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Introduction to Marketing Mix

The marketing mix is defined as a business model and a set of practices that are used to achieve the marketing goals of a business. Marketing is one of the foundation factors for the success of any business or organization. The marketing mix is the set of practices for the successful marketing or brand promotion of any company’s products or services. There are four broad areas covered under marketing: product, price, place, and product promotion.

Project scheduling and management, project management software & others

Types or Categories of Marketing Mix Values

Categorization of Marketing Mix Strategies or Principles as Per the Type of Industries:

There is different type of industries or organization providing different types of services, and so we do have different types of marketing mix strategies based on the type of industry or the services they are providing to their customers including:

1. Contemporary/Digital Marketing Mix

This is the most dominant marketing mix strategy, which focuses on four Ps of marketing, namely product, price, place, and promotion of the product, which is basically used for making the management decisions related to the business.

2. Extended Marketing Mix

Then comes the extended marketing mix strategy, which comprises 7 Ps of marketing: the product, price, place, promotion, people, process, and physical evidence.

3. Service Marketing Mix Strategy

The services marketer follows 8p’s of marketing in addition to the 7 Ps of the extended marketing mix, which are the product, price, place, promotion, people, process, physical evidence, and performance.

4. Customer-Driven Marketing Mix 5. Shimizu’s Marketing Mix Strategy

This is very similar to the customer-driven principles except for commodity and channel. Thus the 4c’s of Shimizu’s marketing mix are commodity, cost, channel, and communication.

4 P’s of Marketing

The basic 4P’s of marketing are the product, price, place, and promotion, so let’s see these 4 p’s in detail:

1. Product

Products are basically the end outcomes, either the goods or the services produced or offered by any organization or industry required to satisfy the needs and requirements of a customer. Marketing does not exclusively mean only the promotion of the product or service produced, but marketing starts with product research at the very initial stage, which is carried by the product development team. They study and research the needs of the customer for reaching out to them.

2. Price

Pricing of the product or the services is the most important aspect of the customer’s point of view. The product’s cost component must be such or must be strategized as per the customer’s capacity to pay for the opted service or product. It is important to keep the customer’s willingness to pay for the product or the service while deciding the product’s cost to attract the customers; the marketing strategy guides to provide lucrative deals and discounts on the product, which helps draw the customer’s attention towards the product. The management must keep the vision of the long terms goals and benefits while making the decision, and the cost margin should be such that it benefits both the customer and the organization.

3. Place

Marketing research is very crucial for deciding the marketing venues and the places for the product launch as it depends on the targeted consumer’s availability in that place. This also covers the local branches and franchises at different locations to promote and sell the product and services. The placement component includes a number of factors like sales personnel, training, and franchising fees for brand promotion.

4. Promotion

Marketing is the key to the success of any product or service in today’s era. The industries or organizations spend a hefty amount on the promotion of their brand to reach out to maximum consumers. They often approach highly influential people like the actor and actresses, cricketers, or other sportspeople who are well known among the common people to promote their brands. Marketing has emerged as an industry, and there are firms that are solely dedicated to the marketing needs of the top-notch brands, and these marketing firms strategize and campaign the promotion of the product.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to the Marketing Mix. Here we discuss the introduction and types or categories of marketing mix values along with the 4P’s of marketing which includes the product, price, place, and promotion of the product, etc. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

You're reading Types Or Categories Along With 4P’s Of Marketing Mix

Types Of Xml Parsers With Examples

Definition of XML Parsers How does XML Parsers Work?

Fig: XML parser Process

The Parser could be categorized as validating and non- validating

Validating Parser: It needs a Document type Declaration to parse and gives an error if the respective document doesn’t match with DTD and constraints.

Non-Validating: This Parser eliminates DTD and the parser checks for the well-formed document.

Types of XML Parsers with Examples

This section talks about various types of parsers used recently in parsing XML document. They are:

DOM Parser

SAX Parser

JDOM Parser

stAX Parser

Xpath Parser

The most important type is DOM and SAX which is explained detail in this article.

