesforce is a customer relationship management (CRM) platform that provides businesses with the tools they need to manage customer relationships and data. It enables companies to store, track, and analyze customer data and automate and streamline sales processes.

Function-as-a-Service (FaaS)

Function-as a Service (FaaS) is a cloud computing solution that enables developers to upload code directly onto the cloud without the need to handle servers or virtual machines. FaaS is optimal for executing small code pieces rapidly and effectively without managing servers or virtual machines.

Use Cases for FaaS

Image Processing and Analysis: FaaS can quickly and efficiently process images. Applications of this could include facial recognition, object recognition, or text recognition.

Machine Learning: FaaS can quickly and efficiently build and deploy machine learning models in the cloud. These models can predict customer behavior, detect anomalies, or automate decision-making.

IoT: FaaS can quickly and efficiently deploy and manage applications on IoT devices. This could include applications for monitoring and managing connected devices, analyzing data from sensors, or controlling devices remotely.

Web Applications: FaaS can quickly and efficiently deploy and manage web applications in the cloud. This could include content management, e-commerce, or customer relationship management applications.

Data Processing and Analytics: FaaS can be used to quickly and efficiently process and analyze large datasets in the cloud. This could include applications for data warehousing, predictive analytics, or text analytics.

Service Examples of FaaS

Amazon Web Services (AWS) Lambda: AWS Lambda is a serverless computing platform that allows developers to run code without having to manage or provision any servers. It is a service that allows users to upload their own code and then run it in the cloud without needing servers or maintenance. Lambda functions can be triggered by events, such as a file uploaded to a S3 bucket or a change in a DynamoDB table.

Azure Functions: Azure Functions is a serverless computing service from Microsoft that allows users to run code without having to manage or provision any servers. It is a service that allows users to upload their own code and then run it in the cloud without needing servers or maintenance. Azure Functions can be triggered by events, such as a file uploaded to a Blob container or a change in a Cosmos DB database.

Google Cloud Functions: Google Cloud Functions is a serverless computing service from Google that allows developers to run code without having to manage or provision any servers. It is a service that allows users to upload their own code and then run it in the cloud without needing servers or maintenance. Google Cloud Functions can be triggered by events, such as a file being modified, etc.

Cloud Computing Providers and Their Services

Several cloud computing providers offer different types of services for businesses of all sizes. Some of the most popular cloud providers include Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform (GCP), IBM Cloud, Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI), and Alibaba Cloud. Each provider offers different services, such as computing services, storage services, database services, analytics services, machine learning services, artificial intelligence services, security services, and more.


To sum up, various types of cloud computing platforms are accessible to businesses of all sizes, including Platform as a Service (PaaS), Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), and Function as a Service (FaaS). It is crucial to understand your needs before choosing a platform, as each type has its pros and cons. Furthermore, multiple cloud providers offer diverse services, making it vital to conduct thorough research and determine the best fit for your business requirements before selecting.

For readers who are just getting started with cloud computing, here are some tips for choosing the right platform:

Consider your Budget – When selecting a platform, consider how much you’re willing to spend on it. Some providers offer free trial periods so you can try their services before committing to a long-term plan.

Think About Scalability – Think about how quickly you need to scale up your services and whether or not the platform you’re considering supports this feature.

Understand your Needs – Make sure you understand what type of service you need before selecting a provider so you can make an informed decision.

Research Different Providers – Take the time to research different providers and compare their features before selecting one. This will help you make sure you’re getting the best deal possible.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What are cloud computing platforms?

A. Cloud computing platforms are virtualized environments that provide on-demand access to computing resources such as virtual machines, storage, and networking. They allow users to deploy and manage applications and services without needing on-premises infrastructure.

Q2. What are the 4 platforms of cloud computing?

A. The four platforms of cloud computing are Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), and Function as a Service (FaaS). Each platform offers different levels of abstraction and functionality for users.

Q3. What is the best cloud computing platform?

A. The best cloud computing platform depends on specific requirements and use cases. Popular platforms include Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform (GCP). The choice should consider scalability, performance, cost, supported services, and integration options.

Q4. What are the three types of cloud platform?

A. The three types of cloud platforms are public cloud, private cloud, and hybrid cloud. Public cloud platforms are operated by third-party providers and accessible over the internet. Private cloud platforms are dedicated to a single organization. Hybrid cloud platforms combine public and private clouds, offering flexibility and scalability while controlling sensitive data.

