Trending March 2024 # Uberwriter: A Markdown Writing Application For Ubuntu # Suggested April 2024 # Top 4 Popular

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If you are using a Linux-based operating system, chances are you have only two kinds of text editing tools on it: a basic text editor, like gedit, and a more powerful writing suite, like LibreOffice’s Writer. Such a setup is more than enough in most cases, but if you are a writer, you might need something in between in order to produce your work under a light and distraction-free environment.

There are several options available, some of which have already been covered here on Make Tech Easier, but today I bring you a distinct software. UberWriter, developed by a bright 21-year-old Swiss student, is a very light, simple and minimal tool for writing beautiful documents using the Markdown syntax.


Surely you have heard about “Markdown” before, but maybe you do not know what it is, so a quick explanation follows.

Markdown is a plain text formatting syntax design, excellent for a quick HTML conversion using a tool supporting it. It is mostly used as a format for readme files, writing messages for online discussion boards (Reddit, for example) or in text editing for the creation of rich text documents.

It was created back in 2004 by John Gruber and Aaron Swartz and aimed to allow people “to write using an easy-to-read, easy-to-write plain text format, and optionally convert it to structurally valid XHTML (or HTML)”.


UberWriter is a program for text editing based on the Markdown syntax. It is available in the Ubuntu Software Center, and costs $5 if you download it from there. However, if you prefer to download UberWriter for free, you can do so through a PPA, using the following commands in a terminal window (Vollprecht explains this “paid/non paid” thing in his blog):


add-apt-repository ppa:w-vollprecht




apt-get update


apt-get install

uberwriter Appearance

After the installation is finished, UberWriter can be found under the “Office” section of the application menu. Contrary to what happens with many other applications, in UberWriter’s first run there is no setting up whatsoever – in fact, the software doesn’t even have a “preferences” menu, which helps to keep it as simple as possible.

Inline Markdown Highlighting

UberWriter also has a very interesting feature: Whenever you use any Markdown syntax, the program highlights it and gives you a slight preview of the action. To understand what I mean, notice the Markdown tags I used in the screenshot above and take a look at this screencast:

However, as far as I know, this highlight has no action for links (as you can also see in my screenshot).

Exporting documents


Whether you are an expert in the Markdown syntax or a beginner wanting to learn more about it, UberWriter is the right app for you. It is simple, lightweight and straight to the point, allowing you to use Markdown at will and export your text to the most widely used output formats.

Diogo Costa

Diogo (@diogocostaweb) is a Biologist with a grip on computers and technology. Running Windows systems all his life, has a big interest in discovering new apps that increase productivity or simply make things more interesting. He lives in Portugal and has photography and music as main hobbies. He is also the author of the page chúng tôi a page for short (but useful) computer tweaks and tutorials.

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Makeup Application Techniques For Different Occasions

Makeup Tips for Various Occasions

The main component of any girl’s appearance has always been makeup, and as they get older, their makeup skills get much better. Having said that, selecting the appropriate cosmetics can occasionally be challenging while getting ready for a particular occasion. Following these dos and don’ts regarding cosmetics on various occasions will help make things easier for everyone.

For Casual Day

This is for a laid-back day out where you don’t think dressing up excessively is appropriate. Conceal with concealer first, then apply foundation after that. Just be sure that both of the hues are as near to your skin tone as possible. After evenly applying powder to the face, keep the eyes straightforward by using just one coat of mascara and one line of eyeliner. Apply lipstick that matches your mood, then leave. Avoid overusing your eyes because doing so could defeat the entire goal.

For Special Day

Making the appearance stylish but presentable on any given day is what this entails. You would need to start by focussing on the face and using a BB cream to cover up any problem areas. The eyes then need to be strengthened with black lashes at the top and brown or grey lashes at the bottom. Be sure to fill in your brows. Apply some mascara first, and then use the brusher. The general appearance is wonderful with gentler colours that keep things under control, so avoid using deep colours.

For Workout

Although you shouldn’t use concealer or heavy foundation, there are a few things you should be aware of. Anything you decide to put on your face will undoubtedly be ruined by sweat. Because of this, it is best to keep your face simple and devoid of foundation. Try some beautiful mist or hot water in its place. Spray it on before working out, and we promise you’ll see results. When it comes to lips, you can put on nude, neutral lip colour.

