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In this article, we explore what ransomware is, how it works, which industries are affected by it, and how to protect yourself against it.

What is ransomware and how does it work?

Ransomware is a type of malware designed to target a user’s device or network, steal their data, and block their access to it until they pay a ransom to the attacker. There are mainly 2 types of ransomware:

Locker: Locker ransomware blocks user’s access to their device’s basic functions such as the desktop, mouse, or keyboard, enabling the user only to react to the ransomware message to make the payment. Typically, locker ransomware does not target specific files or folders in the device.

Crypto: Crypto ransomware targets documents or files on the device, encrypts them, denies user access to them, and typically threatens to destroy or publish the data if the ransom was not paid in a certain time. Crypto ransomware does not affect the way a user interacts with their device.

How is ransomware spread? What are some of the famous ransomware attacks?

There has been an increase in the number of organizations attacked by ransomware attacks in the past 5 years, and ~1500 businesses have been attacked in the US in 2023 alone. Some of the most famous attacks are:

What are the best practices to detect and mitigate ransomware attacks?

Ransomware attacks target devices with limited protection and threaten to destroy important data, therefore, to prevent ransomware attacks and avoid the worst consequences, individuals and businesses need to follow best practices, which include:

Backup the data using the 3-2-1 rule which states that you should have 3 copies of your data in 2 different places (e.g. cloud, device, USB) with 1 copy off-site for disasters.

Conduct regular software updates to ensure the installment of the latest patches for system vulnerabilities. To automate software updates, businesses can leverage:

RPA bots that handle repetitive GUI tasks, including system updates.

Workload automation tools that can trigger system updates at certain times or triggering events.

Employ email filtering to detect phishing and scam emails. Businesses can leverage anti-spam solutions to scan email messages and files attached to the email for potential threats.

Separate business networks according to department or tasks to avoid major data loss in case of a ransomware attack on a centralized point. Businesses can also use network security solutions that monitor network traffic and inform the IT team about any abnormal situations that require further investigation.

Do not log in to sensitive accounts from shared networks such as public WiFi

Employ cyberattack and ransomware detection and mitigation software such as:

Vulnerability management tools that identify, prioritize and manage system vulnerabilities, as well as suggest remediation tips to avoid system breaches.

Cybersecurity software that relies on AI and machine learning technology to prevent, detect and react to various forms of cyber threats.

Avast Antivirus

Kaspersky Anti-Ransomware Tool

Bitdefender Anti-Ransomware Tool

Cybersight RansomStopper

Trend Micro RansomBuster

Check Point ZoneAlarm



RPA bots can be used to increase cybersecurity by automating data enrichment and management, eliminate unauthorized access to privileged data, run cyber threat hunts and penetration tests, detect viruses and malware threats, and automate system updates.

Workload automation (WLA) tools integrate scheduling and triggering capabilities to schedule, execute and monitor backend processes on different business platforms from a centralized point. WLA tools can be used to automate several processes which can affect the overall security of the system because they reduce human intervention and access to privileged data, create event logs of file transfers and loadings to generate audit trails, and detect and alert system errors to ensure system security. See our prioritized list of WLA tools to identify the right ones for your organization.

How can AI help in mitigating ransomware attacks?

Different AI algorithms can be used to detect ransomware attacks depending on the attack type, for example:

Natural Language Processing algorithms (NLP): NLP can be leveraged for filtering phishing and spam emails because it can detect malicious or threatening language and classify messages and emails as spam or ham.

Deep learning: Ransomware has different variants and families. Deep learning can be used to generate and train predictive models, such as recurrent neural networks (RNN) with long short term memory (LSTM), that can learn the behavior of ransomware and use this knowledge to detect evolving variants and families which have not yet been seen.

Cybersecurity analytics: Cybersecurity analytics studies the digital trail left behind by cyber criminals to analyze system weaknesses, provide a holistic view of security considerations, and prevent losses in the future.

Further reading and security solutions

To explore different cybersecurity solutions, feel free to read our in-depth articles:

To learn about cybersecurity statistics, feel free to check our data-driven list of 45+ stats about cybersecurity, market, attacks, and COVID-19 impact.