1. DOM Parser (Tree-Based)

Document Object Model is a W3C Standard and converts the XML document which is to parsed into a collection of objects and uses DOM API. It consists of a collection of nodes and is associated with other nodes in the tree. DOM is much easier to use as sorting and searching process is made chúng tôi DOM parser the content of the XML file is modified with Node and Node List. The Steps involved in Parsing with java:

Getting document builder objects

Taking XML document as input, parseit and return the class.

Getting values of the input id through attributes and sub-elements.

Display the results.

First is the XML file that generates the values which are going to be parse and java objects are constructed automatically.


chúng tôi


And here is the Output is shown for the XML File. Save XML and java file in the same folder during execution. In this article I have used java-jdk- 13.0.1 using command prompt. Save the respective folder in any drive and do the set path.


2. SAX Parser

SAX Is Simple API for XML and meant has Push Parseralso considered to be stream-oriented XML Parser. it is used in case of high- performance applications like where the XML file is too largeand comes with the community- based standard and requires less memory. The main task is to read the XML file and creates an event to do call functionor uses call back routines. The working of this parser is just like Event handler part of the java. it is necessary to register the handlers to parse the document for handing different events. SAX Parser uses three methods startElement() , endElement() , characters().

startElement(): Is used to identify the element, start element is identified.

endElement(): To stop the Supermarket tag in the example.

character(): Is used to identify the character in the node

The xml file is the same file used in DOM Parser chúng tôi and next step generate chúng tôi file





Therefore, we have discovered how to use XML parsers in Java with the powerful APIs in the applications.Also, we have seen the implementation of two parsers using java. When compared with DOM,sax parser uses arbitrary size to parse whereas DOM requires available memory to load the complete chúng tôi Parsers differs based on the performance.

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This is a guide to XML Parsers. Here we also discuss how does xml parsers work? along with examples and its code implementation. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

What Is A Marketing Plan And Its Types?

A marketing plan is a must-have for any business, as it helps keep track of all the details of a campaign. It will allow you to think of each aspect of a campaign in an organized manner, and it will also help you identify areas where you can improve. This will allow you to make informed decisions and improve the effectiveness of your marketing efforts.

What is a Marketing Plan?

It is basically a process that a company uses to develop its marketing strategy to promote its products to its target market. It includes the various elements of the campaign, such as the brand’s value proposition, the launch of the campaign, and the measurement of the effectiveness of the marketing efforts. The plan should be adjusted periodically based on the results of the evaluation.

Types of Marketing Plan

Although a single plan is ideal, it’s also important to consider the different kinds of businesses when it comes to planning. Having a distinct plan can help you identify the goals and objectives of each plan.

Quarterly or Annual Marketing Plans

A long-term marketing plan is a strategy that outlines the goals and actions that an organization will take over a certain period of time. It involves conducting deep research into the market conditions and coming up with a set of strategies that are geared towards achieving those goals. This process is carried out by the top management team of the company. It is based on their precise predictions and the risks that they are taking into account.

Social Media Marketing Plan

A successful book launch is an example of how social media and content marketing can be used to promote a product or service. Using data to improve your social strategy can help spread the word about your book and attract more potential customers.

Time-based Marketing Plan

A time-based marketing strategy is a type of strategy that focuses on the company’s current condition and best practices during a specific period.

Content Marketing Plan

A content marketing plan is a framework that will allow you to create and distribute content that will help promote your business. It can be used by both the marketing and sales teams, and it can be used to create and manage multiple types of content. Whether you are a small company or a global organization, you will most likely start using content to market your services or products. Having a plan will allow you to keep everyone on the same page and focused on the same goals.

Importance of a Marketing Plan

The process of marketing planning is an analytical exercise that can be used to develop a company’s marketing strategy. It can be associated with a company’s strategic business units or its whole organization. It provides a comprehensive view of a company’s future strategies, with a particular focus on its product expansion and sales promotion. Some of the common benefits are −

Through marketing planning, people can achieve their goals more quickly.