For Office

To keep your skin hydrated while you are inside your air-conditioned office, the first step in applying makeup for the office is to choose the ideal moisturizer. A good foundation is something that will disguise all the blemishes, while the concealer is meant to mask the blue bags under your eyes. We want to urge you to try a great coloured lipstick for your office makeup even if you like no-makeup makeup.

For Prom Night

One of the most significant dates in a girl’s life is prom night. On that particular day, you get the chance to flaunt your flawless attire and makeup. And for that reason, each of these requirements must be met. You can wear a lot of makeup without worrying that you’ll look overdone. No, it demands a particular makeup because it’s a special night. If you keep up with fashion, you are aware that the makeup industry has also embraced the popularity of vibrant pastel hues. The colours can be combined, and a matte finish can be added. Then, if you’re not satisfied with the results, you may always try again.

For Party

This one is for special events where you want to appear your best, including weddings and parties. Start by concealing the problem areas with concealer and blending it with a sponge. The foundation is applied next, and it must be thoroughly blended. The powder further sets the makeup. Blush should be put beneath the cheekbones, and a bit on the cheeks also works. If the hue of the product doesn’t closely match your skin tone, don’t use anything else from the list above. For the eyes, you would require roughly two tons of eye shadow in addition to eyeliner. Use a light eye shadow to lay a foundation on the eyelids, then apply a pencil liner at the base of the upper lid and smudge it until it is flawless. To achieve a defined eye look, apply a darker eye shadow colour next along the lash line. It is important to remember that you are not alone. is the answer, and the reason for which is a s an a… The… The lips require attention; first, a lip liner should be picked that complements the colour of the lipstick, and the lips should be well-shaped before the pencil is applied. The next step is to redo the lips with a brighter lipstick to rock the

For Romantic Date

Evening dates ask for a distinct look and hence the makeup should be varied as well. For this one, concealer would be used first, then highlighter to properly do the brows. A lighter shade of eye shadow should be used on the eye lids first, then a darker shade should be used on the crease line. To create a stronger eye look, apply a medium shade to the crease and then blend it well along the lash line. After applying mascara to both lashes, the upper and lower lash liners are applied. The best way to achieve the blush appearance is to choose a deep or medium hue instead of a regular one. After applying lip liner, the lips are the last thing to be painted. If you want to dazzle your particular someone, choose a bold crimson.

For Swimming Pool

If you’ve ever wondered how to look lovely and attractive when swimming and tanning, the solution is actually quite straightforward; all you have to do is locate the ideal waterproof eyeliner and mascara. Don’t even try to apply foundation because it will come off with sweat and dampness.

For Traveling

You shouldn’t go overboard with your makeup when travelling, much like with your workout makeup. in particular if you’re taking a bus or aircraft. There are some things you can do, though. You can bring your facial wipes, BB creams, concealers, and hydration masks. When going by plane, these will be useful. Use eyeliner and a little of your preferred mascara to revive yourself after a long travel.

For Lunch or Dinner

Having lunch or dinner with your parents, friends or colleagues is a great opportunity to talk, bond, and have fun. You shouldn’t overdo it with your makeup or your dress choices because of this. Simple, every day attire will go great with natural makeup looks. Use your preferred foundation, add some contour, then top it all off with matte nude lipstick.


When selecting your cosmetics look, it’s also crucial to consider the occasion’s formality and dress code. The time you spend honing your makeup application skills may help you feel beautiful and confident, whether you’re going for a simple, daytime appearance or a dazzling night-time one.

7 Winning Content Writing Tips For 2023 (+ Guide)

Just about anyone can write content.

But writing content that resonates with your audience and has an impact on your bottom line? That’s a much harder task.

The good news is that you can create engaging articles, emails, landing pages, and copy that will achieve business goals and deliver on its promise to your readers at the same time.

We’ll take you through seven top tips for writing impactful content in 2023.

Download the Semrush Content Writing Workbook  – get unique insights from the key industry experts. 

1. Start with Your Goals

No matter how skilled a content writer or creator you are, if you don’t have a clear set of objectives, you’re bound to fail.

Firstly, without goals, you have nothing to measure your success. You also have no direction.

We recommend using SMART objectives to kickstart your content marketing plan – that is, your goals should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound.

To ensure they are, answer the following questions with your team:

What do you need to achieve and by when?

How will you measure your success?

Can you do it with your current resources?

Does it further your main business objectives?