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Types Of Funds In India

Accounts play a key role in a country’s economic management. The Consolidated Fund of India (Article 266), the Contingency Fund of India (Article 267), and the Public Accounts of India (Article 266(2)) are the three different forms of central government finances that are mentioned in the Indian Constitution.

What is Government Fund?

Government financing is a formal donation made by a federal, state, or local government body in honor of a noble effort.

In essence, it serves as a transfer payment. Grants do not include technical help or other types of financial aid like loans, loan guarantees, discounted interest rates, direct appropriations, or revenue sharing.

In some cases, such as when a discovery results in a patent that brings in money, there may also be revenue-sharing agreements with the government.

Government funding refers to any circumstance in which a business or initiative receives all or some of its financial support from a government.

The government does more than just give these organizations money, though.

A company that has been awarded a government contract for work usually subcontracts out a portion of the work to other businesses.

For the purposes of the specific subcontract, these businesses are regarded as beneficiaries of government funding and, as such, are governed by all laws and regulations that may be in force.

Governments can also raise money through loans, which can be used to directly or indirectly subsidize borrowing from other sources.

Normal loan terms call for interest on top of full payback. For higher education, government loans, particularly those from the federal government, are frequently utilized.

Frequently, until the beneficiary completes their education, interest charges and repayment requirements are put off. Small business finance is another traditional category of government credit and is normally managed by the Small Business Administration.

The Indian government’s finances are separated into three categories, which are listed below −

Consolidated Fund

The most crucial account in the government is the Consolidated Fund of India. Except for extraordinary items, the government’s receipts and expenditures are included in the consolidated fund.

As stated in Article 266 (1) of the Indian Constitution, this fund was established. The Consolidated Fund of India is the repository for all of the government’s direct and indirect tax collections, as well as borrowing costs and repayments of government loans.

Except for unusual expenses, which are covered by the contingency fund or the public account, all government spending comes from this fund. A crucial restriction is that the parliament must approve all withdrawals from this fund.

It is divided into the following five sections −

Charges for expenses made against consolidated funds

Income account (receipts)

Revenue account (disbursements)

Capital statement (receipts)

Capital statement (disbursements)

Charged Expenditures on Consolidated Fund

Non-votable means that no vote is required to approve expenditures charged to the Consolidated Fund of India. These costs should be covered by the range of pay and allowances for −

The Chief Executive

A speaker

The Lok Sabha’s deputy speaker

Judges of the Supreme Court’s salaries and benefits

Judges of the Supreme Court and tribunals’ pensions

Contingency Fund

The Indian Constitution’s Article 267(1) makes provision for this fund.

It has a 500 crore rupee corpus. It has the characteristics of an impress (money maintained for a specific purpose).

On behalf of the Indian President, the Secretary of the Finance Ministry is in charge of this fund.

Unexpected or unforeseen expenses are covered by this fund.Article 267 permits each state to establish its own contingency fund.

Public Account of India

Article 266(2) of the Constitution establishes the following: The Public Account of India should be the source of all additional public funds received by or on behalf of the Indian government (except for those that are attributed to the Consolidated Fund of India). The following ingredients go towards making this −

Bank savings accounts are available for several ministries and departments.

The national defense fund is comparable to a modest national savings pool.

National Savings and Investments Corp. (money obtained from disinvestment)

The National Catastrophe and Contingency Fund is known as NCCF (for disaster management).

Insurance for communications, provident funds, and other things.


The Indian Parliament must approve both the expenditure and the withdrawal of the corresponding amount from the Consolidated Fund in order to maintain the Contingency Fund’s corpus. Similar to this, every government creates a contingency fund in accordance with Article 267(2) of the Constitution. Article 266 of the Indian Constitution establishes the Public Accounts (2).

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. Who controls government money in India?

Ans. The highest governing body is the Ministry of Finance.

Q2. Who is the owner of the India Contingency Fund?

Ans. The Fund is held on behalf of the Indian President by the Secretary to the Government of India, Ministry of Finance, Department of Economic Affairs.

Q3. Who gets salary from Consolidated Fund of India?

Ans. The President’s salary and benefits, the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, Judges of the Supreme Court and High Court get salaries and allowances, while CAG and Lok Pal justices receive salaries and allowances as well.

Q4. Who prepares the budget in India?

Ans. The budget is created by the Ministry of Finance.

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