It can also help minimize the risks associated with failure.

It helps decrease the conflicting results of bad situations that arise outside the control of management.

The process of marketing planning allows a company to have a better view of its overall operations. It also helps with coordination among various departments.

The process of marketing planning can stimulate the alertness of individuals to make changes. It is comparable to the marketing sense that the business unit desires to achieve.

The marketing planning process is an organized process that involves gathering information about resources, developing marketing goals, and implementing strategies. It is performed in a circular manner and involves assessments to align all the elements of the plan. Hence, it is one of the most important things to implement in your business.


After you have a good understanding of the steps, it’s time to start implementing them. Having a plan will allow you to create and distribute content effectively. One of the most important steps that you should take is to document your strategy. You can download a content planner that will help you create and distribute content, as well as a variety of other free templates and tools.

Types Of Cloud Computing Platforms


Types of cloud computing platforms

This article is a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

What is Cloud Computing?

By harnessing the potential of remote servers spread across the internet, cloud computing liberates us from physical infrastructure constraints. Rather than depending on localized servers, cloud technology empowers users to store data and access web-based applications from any location with an internet connection. This newfound flexibility and accessibility revolutionize how we manage information and utilize software, enabling seamless connectivity and productivity across diverse environments.

Source: Unsplash

Benefits of Cloud Computing

The main benefits of cloud computing include the following:

Cost savings – Cloud computing eliminates the need to purchase and maintain physical servers, which can be expensive. Additionally, cloud services are o on a pay-as-you-go basis, so you only pay for what you use.

Scalability – Cloud computing allows businesses to scale up or down depending on their needs. This can be done quickly and with minimal disruption.

Flexibility – Cloud computing gives users acce o their data and applications using a device with an internet connection.

Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)

Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) emerges as a dynamic cloud computing solution, providing users with a comprehensive suite of hardware, software, and resources to seamlessly develop, deploy, and manage applications without additional hardware or software investments. PaaS proves invaluable for developers and individuals tasked with creating custom applications or seamlessly integrating existing ones into the cloud environment. With PaaS, innovation knows no bounds as users unlock the power to shape their digital landscape without the complexities of infrastructure provisioning.

Use Cases for PaaS

Web Application Hosting: PaaS can host applications requiring frequent updates without managing the underlying infrastructure. This makes it easier to deploy and scale applications.

Mobile App Development: PaaS can be used to develop and deploy mobile applications more quickly, as it provides access to ready-made components and services.

Big Data Analytics: PaaS can process and analyze large amounts of data quickly and cost-effectively, as it provides access to powerful computing resources.

IoT Solutions: PaaS can be used to develop and manage connected devices and applications, as it provides access to scalability and secure communication infrastructure.

DevOps Automation: PaaS can be used to automate development and operations processes, such as deployment, testing, and monitoring, which helps to ensure faster and more reliable softw

Examples of PaaS

Windows Azure: Windows Azure is Microsoft’s cloud computing platform, which provides an operating system, a set of services, and tools for developers to create, deploy and manage applications in the cloud. It supports various programming languages and frameworks, such as .NET, Java, PHP, and chúng tôi and provides data storage, networking, computing, and analytics services.

Heroku: Heroku is a cloud-based Platform as a Service (PaaS) that allows developers to construct, operate, and expand programs on the cloud. It is powered by a managed container system that makes it easier to distribute, scale, and manage applications. It is compatible with many programming languages and frameworks, such as Ruby, Java, chúng tôi and Python, and features a wide range of services and added features.

Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)

Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) is a cloud computing solution that furnishes users with virtualized computing components such as servers, storage, networks, and operating systems. It is optimal for those seeking more control over their infrastructure while avoiding physical hardware costs.

Use Cases for IaaS

Web Hosting: IaaS can host web-based applications and websites, providing users access to the underlying infrastructure and computing resources.

Application Development and Testing: IaaS can be used to develop and test software applications, as it provides users with access to the underlying infrastructure and computing resources.