If you believe your business will benefit from a cybersecurity solution, scroll down our data-driven lists of solution providers for:

And let us help you find the right solution for your business:

Cem regularly speaks at international technology conferences. He graduated from Bogazici University as a computer engineer and holds an MBA from Columbia Business School.





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The Ultimate Android Tethering Guide

Tethering: It’s one of the most convenient features your smartphone has, yet carriers insist on restricting it.

Tethering most often refers to using your smartphone as a mobile hotspot. In other words, it lets you connect to the Internet on your laptop, tablet, or Wi-Fi enabled device, using your phone’s data connection. Tethering is very useful if you happen to be in an area that has no free Wi-Fi and you need to do your computing on a device other than your phone.

[Related: How to tether your iPhone]

Carriers don’t really want you to use this oh-so-convenient option, because users who tether are more likely to use a lot of data. After all, it’s much easier to use data when you’re browsing on a laptop or a tablet, than when you’re limited to your smartphone’s tiny screen. You might argue that, since most mobile plans feature limited data anyway, it shouldn’t matter how you happen to use that data. But some carriers disagree, and will typically charge an extra $20 to $50 per month for tethering plans.

Tethering on your carrier


You may or may not have heard the news: Verizon recently announced that, thanks to an FCC investigation, it will stop blocking its Android users from downloading and using third-party tethering apps. This means that Verizon’s Android users on usage-based plans can avoid the $20 tethering fee by using a third-party app instead of their phone’s built-in tethering option (called Mobile Broadband Connect).

This doesn’t mean that all tethering on Verizon is free, though?it’s not. Here’s the breakdown:

If you have a new Verizon “Share Everything” plan, you can use your phone’s built-in mobile hotspot feature or a third-party tethering app free of charge? but you’re limited to the data in your Share Everything data pool. Overage rates for shared data plans are $15 per gigabyte.

If you have an old usage-based data plan, you can now use a third-party tethering app free of charge. You can also use your phone’s mobile hotspot feature for an additional $20 per month (per device), which also gets you an additional 2GB of data.

If you have an old unlimited plan, you are technically required to pay $20 per month for tethering? whether you’re using a third-party app or your phone’s mobile hotspot feature. However, Verizon has no way of knowing if you’re using a third-party app to tether.


AT&T was not part of the FCC investigation that forced Verizon to allow third-party tethering apps on Android phones, so AT&T still charges for all tethering. Unlike Verizon, AT&T never blocked third-party tethering apps from its phones?rather, it monitors its users’ data habits, and sends them text messages and emails telling them that if they do not stop tethering for free they will be automatically signed up for an AT&T tethering plan.

Here’s how much it costs to tether on AT&T:

If you have a new AT&T Mobile Share plan, you can use your phone’s built-in tethering app, as well as a third-party tethering app, for free?but it will sap data from your shared data pool. Overage rates for shared data plans are $15 for each gigabyte of data you go over.

If you have an older, usage-based data plan, you can use your phone’s built-in tethering app, as well as third-party tethering apps, for an additional $20 a month per line, which will also give you an extra 2GB of data.

If you have a grandfathered-in unlimited data plan, tethering is not an option?you’ll have to upgrade to a (limited) tethered plan, or AT&T will upgrade you automatically if it suspects you’re tethering.


Sprint is the only carrier that still has unlimited phone data plans. However, Sprint does not allow you to tether on your unlimited data plan. Instead, you’re required to purchase a tethering option, which gives you a couple of gigabytes for tethering (though your phone will still have unlimited data).

Here are your options (or lack thereof) on Sprint:

If you have an unlimited data plan (and you do, because Sprint requires all smartphones to be on an unlimited data plan), tethering will cost you $19.99 a month for 2GB of data and $49.99 a month for 6GB of data. This means you’ll be able to use 2GB or 6GB of tethering data, but you’ll still have unlimited data as long as you’re just using your phone.

If you have a usage-based data plan on your Sprint tablet, you can purchase the same options (2GB for $19.99 per month or 6GB for $49.99 per month) for tethering. In this case, tethering data is also separate?it does not come out of your bucket of usage-based data.

If you go over your 2GB or 6GB limit, you’ll be charged an additional $0.05 per MB?which equals a whopping $51.20 per additional GB.