2. Get to Know Your Audience

When does a room full of strangers become an audience? When they all sit up and take notice of the person talking.

To get people’s attention, you not only need to know their common questions and concerns, but you also need to speak directly to them. This means filtering people out as much as it means targeting them.

As the old adage goes, if you try to please everyone, you please no one.

So how do you ensure your message is broad enough to appeal to a wide market, yet specific enough to appeal to individuals?

That’s where buyer personas come in. In content marketing, these descriptive profiles segment and describe your ideal readership (which is likely a wider market than your potential clients).

Buyer personas incorporate a range of crucial information. In content marketing, aside from the usual demographic and background information, you’ll probably be most focused on:

Their goals and obstacles.

How they see your product and your competitors’ products.

The questions they have relating to their challenges and your solution.

The content formats and channels they prefer.

Broader topics and themes they are interested in.

The most important thing about buyer personas is to make sure that they genuinely reflect your readers.

Be aware, if you invent these profiles or they contain inaccurate information, they can cause your content marketing team to make mistakes. Check out the following possible data sources:

Internal customer databases.

Third-party analytics tools.

User feedback.

Onboarding or exit interviews.

Sales or customer service knowledge.

Once you know what each of your buyer personas looks like, you’ll be able to fine-tune your messaging and create content for each customer segment.

3. Grab Your Reader’s Attention

The most important part of any article?

The headline.

The same goes for a compelling email subject line. Without one and your newsletter will be left unread.

There are whole master classes dedicated to writing great headlines and subject lines, but a few well-aimed tips can wipe years of hard trial and error off your plate:

Controversy, questions, humor, shock-and-awe, contrast, uniqueness, and emotion are all big attention-grabbers in headlines. But also note that numbered lists outperform regular titles. In fact, according to our research, they get 80% more traffic.

At the same time, your H1 must be descriptive of the content – and unique. Not only will the content be clear to the reader, but to Google too. Ultimately, articles and guides that deliver on the headline get a higher quality score than content that does not.

But it’s not only about headlines. Don’t forget images. Make sure to select photos or illustrations that stop the thumbs on social media. Without a picture to tell your story to, you’ll go unnoticed.

Read more in the Semrush content strategy guide.

4. Keep Your Audience’s Attention

So they’ve opened your article, your landing page, or your email. The question is, can your writing skills keep them there?

Your content should always focus on providing valuable, relevant content to a reader. The rest of your job is optimizing that content for readability, originality, usefulness, and even shareability.

So how do you keep someone interested?

Before you start writing something for someone, imagine they are sitting across the table from you.

What do they want to know?

What are their questions, doubts, objections, or misconceptions?

Your buyer personas will be seriously useful now. Write these ideas as bullet points and focus your attention on writing an outline that’s for them – and not for anyone else. By keeping their needs in mind, your message will chime loudly.

And remember, while longer posts do tend to outperform shorter ones, your goal is not to write a novel. Rather, it’s to produce a comprehensive, valuable piece. Do aim for quality content over quantity and let the topic dictate the length of your writing.

Finally, think about what you want your reader to do once they’ve finished your piece. Do you want them to sign up to a reading list, download a guide, or head over to your eeommerce store?

Your calls to action (CTAs) should be clear, consistent, and concise throughout each piece of content. Add too many of them and you will have a hard time measuring your content’s success.

Discover the Semrush Content Writing Workbook

5. Optimize Your Content for Search Engines

SEO is about making your content available to your readers and achieving the goals you set out in your marketing plan.

Before Writing

Line up your keywords. Look for primary keywords with a low difficulty rating and a decent search volume. But don’t get blinded by the numbers. It’s not what your readers are looking for, it’s why that’s important.

Plug your keywords into Google and see what comes out. Google’s nifty algorithm will take a best-guess at why the searcher is browsing and thereby help you understand the search intent:

Are they looking for topic information?

Do they want to find a website?

Are they comparing products to buy?

Or do they have their credit cards out ready to purchase right now?

The results Google delivers will give you a clearer picture of the type of content you should be producing for your particular keyword.

When Writing

Use a range of title tags (H2, H3, and H4) to structure your content. More than half of the posts with a complex structure (H2+H3+H4) are high-performing, according to our research.

Add value to your audience and give your SEO a boost by linking to other content on your site, using keywords to describe the links. Also, note that any images you include should include alt text for accessibility and SEO.