Database Hosting: IaaS can host databases as it provides users access to the underlying infrastructure and computing resources.

Disaster Recovery: IaaS can be used for disaster recovery, as it allows users to quickly provision additional resources from the cloud to restore their data and systems.

Big Data Analytics: IaaS can store, process and analyze large amounts of data, providing users with access to the underlying infrastructure and computing resources.

IoT Deployment: IaaS can deploy and manage large-scale Internet of Things (IoT) solutions, as it provides users with access to the underlying infrastructure and computing resources.

Service Examples of IaaS

Linode: A cloud infrastructure provider that offers virtual private servers (VPSs). Linode provides a wide range of VPS plans and custom solutions to fit the needs of any size organization. They also offer a suite of developer tools and services such as managed databases, object storage, and load balancers.

Rackspace: Rackspace is a cloud infrastructure provider that offers managed cloud services, such as virtual private servers (VPSs), dedicated servers, and cloud servers. They provide various services and solutions, including managed databases, application hosting, and cloud storage. Rackspace also offers managed security services and 24/7 customer support.

Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)

Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) revolutionizes the way software is accessed and utilized. As a cloud computing solution, it provides users seamless access to software applications via the internet. These web-based programs can be utilized from any device with an internet connection, eliminating the need for local installations. SaaS caters to individuals and organizations seeking efficient access to specific software programs, enabling enhanced collaboration, scalability, and flexibility without the burden of software management.

Use Cases for SaaS

Email and Collaboration: Email and collaboration tools such as Google Apps and Office 365 are popular SaaS applications for communication and productivity.

CRM: Customer relationship management (CRM) tools such as Salesforce and Zendesk provide businesses with a platform to manage customer data, automate sales and marketing operations, and track customer engagement.

E-commerce: E-commerce platforms such as Shopify, BigCommerce, and Magento provide businesses with a complete solution to create and manage their online stores.

Project Management: Project management and task management tools such as Asana, Trello, and Basecamp are popular SaaS applications used to manage projects, tasks, and timelines.

Accounting: Accounting and bookkeeping tools such as QuickBooks Online and Xero provide businesses with an easy way to track financials and keep their books in order.

Human Resources: Human resource management (HRM) tools such as BambooHR and Zenefits provide businesses with a platform to manage employee data and automate HR processes.

Service Examples of SaaS

Google Workspace (formerly GSuite): Google Workspace (formerly GSuite) is a suite of cloud-based productivity and collaboration tools that includes Gmail, Docs, Sheets, Slides, Calendar, Meet, and more. It provides businesses with an easy way to collaborate, share documents, and store data in the cloud.

Dropbox: Dropbox is a file storage and sharing service that enables users to store and access their data from any device with an internet connection. It also provides real-time collaboration tools to collaborate on projects in the cloud.

Salesforce: Salesforce is a customer relationship management (CRM) platform that provides businesses with the tools they need to manage customer relationships and data. It enables companies to store, track, and analyze customer data and automate and streamline sales processes.

Function-as-a-Service (FaaS)

Function-as a Service (FaaS) is a cloud computing solution that enables developers to upload code directly onto the cloud without the need to handle servers or virtual machines. FaaS is optimal for executing small code pieces rapidly and effectively without managing servers or virtual machines.

Use Cases for FaaS

Image Processing and Analysis: FaaS can quickly and efficiently process images. Applications of this could include facial recognition, object recognition, or text recognition.

Machine Learning: FaaS can quickly and efficiently build and deploy machine learning models in the cloud. These models can predict customer behavior, detect anomalies, or automate decision-making.

IoT: FaaS can quickly and efficiently deploy and manage applications on IoT devices. This could include applications for monitoring and managing connected devices, analyzing data from sensors, or controlling devices remotely.

Web Applications: FaaS can quickly and efficiently deploy and manage web applications in the cloud. This could include content management, e-commerce, or customer relationship management applications.