Some people may have the old tethering option of 5GB for $29.99 per month, and they will be allowed to keep this until they change plans


T-Mobile will be introducing a new unlimited data plan in September. However, this unlimited plan will not support tethering. Instead, customers who want to tether their phones will have to use one of T-Mobile’s existing value or classic plans.

Here’s the breakdown of T-Mobile’s tethering costs:

If you have a usage-based 2GB data plan, you can add tethering to your plan for $14.99 a month. This gets you an additional 2GB of data.

If you have a usage-based 5GB or 10GB plan, tethering is available at no additional cost. Tethering takes data from your existing data pool of 5GB or 10GB.

If you have an unlimited data plan, you’re not allowed to tether. T-Mobile does not allow the use of third-party tethering apps on its network.

Third-party tethering apps for Android

There are two ways to tether on your Android phone?you can use your phone’s built-in hotspot feature, which may or may not incur charges from your carrier. Or you can use a third-party tethering app.

While most carriers (AT&T, Sprint, and T-Mobile) do not technically allow the use of third-party tethering apps, many third-party tethering apps are still available and will work on phones on those networks. Whether you use a third-party app for tethering is at your discretion, since networks will often charge you if they discover you’re using tethering data and not paying for it.

Remember, if you do choose to use a third-party app for tethering, it’s a good idea to be conservative about how much data you use. If you only tether your laptop to your phone’s data connection to check email on the fly, your carrier probably won’t notice. But if you’re constantly streaming Netflix videos on your tablet using your phone’s data connection, your carrier will probably get suspicious?especially if you have an unlimited data plan.

Numerous third-party tethering apps are available today, including apps for rooted and nonrooted phones. Here are a few of the better options:

Tethering apps for nonrooted phones

PdaNet: PdaNet is a free download on Google Play, but this only gets you a 14-day trial. After 14 days, the app will block access to secure websites (websites that require a login) unless you purchase the full edition for $15.95. PdaNet allows you to tether your phone’s data connection to your laptop using a USB cable or Bluetooth dial-up networking, or to turn your phone into a Wi-Fi hotspot (though the Wi-Fi hotspot mode does not work on all phones).

EasyTether: EasyTether is a USB tethering app, which means it lets you share your phone’s data connection with your laptop via a USB cable. It also lets you tether your game console (PlayStation 3, Nintendo Wii, or Xbox) using PC Internet Connection Sharing (you need to go through a computer first to tether your console). EasyTether has two versions: a free Lite version and a paid $9.99 version. The Lite version blocks secure websites, instant messengers, and game console tethering. The app supports Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. As of this article’s writing, EasyTether was still blocked on Verizon devices.

Wifi Hotspot & USB Tether Pro: Wifi Hotspot & USB Tether is primarily for turning your phone into a Wi-Fi hotspot (complete with password), but it also allows you to tether your phone’s data connection to your computer via USB. This is yet another app with a free version (so you can see if it works on your phone) and a paid version that costs $14.99. The Lite version gives you a two-day, five-minutes-per-day trial.

The Reverse Tether app

Reverse tethering lets you tether your computer’s Internet connection to your phone so that your phone connects to the Web using your laptop?s connection. This is a much less common scenario, since it’s rare that you’ll find yourself in a place where your computer has an Internet connection but your phone does not. If you do find yourself in this situation, however, you can use the Reverse Tether app to share your computer’s Internet connection with your phone.

Reverse Tether is a $4.99 download in the Android Market, and requires a rooted Android device. To tether your computer’s Internet connection to your phone, all you need to do is download the app, make sure your device’s drivers are installed on your computer, and connect your computer to your phone using a USB cable.

Since Reverse Tether does not work with all Android devices, you can also download a trial version

for free to see if it works. The trial version lets you connect only during certain times, but it never expires.

Linking to your laptop

Tethering doesn’t apply only to your phone’s (or computer’s) data connection. The AirDroid app lets you wirelessly manage your phone from a browser window on your laptop. This can be useful if you’re at your computer anyway, but you want to be able to do things like listen to music that’s stored at your computer, write text messages, and organize your phone’s contacts.

From the AirDroid main screen, you can manage files, organize call logs, check and write text messages, look at photos, watch videos, play music, organize contacts, and install apps. Your device does not need to be rooted for AirDrive to run, but if it is rooted you’ll have access to a couple more features, such as seeing your device’s screen in real-time and taking screenshots.