After Writing

Next, you need to write a meta title, using your primary keyword. While it needs to be optimized for search engines, it also needs to be appealing to real people. So, keep it short and sweet (under 60 characters).

Your URL should also include the primary keyword – remove stop words (to, the, a, in, etc.) to keep it concise.

Pro tip: make sure to run regular content audits as a part of your content marketing efforts. They help you discover high and low-performing content and identify pieces that need an update.

Download the 2023 SEO Writing Checklist to Optimize Your Content

6. Strike the Right Tone of Voice

According to our recent research, 78% of the high-scoring and well-optimized texts are consistent with their tone of voice. But what exactly does it mean, and why is it important?

Maintaining your tone of voice is all about finding the right way to communicate with your audiences. Speak to your Grandma as you speak to your managing director and she’ll clip you round the ear (and maybe vice versa). Our tone of voice changes with the situation, who our audiences are, who we are, and what we need to achieve.

The same goes for our buyer personas. We need to talk to individuals, so we also need to shift how we speak to them.

The question is, how do you maintain a consistent brand voice at the same time?

Brand tone of voice helps define your brand personality. More to the point, the way your brand speaks through its content impacts the way people relate to you.

Despite the tweaks we make when speaking to Grandma or the boss, ultimately we are recognizably ourselves. Your brand should take the same approach to content creation and define a personality that can be flexible, yet consistent.

Ask your team to chip in. Together define what you sound like now and what you’d like to sound like in the future.

7. Take Care of the Readability

The same factors that govern the substance of your content also determine your text’s target readability.

Are you writing for college professors, business people, or people who are booking a vacation? In online marketing, the complexity, length, style, and content all depend on your audience and their immediate goals.

Semrush determines readability by averaging sentence length and complexity, vocabulary choice, and overall text length. The platform then compares your content to your top ten Google competitors to give you a target readability score.

A Look at the Semrush SEO Writing Assistant

Tone: The SEO Writing Assistant will highlight whether your text is casual, neutral, formal, or somewhere in between. It will also provide a consistency score and pinpoint sentences you can update to improve it.

SEO: Based on your target keywords and an aggregate of your top 10 competitors, the assistant will give you a score out of 10 and give you keyword suggestions for the semantically related keywords to reinforce your copy, as well as link, title, and alt tags suggestions.

Readability: You’ll receive a score out of 10. This is based on your target readability score, comparing your content to your top competitors. You’ll also get suggestions on how to fix any content issues your text might have.

Originality: Avoid plagiarism (accidental or otherwise) with the originality check.

The tool works seamlessly within Google Docs, Semrush, and via WordPress.

Next steps

To optimize your copywriting for engagement, conversion, and SEO, download the Semrush Content Writing Workbook (includes tips from the leading content marketing experts and interactive assignments).

10 Simple Methods For Happily Running Ubuntu

Switching to Linux. We are either talking about it or simply telling people to do it. Yet despite this all this “action,” it seems that we have somehow forgotten to include the “how” when it comes to this life changing switch.

In this article, I will not only demonstrate how it can be done, I will provide you with the tools to make it happen after for your household after you finish reading this.

For those of you willing to step up, to start off with a can-do attitude, making the switch is not so much difficult as potentially troubling. For example: being told that some non-compatible hardware or habits will need to be dropped off at the curb. Yet there are ways to make the switch painless.

1) Stop expecting the OS to behave like Windows.

Seems obvious enough, yet for some reason, new users expect – no, demand – that Ubuntu run with the same perceived ease as Windows. Here is an important question – do these same individuals expect OS X to run like Windows?

The solution: treat Ubuntu with that same respect and understand that you – not it – will need to do some adjusting. This is not to say that Ubuntu, among other distributions of Linux, do not do things that seem mindlessly foolish sometimes. But in the end, you have the freedom to fix any boneheaded problem dropped onto the OS.

Whether this be through hiring a programmer to create a fix for you or simply choosing to do it yourself should your skill set allow. Because in the end, if it’s that bad, switch to one of the distros based on Ubuntu that are not as bleeding edge. Even better – stop upgrading with every new release! Stability is in the control of the system admin.

So to make this simple: find the release that works for you and stick with it. Think this is mad? Why do you think Windows XP users are so hesitant to upgrade? Because it works well.

2) Look at the Windows sticker on your PC.