Data Processing and Analytics: FaaS can be used to quickly and efficiently process and analyze large datasets in the cloud. This could include applications for data warehousing, predictive analytics, or text analytics.

Service Examples of FaaS

Amazon Web Services (AWS) Lambda: AWS Lambda is a serverless computing platform that allows developers to run code without having to manage or provision any servers. It is a service that allows users to upload their own code and then run it in the cloud without needing servers or maintenance. Lambda functions can be triggered by events, such as a file uploaded to a S3 bucket or a change in a DynamoDB table.

Azure Functions: Azure Functions is a serverless computing service from Microsoft that allows users to run code without having to manage or provision any servers. It is a service that allows users to upload their own code and then run it in the cloud without needing servers or maintenance. Azure Functions can be triggered by events, such as a file uploaded to a Blob container or a change in a Cosmos DB database.

Google Cloud Functions: Google Cloud Functions is a serverless computing service from Google that allows developers to run code without having to manage or provision any servers. It is a service that allows users to upload their own code and then run it in the cloud without needing servers or maintenance. Google Cloud Functions can be triggered by events, such as a file being modified, etc.

Cloud Computing Providers and Their Services

Several cloud computing providers offer different types of services for businesses of all sizes. Some of the most popular cloud providers include Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform (GCP), IBM Cloud, Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI), and Alibaba Cloud. Each provider offers different services, such as computing services, storage services, database services, analytics services, machine learning services, artificial intelligence services, security services, and more.


To sum up, various types of cloud computing platforms are accessible to businesses of all sizes, including Platform as a Service (PaaS), Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), and Function as a Service (FaaS). It is crucial to understand your needs before choosing a platform, as each type has its pros and cons. Furthermore, multiple cloud providers offer diverse services, making it vital to conduct thorough research and determine the best fit for your business requirements before selecting.

For readers who are just getting started with cloud computing, here are some tips for choosing the right platform:

Consider your Budget – When selecting a platform, consider how much you’re willing to spend on it. Some providers offer free trial periods so you can try their services before committing to a long-term plan.

Think About Scalability – Think about how quickly you need to scale up your services and whether or not the platform you’re considering supports this feature.

Understand your Needs – Make sure you understand what type of service you need before selecting a provider so you can make an informed decision.

Research Different Providers – Take the time to research different providers and compare their features before selecting one. This will help you make sure you’re getting the best deal possible.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What are cloud computing platforms?

A. Cloud computing platforms are virtualized environments that provide on-demand access to computing resources such as virtual machines, storage, and networking. They allow users to deploy and manage applications and services without needing on-premises infrastructure.

Q2. What are the 4 platforms of cloud computing?

A. The four platforms of cloud computing are Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), and Function as a Service (FaaS). Each platform offers different levels of abstraction and functionality for users.

Q3. What is the best cloud computing platform?

A. The best cloud computing platform depends on specific requirements and use cases. Popular platforms include Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform (GCP). The choice should consider scalability, performance, cost, supported services, and integration options.

Q4. What are the three types of cloud platform?

A. The three types of cloud platforms are public cloud, private cloud, and hybrid cloud. Public cloud platforms are operated by third-party providers and accessible over the internet. Private cloud platforms are dedicated to a single organization. Hybrid cloud platforms combine public and private clouds, offering flexibility and scalability while controlling sensitive data.

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Types Of Funds In India

Accounts play a key role in a country’s economic management. The Consolidated Fund of India (Article 266), the Contingency Fund of India (Article 267), and the Public Accounts of India (Article 266(2)) are the three different forms of central government finances that are mentioned in the Indian Constitution.

What is Government Fund?

Government financing is a formal donation made by a federal, state, or local government body in honor of a noble effort.

In essence, it serves as a transfer payment. Grants do not include technical help or other types of financial aid like loans, loan guarantees, discounted interest rates, direct appropriations, or revenue sharing.

In some cases, such as when a discovery results in a patent that brings in money, there may also be revenue-sharing agreements with the government.

Government funding refers to any circumstance in which a business or initiative receives all or some of its financial support from a government.