The Ultimate Guide To Hitting A Home Run

If ever there were a sport to completely nerd out about, it’s baseball. Geeks across America have been crunching data for years on what makes certain players or teams so great.

But most people don’t care whether one team has a slightly elevated chance of winning the wild card this year because their DH’s slugging percentage is off the charts. They just want to see some home runs. We dug into the gritty details to figure out exactly how to hit one. You can even try it out for yourself.

Use a composite bat

Wooden bats make a beautiful cracking sound as they hit a ball, but if you’re going for a home run (and you’re not a major league player), you should pick a composite bat. In order to get the ball to go farther, you have to make it come off the bat faster, and a key way to do that is to make the bat-ball collision as energy-efficient as possible.

A baseball already loses about half its energy deforming as it hits a wooden bat. If you watch in super slo-mo, you can actually see it squish to essentially half its width, then bounce back. That’s because wooden bats are solid, forcing the ball to do all the compressing in the relationship. But composite (as well as metal) bats are hollow. When the ball impacts them, they squish down a bit and then—and this is key—they bounce back out, returning some of that energy from the compression back into the ball. This is called the trampoline effect, and it’s the main reason that non-wooden bats outperform their tree-based compatriots by so much.

Oh, and get one that’s end-loaded

Whether you pick a light or heavy bat doesn’t end up having much of an impact on the batted ball speed (more on that later). Confusingly, the stat that really matters isn’t written on any baseball bat in any store in America. What you really want to know is the moment of inertia, which is essentially where the balance point of the bat is. Two bats with exactly the same total ounces can have very different moments of inertia and will feel different when you swing them. An end-loaded bat is harder to swing, whereas balancing the weight towards the handle makes even a heavy bat feel lighter, and thus you can swing it faster and control it more easily.

But here’s the key: “If swung at same speed, the bat with the larger moment of inertia will hit balls faster.” That’s according to Dan Russell, a professor of acoustics at Penn State who studies vibrations in baseball bats. “Moment of inertia matters way more than the weight, but no manufacturer lists moment of inertia, and I have no idea why. I’ve been asking that for 20 years.”

To figure out the moment of inertia on a bat, you can try to balance it on one finger. The closer you have to balance it to the wide end of the bat, the higher the MOI and the faster you’ll be able to hit the ball (assuming you’re strong enough to swing it at the same speed).

Pick a park that’s hot, humid, and at high altitude (bonus if the wind’s at your back)

Since your goal is to hit the ball as far as possible, you want the air to help you out as much as it can. Dense air produces more friction with the ball, slowing it down, so diffuse air is best. The air is already less dense at high altitudes because there’s less atmosphere above the ballpark to compress the gases all around you. Heat will also help, since the molecules will spread apart, and humidity will mean light water molecules will displace heavier atoms, further aiding your ball’s trajectory.

All these changes probably only give you a few feet more, but that can be the difference between a pop fly and a homer. For even more help, having even a five mile per hour breeze blowing the ball toward the outfield can tack on another 18 to 20 feet.

Get a ball with low-profile seams

Yes, that’s right, even the seams matter. Baseballs are held together by stitching, and having flat seams will make the ball travel farther because there’s less drag as it flies. Just by lowering the seam height a fraction of a millimeter, you can get another 10 to 15 feet out of the ball. Shell out the extra bucks for the Official MLB balls—they have the lowest seam profile available.

This unnecessarily artsy photo of a baseball at least shows you the seams up close Pixabay

Swing as fast as possible (or: swing a heavier bat)

As we’ve been saying, the most important thing about your swing is simply how fast it is. The faster you swing the bat, the faster you make the ball go, and the farther it travels. Alan Nathan, a professor emeritus of physics at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, says for every one mile per hour you add to the ball’s exit velocity, you get another five feet.

In theory, if you could swing every bat at equal speed, you’d want to get as heavy a bat as possible. You’re trying to reverse the ball’s momentum—it’s coming at you, and you want to change its direction. Momentum is just mass times velocity, so at a given speed you want a heavier bat to increase its momentum, thereby changing the ball’s momentum as well. Heavier bat; more efficient swing.

There’s just one problem. “At some point, you simply can’t swing a bat fast enough to make up for the increased weight,” explains Nathan. “You lose more in bat speed than you gain in having a more efficient swing.”