Read it very slowly: which OS is it clearly designed for? Well, in most cases its Windows XP or Vista. This means that installing Ubuntu on it is a complete game of chance. This is not through any fault of Ubuntu’s creators, rather due to the fact that you are expecting Ubuntu to flawlessly detect everything – while knowing fully well that most of the hardware detection was done as a community effort with little involvement with hardware vendors.

Clearly, the user must examine what they’re trying to get out of their Ubuntu experience. Are they willing to put the money they would be spending on an OS into a compatible HP all-in-one? Or a wireless USB dongle such as Zyxel G-220 (any version works)? Or the Edimax ew-7318usg (no revisions to worry about).

These devices work out of the box and devices cost a lot less than a new notebook PC, too.

Now to be fair, I’m not going to say that wireless is all that great with Ubuntu. Not because the support is not there. Quite to the contrary.

No, the problem is the consistent effort to support people who cannot read the OS compatibility sticker on their computers and realize that it may be best to move beyond their integrated Broadcom chipset. Those struggling with Intel chipsets, however, are forced to either use the provided drivers or blacklist the Intel modules themselves. Only then, can Intel users enjoy the fruits of the two USB alternatives above.

3) Get to know the proprietary software alternatives.

I cannot emphasize this enough: Ubuntu users must learn what the open source alternatives are to the applications they’re missing from the Windows front. Obviously it helps to have a point of reference, so here you go.

Take GIMP for example. It’s comparable to Photoshop on a number of levels. You can go to your application’s menu and run the app as it’s installed by default on Ubuntu already.

Clearly, GIMP feels very different than Photoshop, so it’s totally understandable that you might want to either go to a source such as chúng tôi to find the latest version (which has provided some usability improvements). Or, just break down and purchase a copy of CrossOver Office to run your beloved Photoshop in a Windows-compatible environment.

Speaking for myself, I long ago decided to spend some time with the open source alternatives rather than spending more money on closed source apps. In every instance, I not only learned something new that I could then teach to others, I found that the expected learning curve is not as big as people expect.

4) Gaming on Linux should remain native.

Face the fact: Windows games don’t play as well in Linux. This undeniable, so expecting various programs that use WINE to play Windows games in Linux – and hoping for a seamless game – is naive in my opinion.

This is not to say that some people will not have limited success. But the reality is that this success will not come without a bunch of tweaks and hours of frustration. So what’s the fix? Simple, either dual-boot carefully or use dedicated machines for both Ubuntu and Windows. I am sorry for being so blunt about this, but it’s the truth.

Now that the truth is out there, it should be noted that Linux gaming is really beginning to pick up steam, thanks to efforts within the open source community and from those who port proprietary games over to Linux.

So to put it bluntly, to support native games, buy a console system like the PS3 or just game on the Windows platform if the above native gaming options do nothing for you.

5) There is no such thing as a malware proof PC.

You read this right, there is no way in the world that any OS, even Ubuntu Linux, is going to provide you 100 percent protection against silly user mistakes or outward malware aimed at creating problems for your computer.

6) Get a CrashPlan.

Backing up your system is key, even when you are using Ubuntu. It you think this isn’t important, try losing your data when something goes wrong with a software update and you forgot to partition your home folder onto its own partition.

Which application is best? Some users might point to one of the various open source products for data backup, but without any question in my mind, nothing even comes close to the value provided by CrashPlan. It can either be free for local PC-to-PC backup or you can pay a premium for offsite backup. It’s cross platform, secure and it actually works. I highly recommend it.

7) There is no free lunch.

One of my biggest pet peeves are people who can afford to pay for open source products or services, but choose not to because it’s not mandatory. Then to make matters worse, they throw a fit when the project goes down the tubes or is not updated very often.

While it may seem like it’s not a big deal supporting those projects we benefit from, just remember that it is free as in freedom, not as in a free ride.

8) Be willing to relearn what you think you already know.

This is definitely a sticking point with most people trying to make the transition over to Ubuntu. These individuals cling so tightly to doing things on a PC as they always have that any deviation amounts to personal anarchy.

It’s important to remember that Ubuntu is not going to be like other operating systems. As a Linux distribution, it has laid things out in such a manner that it will undoubtedly seem foreign at first to some people. But diligence will pay off. And believe me: not only has Linux saved me big dollars over the years, learning as much as I could about the OS has even proven to be profitable to some extent.

Take the time to learn all you can as time permits – your Ubuntu experience will benefit from the effort.