The government does more than just give these organizations money, though.

A company that has been awarded a government contract for work usually subcontracts out a portion of the work to other businesses.

For the purposes of the specific subcontract, these businesses are regarded as beneficiaries of government funding and, as such, are governed by all laws and regulations that may be in force.

Governments can also raise money through loans, which can be used to directly or indirectly subsidize borrowing from other sources.

Normal loan terms call for interest on top of full payback. For higher education, government loans, particularly those from the federal government, are frequently utilized.

Frequently, until the beneficiary completes their education, interest charges and repayment requirements are put off. Small business finance is another traditional category of government credit and is normally managed by the Small Business Administration.

The Indian government’s finances are separated into three categories, which are listed below −

Consolidated Fund

The most crucial account in the government is the Consolidated Fund of India. Except for extraordinary items, the government’s receipts and expenditures are included in the consolidated fund.

As stated in Article 266 (1) of the Indian Constitution, this fund was established. The Consolidated Fund of India is the repository for all of the government’s direct and indirect tax collections, as well as borrowing costs and repayments of government loans.

Except for unusual expenses, which are covered by the contingency fund or the public account, all government spending comes from this fund. A crucial restriction is that the parliament must approve all withdrawals from this fund.

It is divided into the following five sections −

Charges for expenses made against consolidated funds

Income account (receipts)

Revenue account (disbursements)

Capital statement (receipts)

Capital statement (disbursements)

Charged Expenditures on Consolidated Fund

Non-votable means that no vote is required to approve expenditures charged to the Consolidated Fund of India. These costs should be covered by the range of pay and allowances for −

The Chief Executive

A speaker

The Lok Sabha’s deputy speaker

Judges of the Supreme Court’s salaries and benefits

Judges of the Supreme Court and tribunals’ pensions

Contingency Fund

The Indian Constitution’s Article 267(1) makes provision for this fund.

It has a 500 crore rupee corpus. It has the characteristics of an impress (money maintained for a specific purpose).

On behalf of the Indian President, the Secretary of the Finance Ministry is in charge of this fund.

Unexpected or unforeseen expenses are covered by this fund.Article 267 permits each state to establish its own contingency fund.

Public Account of India

Article 266(2) of the Constitution establishes the following: The Public Account of India should be the source of all additional public funds received by or on behalf of the Indian government (except for those that are attributed to the Consolidated Fund of India). The following ingredients go towards making this −

Bank savings accounts are available for several ministries and departments.

The national defense fund is comparable to a modest national savings pool.

National Savings and Investments Corp. (money obtained from disinvestment)

The National Catastrophe and Contingency Fund is known as NCCF (for disaster management).

Insurance for communications, provident funds, and other things.


The Indian Parliament must approve both the expenditure and the withdrawal of the corresponding amount from the Consolidated Fund in order to maintain the Contingency Fund’s corpus. Similar to this, every government creates a contingency fund in accordance with Article 267(2) of the Constitution. Article 266 of the Indian Constitution establishes the Public Accounts (2).

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. Who controls government money in India?

Ans. The highest governing body is the Ministry of Finance.

Q2. Who is the owner of the India Contingency Fund?

Ans. The Fund is held on behalf of the Indian President by the Secretary to the Government of India, Ministry of Finance, Department of Economic Affairs.

Q3. Who gets salary from Consolidated Fund of India?

Ans. The President’s salary and benefits, the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, Judges of the Supreme Court and High Court get salaries and allowances, while CAG and Lok Pal justices receive salaries and allowances as well.

Q4. Who prepares the budget in India?

Ans. The budget is created by the Ministry of Finance.

Data Types In R With Example

In this tutorial, you will learn:

What are the Data Types in R?

Following are the Data Types or Data Structures in R Programming:


Vectors (numerical, character, logical)


Data frames


Basics types

4.5 is a decimal value called numerics.

4 is a natural value called integers. Integers are also numerics.

TRUE or FALSE is a Boolean value called logical binary operators in R.