Your ability to control the bat is also reduced with a heavier bat, but let’s assume that you’re only hitting fastballs thrown straight over the plate for simplicity’s sake.

For most standard players, the weight is really just about preference—the trade-offs of having a light versus hefty bat cancel each other out. You go heavy, you swing slower. Go light, and your swing speeds up. Assuming you don’t care so much about maneuverability, though, your ideal bat is the heaviest one you can swing real fast.

Hit the ball right on the sweet spot

Since you’re aiming for the most efficient bat-ball collision possible, aim to hit with the bat’s sweet spot. All bats vibrate when something hits them—that’s why you feel a sting in your hands when you’re batting—but those vibrations represent lost energy that could have gone into increasing the ball’s speed.

The sweet spot is a complicated idea, and it’s not even really a single spot: there’s sort of a sweet zone about two inches wide on every bat where there are no vibrations produced. This has to do with the way waves (vibrations are a kind of wave) travel through solid objects. Suffice to say that all solid objects, including tennis rackets and hockey sticks, have these nodes where they won’t vibrate at all if struck. Everywhere else, they vibrate. On the ultra high-speed cameras inside major league parks, you can actually see these vibrations (Nathan’s page has a bunch of them)

You can find the sweet spot on a wooden bat by holding it by the knob and tapping it with a baseball all along its length. If you’re hitting hard enough, you should feel vibrations most of the time, but about two-thirds of the way to the end there will be a small area where it will feel more solid, and the bat won’t vibrate at all. That’s the sweet spot.

Angle the ball between 25 and 30 degrees

So, once you’ve picked the right ball and the right bat and the right stadium, and you’ve swung as hard as you possibly can, all you have to do is nail the angle. Nathan says the optimum launch angle is between 25 and 30 degrees (above parallel with the ground). That’s the right balance between having the maximum distance traveled and still having enough lift for the ball to exit the park.

And voila! You’ve hit a home run. Next up: the majors.

Adobe After Effects Ultimate Guide 2023

Hello everyone and welcome to Adobe After Effects Ultimate Guide 2023.

In this video, we’re going to go over a course overview of what we’re going to be learning throughout the course.

So in Section two, we’re going to do a deep dive into creative cloud plans and pricing.

So we’ll cover individuals, business students and teachers and schools and universities.

Then we’ll learn how to create a creative cloud account for free.

And then we’ll talk about creative cloud web in Section three and also learn how to install after effects in Section three.

In Section four, we’re going to be talking about the welcome page.

So we’ll cover all of these buttons here.

So how to create a new project to open a project home, learn new team project How to open a team project, how to search what’s new in After Effects.

And also we’ll talk about account and we’ll talk about all that interesting stuff there.

Okay, then we’re going to build out a project.

So I’m going to use the final project that I built as an example.

But we’re going to build out a simple project and then we’re going to look at the file manual.

So file edit, composition, layer, effect, animation, view, window and help.

And what I meant by file menu was main menu.


Then in the Windows panel, we’re going to talk about workspaces and then we’re going to cover all of the panels here that are inside of after effects.

Then we’ll go and dive into the preferences and talk about general previews, display import output

grids and guides, labels, media and disk caches.

Aakash Video Preview Appearance New Project AutoSave Memory and Performance Audio Hardware Audio Output Mapping Sync Settings Type Scripting and expressions 3D and notifications.


From there, we’ll learn about the tools.

Which you can see here.

And then we’ll finish up a simpler project than this with those tools and learn how to use the tools with an actual project.


Then we’re going to get to the fun part of the course where we’re going to build out not one but 30 projects.

And the key to this is repetition and practice.


And I’m going to help you to practice and teach you and walk you through step by step how to edit my promo videos and add some effects to it by going to my website, which is Learn Talk Project files, e-comm to grab the zip files that I have. 

In fact, let’s take a look at that right now. 

So we’re going to go to this website and open up a new window here and we’re going to go to learntechprojectfiles dot com. 

We’re going to go to After Effects 2023 projects. 

And you can see right here all of the project files that we’re going to be looking at. 


So it goes from a logo to a promo video to all of these promo videos that we’re going to build in with all these different files and different things like that.