9) Upgrade/update when it makes sense to you.

From a security perspective, it would be irresponsible for me to sit here and tell you not to upgrade your system. After all, Ubuntu updates are there to help you with your computing experience, right?

Sure, so long as you understand that just like a Windows update gone wrong, Ubuntu updates in some cases do create problems that were not there previously.

The simple fix is to clearly backup and research updates before installing them. You would be surprised what a few well-placed Google searches can turn up.

10) Make the commitment.

Using any distribution of Linux, Ubuntu or otherwise, is about commitment. Most people that switch from Windows to Linux have no idea what they are in for.

I myself had a revelation a few years ago when I first tried Red Hat, and later started using Debian. In each instance, I found myself tempted to turn back. And to a lesser degree, I continued to use Windows as I learned about what made Linux tick.

Today, I like to think I am fairly comfortable with almost any distribution of Linux. I find myself quite at home troubleshooting most Ubuntu issues as they arise.

While I may run four Linux boxes, I still find that having access to a Windows install is handy from time to time. Not so much for the software, but rather to serve as a reminder as to how far I have come as a computer power user.

Integrating Sel Into Writing Instruction

Social and emotional learning is gaining traction in schools across the United States as educational organizations and inquisitive teachers rethink, adapt, and reinvent traditional classroom practices to find ways to integrate SEL into academics. There’s still large-scale work to be done; traditional curricula that teachers have access to and are routinely expected to follow often don’t offer comprehensive support for developing emotional awareness or social skills. Nor do they scaffold strategies for emotional regulation or how to resolve conflicts.

With creativity and research, however, and the gumption to back it up, teachers can integrate SEL into virtually any lesson.

The Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) is at the forefront of helping to make research-based social and emotional learning an integral part of education from preschool through high school by working with schools, districts, teachers, families, communities, and legislators. On the federal and state levels, CASEL engages with policy makers and promotes legislation that supports evidence-based SEL policies. CASEL works directly with educators in partner schools, offers workshops, and provides a plethora of free resources for schools.

SEL: A Base for Academic Success

For some perspective on why integrating SEL into academics is so important, consider the following. For our youngest learners, research shows that prosocial behaviors in the classroom are a better indicator of future academic success than students’ early reading levels.

As a first-grade teacher in a Title 1 elementary school in Central Los Angeles, I witnessed this dynamic firsthand. Some of my brightest students and highest readers had the most meltdowns that prevented them from completing work, accessing lessons, or participating. Where might they be academically in three or five years with the same behavior? Fortunately, my school believed in the value of SEL and encouraged teachers to incorporate this learning as we saw fit.

CASEL provides a framework for educators to reference and use as guidance for implementing age-appropriate SEL in their classrooms. The CASEL framework “addresses five broad and interrelated areas of competence and highlights examples for each: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills, and responsible decision-making.” Educators take the stage of their students’ development and skill level into account in applying the framework to lesson design.

A Writing Unit for SEL Integration

I designed a writing unit incorporating the CASEL framework, focusing on the self-awareness competency: the ability to understand one’s own emotions, thoughts, and values and how they influence behavior across contexts. As a school, we used Lucy Calkins’s Units of Study in our English language arts curriculum. These units include reading and writing workshops that are essentially inquiry-based and interwoven with state literacy standards.

Carefully swapping out books and altering writing prompts while maintaining the structure of literacy skills development (reading comprehension, phonics, writing components), I designed a four-week-long narrative unit to explore emotional awareness.

During our Writer’s Workshop block, we read four different picture books from the acclaimed Trace Moroney’s Feelings Series (also available in Spanish) that explore emotions一how to identify our or others’ emotions and strategies for changing how we feel. We read When I’m Feeling Happy, When I’m Feeling Sad, When I’m Feeling Angry, and When I’m Feeling Nervous. Our week began with a read-aloud and opened into days of discussions, writing, and art. Through those weeks, I watched my students’ writing come alive and their relationships blossom.

Earlier in the year, I had already introduced my students to Zones of Regulation, a curriculum that educators use to teach students about emotions and emotional control, which set the foundation for some emotional vocabulary and more academic exploration. We discussed which feelings zones our emotions fall into and the times we felt these emotions. I was amazed by how passionate my students were in their verbal sharing and writings. Everyone was bursting to participate.