The value inside ” ” or ‘ ‘ are text (string). They are called characters.

We can check the type of a variable with the class function

Example 1: # Declare variables of different types # Numeric x <- 28 class(x)


## [1] "numeric" Example 2: # String y <- "R is Fantastic" class(y)


## [1] "character" Example 3: # Boolean z <- TRUE class(z)


## [1] "logical" Variables

Variables are one of the basic data types in R that store values and are an important component in R programming, especially for a data scientist. A variable in R data types can store a number, an object, a statistical result, vector, dataset, a model prediction basically anything R outputs. We can use that variable later simply by calling the name of the variable.

To declare variable data structures in R, we need to assign a variable name. The name should not have space. We can use _ to connect to words.

To add a value to the variable in data types in R programming, use <- or =.

Here is the syntax:

# First way to declare a variable: use the `<-` name_of_variable <- value # Second way to declare a variable: use the `=` name_of_variable = value

In the command line, we can write the following codes to see what happens:

Example 1: # Print variable x x <- 42 x


## [1] 42 Example 2: y <- 10 y


## [1] 10 Example 3: # We call x and y and apply a subtraction x-y


## [1] 32 Vectors

A vector is a one-dimensional array. We can create a vector with all the basic R data types we learnt before. The simplest way to build vector data structures in R, is to use the c command.

Example 1: # Numerical vec_num <- c(1, 10, 49) vec_num


## [1] 1 10 49 Example 2: # Character vec_chr <- c("a", "b", "c") vec_chr


## [1] "a" "b" "c" Example 3: # Boolean vec_bool <- c(TRUE, FALSE, TRUE) vec_bool



We can do arithmetic calculations on vector binary operators in R.

Example 4: # Create the vectors vect_1 <- c(1, 3, 5) vect_2 <- c(2, 4, 6) # Take the sum of A_vector and B_vector sum_vect <- vect_1 + vect_2 # Print out total_vector sum_vect


[1] 3 7 11 Example 5:

In R, it is possible to slice a vector. In some occasion, we are interested in only the first five rows of a vector. We can use the [1:5] command to extract the value 1 to 5.

# Slice the first five rows of the vector slice_vector <- c(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10) slice_vector[1:5]


## [1] 1 2 3 4 5 Example 6:

The shortest way to create a range of values is to use the: between two numbers. For instance, from the above example, we can write c(1:10) to create a vector of value from one to ten.

# Faster way to create adjacent values c(1:10)


## [1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 R Arithmetic Operators

We will first see the basic arithmetic operators in R data types. Following are the arithmetic and boolean operators in R programming which stand for:

Operator Description

+ Addition

– Subtraction

* Multiplication

/ Division

^ or ** Exponentiation

Example 1: # An addition 3 + 4


## [1] 7

You can easily copy and paste the above R code into Rstudio Console. The output is displayed after the character #. For instance, we write the code print(‘Guru99’) the output will be ##[1] Guru99.

The ## means we print output and the number in the square bracket ([1]) is the number of the display

Example 2: # A multiplication 3*5


## [1] 15 Example 3: # A division (5+5)/2


## [1] 5 Example 4: # Exponentiation 2^5


Example 5: ## [1] 32 # Modulo 28%%6


## [1] 4 R Logical Operators

With logical operators, we want to return values inside the vector based on logical conditions. Following is a detailed list of logical operators of data types in R programming

Logical Operators in R

The logical statements in R are wrapped inside the []. We can add as many conditional statements as we like but we need to include them in a parenthesis. We can follow this structure to create a conditional statement:

variable_name[(conditional_statement)] Example 1: # Create a vector from 1 to 10 logical_vector <- c(1:10)



In the example below, we want to extract the values that only meet the condition ‘is strictly superior to five’. For that, we can wrap the condition inside a square bracket precede by the vector containing the values.

# Print value strictly above 5


## [1] 6 7 8 9 10 Example 3: # Print 5 and 6 logical_vector <- c(1:10)


## [1] 5 6

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