And I’ll walk you through step by step, each one of those. 

We’re going to have a great time. 


I’m telling you right now, it’s going to be a lot of fun. 

And then we’ll wrap the course up with a summary and a thank you video of what we learned throughout the course. 

So with that, I want to tell you one thing. 

Thank you so much for watching and I’ll see you in the next video.

Goals Prerequisites

Willingness to learn and Have Fun!

No Prior Experience Required.  Will walk you through the basics to get Adobe Creative Cloud Account with Free Trial

No Prior Experience Required.  Will walk you through how to Install Adobe After Effects 2023

Beginner to Advanced Students wanting to Learn How to Build Project with Adobe After Effects 2023

Beginners curious about Adobe After Effects 2023

How To Use Chatgpt For Python: The Ultimate Guide

To use Chat GPT for Python, you can install the OpenAI API client and create an API key. Once you have the API key, you can integrate ChatGPT directly into your applications using environment variables or ChatGPT’s messaging prompt to ask for help writing and fixing your code.

In this article, we will explore the steps required to work with ChatGPT in Python. Furthermore, we will also go over specific command prompts that are helpful when using ChatGPT’s messaging prompt.

Let’s get into it!

To begin, you will need to install Python on your system so that you can write and execute Python scripts seamlessly.

Next, add ChatGPT’s API to your Python applications. It’s as simple as importing any other Python library into your project.

To integrate Chat GPT and generate text, you must create an API key and install OpenAI’s client.

Let’s look at how you can create an API key for interacting with ChatGPT in Python.

To use ChatGPT with Python, you need to create and obtain an API key from OpenAI. Follow these steps:

Sign up or log in to your account on the OpenAI website.

5. Now, you can copy and use your newly generated secret key in your applications.

And you’re set! Now that you have your API key, you’re reading to install the OpenAI API client, which is what we’ll cover in the next section.

With your API in hand, you’re now ready to install the OpenAI API client. You will use this client to interact with the ChatGPT API.

Install the client using pip, the Python package manager, in your environment:

pip install openai

After installing the client, you need to import it to your current project by using the command given below:

import openai openai.api_key = "your_api_key_here"

Replace “your_api_key_here” with your actual openai API as shown in the image below.

And that’s it! You can now access ChatGPT and create Python apps that harness its NLP powers.

In the next section, we’ll take a look at an example of the API key in action with Python. Let’s jump into it and get our hands dirty!

The most common application of Chat GPT within Python is to create a chatbot, so let’s explore how you can create a chatbot within your Python environment using the ChatGPT API.

By harnessing the power of Chat GPT, you can build chatbots that can provide helpful assistance and engage users in dynamic conversations too.

You’ll also be able to generate text outputs tailored to users’ needs, all within the versatile Python programming language.

To create a chatbot using ChatGPT API with Python, first define a function that interacts with the Chat GPT API. For this example, we’ll be using the GPT-3.5-turbo model.

The following is a simple function to send messages to the ChatGPT API and receive a response:

import openai def chat_with_chatgpt(prompt, model="gpt-3.5-turbo"): response = openai.Completion.create( engine=model, prompt=prompt, max_tokens=100, n=1, stop=None, temperature=0.5, ) message = response.choices[0].text.strip() return message

The above Python script imports the OpenAI library and defines a function chat_with_chatgpt that takes a user prompt and uses the OpenAI API to generate a response using the specified ChatGPT models. The function returns the generated response as a text message.

Now, you can call the chat_with_chatgpt function with user input, and the following command will return the generated response:

user_prompt = "Write a summary of the benefits of exercise." chatbot_response = chat_with_chatgpt(user_prompt) print(chatbot_response)

With this setup, you have now integrated Chat GPT into your Python application, enabling you to create a wide range of generated text-based interactions using the ChatGPT model.

You can also adjust the parameters to your liking depending on your project requirements. For more information on API parameters, please refer to the developer documentation.

So that’s one example of using ChatGPT’s API in Python code. The goal was to get you started on using ChatGPT in Python, which you can further scale depending on the project at hand.

In the next section, we will look at using ChatGPT’s messaging prompt for writing Python code.

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I mean, who doesn’t want to save time when writing code?

In this section, we will look at four examples that will give you an understanding of using ChatGPT to write complex code and boost your productivity when developing applications or working with data in Python.