Validating Emotions

“When was a time you were angry?” I asked during our Anger week. “Have you ever gotten in trouble for something you didn’t do?” My students poured out stories about being framed and blamed by siblings, about being embarrassed by a parent; they listened to each other intently and even laughed at the right moments. It was important to me to give them space to share their own stories, for them to not feel that they had to give me a “right” answer.

Once we exhausted sharing about what made us feel a certain way, we discussed what made us feel better either at home or at school. My students described taking a break at the Calm Table, focusing on their breathing, talking to an adult or friend, coloring, being alone, reading a book, and more. Midweek, I initiated a Shared Writing lesson, and we made a book together about our “emotion of the week” based on student responses. I also added their ideas to a Strategy anchor chart that was filled with ideas for regulating emotions in the classroom.

To conclude the week, students wrote and drew independently about the emotion. I collected their writings each week and bound them into a big book that stayed on our Calm Table for students to read. When I presented the books to them, students glowed with pride.

I began noticing that when my students needed a break to calm down when frustrated or when they needed cheering up, they would often read through these books on their own to get support from their classmates’ stories. Interestingly, before our unit there had been a culture among my students, most notably the boys, that talking about feelings was taboo or babyish. As our unit unfolded, all my students began talking to each other about how they felt, and there was a softer tone in the classroom.

In tandem with our other SEL work, my class transformed over months from a space rife with meltdowns and arguments to a more friendly, functional place. I watched my students use the strategies they generated together in the classroom when they needed them. References to this work showed up in our morning circles of emotional check-ins. My students also began helping remind other students to use strategies to cope when they could tell someone was upset or sad.

It can be intimidating for educators to deviate from standard, traditional curricula, and some schools won’t allow teachers to do so. However, if teachers understand state learning standards, the skills that students need to master, and effective teaching strategies, there is room for creativity. Often, teachers do versions of this regardless; veteran teachers know that the exact lessons and activities that worked for a class of students one year may not work at all for their next year’s students. Why not redesign certain lessons with SEL goals in mind?

The Berne Convention: Meaning And Application

Held in 1886 in the Switzerland’s city of Bern, the Berne Convention is an international treaty that was established to safeguard the rights of authors and artists who contributed to the creation of works such as books, songs, and paintings. In some circles, it is also referred to as the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. The international community drafted and symphonically adopted a multi-party contract encompassing agreements for a uniform, crossing border system. However, after adoption of this agreement, its rules have been amended and updated several times.

Parties of the Berne Convention

At present, there are 181 parties of the Berne Convention; however, in the beginning, the Convention treaty was signed by only France, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, the United Kingdom, Liberia, Spain, Tunisia, and Haiti on 9 September 1886 and they ratified it on 5 September 1887.

In the beginning, the United States of America refused to be a part of the convention, as its provisions were not in the harmony with the United States’ copyright law. But after hundred years, the United States assented to the convention on 16 November 1988, and the convention came into force on 1 March 1989.

Objectives of Berne Convention

The primary objective of the Berne Convention is to guarantee that the creators of literary and artistic works will be able to receive appropriate protection for their works and will also be able to make a profit from their efforts. The Convention grants the creators of these works a number of rights, one of which is the authority to exercise some degree of control over the reproduction, distribution, and public performance of their works. It also protects these rights in other countries, making it possible for authors to profit from their creations even when those creations are used in other nations.

The United Nations’ World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is in charge of the administration of the Berne Convention on the Law of Intellectual Property. It is one of the international treaties that has been adopted in the most countries all over the world, making it one of the most important in the field of intellectual property. Over the course of its history, the Convention has undergone a number of iterations of revision in order to take into account developments in technology as well as the requirements of creators. It continues to be an important tool for protecting the rights of writers and artists all over the world whose works are published.

A Brief Overview of the History of the Berne Convention

At a conference held in Berne, Switzerland, in 1886, the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works was officially approved for the first time. The conference was organised by the Federal Government of Switzerland, and it was attended by representatives from a large number of European countries in addition to those from the United States.

Because there were no international standards or procedures in place at the time, it was very difficult for creators to protect their rights in other countries during that time period. The Berne Convention attempted to find a solution to this problem by drafting a number of guidelines designed to safeguard the intellectual property rights and copyrights of content developers.