With ChatGPT, you can write the most complex algorithms in Python that would previously take hours to write.

All you have to do is ask ChatGPT through its command prompt or command line prompt to write you a particular algorithm, and voila, it will write the code for you in no time.

Let’s ask ChatGPT to write code for finding the longest common subsequence of two strings. The Longest Common Subsequence (LCS) algorithm is useful for identifying similarities between sequences.

It is commonly applied in bioinformatics for comparing DNA, RNA, or protein sequences, and in text processing for detecting similarities, measuring the edit distance between strings, or implementing diff tools.

You can copy the code to your Python project and change it according to your specific needs.

Writing code for scraping websites can be daunting; however, with ChatGPT, you can minimize the time it takes to write code for web scraping.

The example below demonstrates how you can extract all headings from a webpage using the BeautifulSoup library:

When implementing the above code in your Python project, you just need to change the URL to the website you are scrapping. You can further scale the above code by asking ChatGPT to modify the code in case you are scrapping something other than the website headings.

You can use ChatGPT to write code for data analysis tasks as well. In the following Python program, we used ChatGPT to import, filter and find the mean from a dataset.

Once the code is written, copy it to your Python project and make changes according to your needs.

Furthermore, you can create the most complex machine learning models with ChatGPT, such as Decision Trees and Logistic Regressions, and use them in your Python code.

With ChatGPT, you can write code for creating web applications using Python. The example below demonstrates how you can create a very basic web app that returns ‘Hello, World!’ as the response:

This example provides an easy-to-understand starting point for beginners learning web development or working with Flask.

It showcases how to define a route and its corresponding function, which can be further built upon and extended to create more complex web applications with multiple routes and functionalities.

All the examples provided demonstrate the power and versatility of ChatGPT in generating Python code snippets for various tasks. By utilizing ChatGPT, developers can quickly receive assistance in creating solutions for complex problems or even simple functions.

These examples not only showcase the potential of ChatGPT for enhancing productivity but also highlight its ability to act as an educational tool for learning different aspects of Python programming.

From our experience, most of the time, it is. But, and this is a big but, nothing beats solid learning and real-world experience to cross-check things.

This could change and it most probably will, but for now, we suggest always double-checking what you do and using ChatGPT to enhance what you do, not replace learning!

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Throughout this article, we have explored the benefits of using ChatGPT for Python development, from integrating it directly into applications to leveraging its messaging prompt for code assistance.

By using ChatGPT, you can improve productivity, create complex algorithms, and access a solid educational tool for assisting in learning various aspects of Python programming.

Importantly, you must strike a balance between relying on ChatGPT and learning alongside it. This ensures that you not only receive assistance from ChatGPT but also develop a deeper understanding of the underlying concepts and programming principles. We don’t want our brains turning to mush, we need them, and they need us!

Hopefully, the examples in this article have given you a good starting point of how our new friend ChatGPT can write better code in record time.

How To Trade In Your Macbook — The Ultimate Guide

Prepare your MacBook for Trade In

The first couple things you need to do before looking into the various trade in options for your MacBook is back it up and factory reset it. Macs don’t have built in iCloud backups, so you’re going to have to figure out an alternative. The easiest and cheapest option is to create a Time Machine backup which can then be restored when setting up your new computer. There are plenty of other options, too.

Finally, you need to work your way through the factory reset process, and you can check out Michael’s article on How to factory reset your MacBook Pro before selling or giving it away to do so.

Our favorite partner is Decluttr — the company behind our trade-in portal. In many if not all cases, Decluttr has the best balance of generous trade in values, seamless experience, and customer service you’ll find on the web.

The experience using our trade-in site is probably familiar to you. Simply head to the site, choose the device, and get your quote. From there, Decluttr will ship you a box with a pre-paid shipping label and some instructions, and you can just pop your device in the mail. From there, assuming everything checks out, you should receive your money shortly after they receive your device.

Decluttr is a great destination for trading in your iPhone, and they tend to offer some of the best trade in values on the market. Decluttr has great reviews on Trustpilot, and we’ve work with them as a partner in the past — so they’re definitely one of the sites we would use ourselves.