The principle of national treatment is one of the fundamental principles that underpin the Berne Convention. It mandates that authors and artists of works of literature and art should be afforded the same degree of legal protection in other countries as they are in the country in which they reside. This means that if a piece of work is copyright protected in one country, it must also be protected in all other countries that have ratified the Convention on the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in the United States.

Dates and Events of Berne Convention

In later years, some amendments have been done to improve the effectiveness of the convention as:


Berne convention

Protection of artistic and literary work


Alterations were made

How did the Berne Convention affect the Copyright?

The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (also known as the Berne Convention) has had a significant impact on the law governing copyright and the protection of intellectual property rights. The Convention has had a significant impact on copyright in a number of significant ways. One of these ways is by establishing a minimum term of protection for works of literature and art. In accordance with the Convention, the minimum term of protection for these works is at least fifty years after the author has passed away. This indicates that after an artist’s death, their works continue to be protected by copyright for a predetermined amount of time, during which time they cannot be reproduced or distributed without the permission of the person who holds the copyright.

The Berne Convention has also attempted, through the establishment of the principle of automatic protection, to protect the originality of a creator’s work. According to this principle, the legal protection afforded to literary and artistic works is automatic and does not call for their registration or any other kinds of formalities. This signifies that as soon as a work is created, it is protected by copyright, and the creator of the work has certain rights regarding the use of their work.

Significance of Berne Convention

The protection of works and the rights of their authors is the topic of discussion in the Berne Convention. It is founded on three fundamental principles and has a set of rules that determine the minimum protection that is to be offered. Additionally, it contains exceptional provisions that are available to developing countries that desire to make use of them.

The following are the Three Foundational Tenets

Works originating in one of the Contracting States (that is, works the author of which is a national of such a State or works first published in such a State) must be given the same protection in each of the other Contracting States as the latter grants to the works of its own nationals (principle of “national treatment”). This means that works in which the author is a national of such a State or works in which the first publication took place in such a State.

Protection shall not be conditional upon compliance with any formality (automatic protection concept).

Protection is not contingent on there being a system of protection in place in the nation where the work was created (principle of “independence” of protection).

If, on the other hand, a Contracting State provides for a longer duration of protection than the minimum term provided by the Convention, and the work ceases to be protected in the country of origin, protection may be denied once protection in the country of origin stops.

Exceptions and Limitations

The Berne Convention that defines and grants an exclusive right to writers and artists against their unique and creative works, also describes certain exceptions and limitations. For example, Article 10(2) of the convention excuses “the use of such protected work for the teaching purpose”. However, the exception is limited to a use for illustration of the subject matter taught and it must be related to teaching purpose only and strictly not for the commercial purpose.


The Berne Convention mandates that all members must have specific levels of copyright protection, and that those countries must also protect the works that were created by people of other member states. Works that have been granted copyright are regarded as being protected as soon as the work is brought into existence in a physical form, and registration of the work is not required. Individual members, such as the United States, have the right to demand that their own citizens’ works be registered in order to receive legal protection, but in general, members are not permitted to demand registration of works produced by people of other countries.

The Berne Convention sets a large number of additional provisions that are necessary for the cooperation of copyright laws across international borders. For instance, members are expected to provide writers control over reproduction of the work and to safeguard copyrighted works for a set number of years depending on the type of work.


Q1. What are the basic principles of Berne Convention?

Ans. Following are the major principles of Berne Convention:

National treatment: As per the agreement, the signatory States agree to give foreign works the same protection as the works originating in their own country.

Automatic protection: The protection set out in the signatory states’ legislation does not require any formalities or notifications.

Q2. Why did US not join Berne Convention?

Ans. The reason that the U.S. refused to join the Berne Convention previously was –the United State had to change its copyright laws and the required registration and mandatory notice of copyright.

Q3. What countries are not in the Berne Convention?

Ans. There are just four least developed countries that are not members of WIPO or the Berne Convention. These are the Solomon Islands, South Sudan, Timor-Leste and Tuvalu. These four countries have a population of 12 million.

Q4. Is Russia in Berne Convention?

Ans. Russia Withdraws Reservations to Berne Convention Provisions in 2013.

Q5. How many countries were in the Berne Convention in 1886?

Ans. Berne Convention, was an international assembly held in 1886 in the Swiss city of Bern by ten European countries with the goal to agree on a set of legal principles for the protection of original work.

Q6. Is the Berne Convention binding?

Ans. The Berne Convention, like most treaties, is binding on the states that have ratified it or acceded to it.

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