Other Great MacBook Trade in Sites Trade in your MacBook, Air, or Pro at Apple Trade In

As you’re likely already aware, one compelling option for offloading your MacBook, MacBook Air, or MacBook Pro is to simply send it to Apple directly through their Trade In program. With Apple Trade In, you’ll get credit in the form of an Apple Store gift card to put toward any future Apple purchase — iPad, iPhone, whatever you want. You can get started on Apple’s website by choosing MacBook and entering your serial number (head to  → About This Mac).

Apple Trade In isn’t the most generous trade-in option when it comes to trading in your MacBook Pro, but it is very easy and dealing with Apple comes with a peace of mind you won’t find elsewhere — you can be absolutely sure that the price you’re quoted for your old MacBook (which, honestly, won’t be much) is going to be yours — unless you send in something other what you said you would.

Trade In also isn’t limited to just taking old MacBooks. Apple will take your iPhone or smartphone from a variety of OEMs, MacBook, iPad, and even iMac. They’ll also recycle anything that they won’t buy. Head over to Apple Trade In to get started.

Trade in your MacBook at MyPhones Unlimited

MyPhones Unlimited is our MacBook, MacBook Air, and MacBook Pro trade in spot of choice — as mentioned, we’ve partnered with them for our own 9to5Mac trade-in portal. At MyPhones Unlimited, you’ll find an excellent combination of trade in values, seamless experience, and customer service.

Decluttr is a great destination for trading in your iPhone, and they tend to offer some of the best trade in values on the market. Decluttr has great reviews on Trustpilot, and we’ve work with them as a partner in the past — so they’re definitely one of the sites we would use ourselves.

Trade in your MacBook at Gazelle

MacBook, Air, or Pro owners also have the option of trading in their old laptop through Gazelle. In my experience, their trade in values are a bit lower than the rest of the options on this page, but they’re a popular and reliable destination nonetheless. The process of trading in your MacBook with Gazelle works about the same as the rest of the other device trade-in sites.

Trade in your MacBook at Best Buy Even more sites: Trademore, Igotoffer, Itsworthmore, BuyBackWorld

Gazelle, MyPhones, and Apple Trade In aren’t the only destinations for trading in your MacBook. Some sites, if you’re willing to give them a chance, might even offer more. Be aware, though, that depending on the site you might run into issues not actually get those extra dollars. Some sites have rough Trustpilot ratings with reported issues with receiving payments for devices, for example.

That said, these sites aren’t all bad — many of them have enough positive reviews and reputation that it’s pretty unlikely you’ll get straight up scammed. Check out Trademore, Igotoffer, Itsworthmore, and BuyBackWorld if you want to dig around to find an alternative destination to trade in your MacBook Pro.

Best Online Marketplaces to trade in/sell your MacBook Swappa

When it comes to selling your MacBook, Air, or Pro yourself, Swappa is one of the best sites on the web with a quickly growing community. The things that make Swappa stand out from the crowd is that it’s a marketplace dedicated to selling consumer electronics like the MacBook Pro, iPhone, iPad, Android phones, and more. they also have pretty low flat fees and they’re transparent throughout the process.

If you’re serious about getting the max value out of your MacBook while also resting on the comforts of a proven and well-moderated community of buyers, Swappa is the place to be. All transactions go through PayPal and come with the protections that provides, and the Swappa team has done a great job of making sure first-time sellers feel confident and secure fishing for a good buyer for their lightly-used goods.


eBay is undoubtedly the most popular place to sell used anything on the web, and it should come as no surprise that a fair volume of MacBooks are swapped there indeed. It might not be the easiest or most secure of destinations to sell your MacBook Pro, but it does have the largest pool of potential buyers. And unlike Swappa, you can hold auctions to potentially juice that MacBook, Air, or Pro for every dime it’s worth.

It goes without saying that eBay is a pretty good place to get a fair price for your device, but it also comes with a few downsides. It’s going to take way more work to list, watch, and monitor an eBay listing than it will to just send in your device through a trade-in site, and you’re also putting yourself at slightly higher risk of ending up with an undesirable buyer. eBay’s fees are also higher than many other sites. Check out eBay.

More trade in guides on 9to5Mac: Latest trade in deals below… Special deals and trade-in coupon codes for 9to5Mac readers

For a limited time, get 10% extra through Decluttr (max $30) w/ code 9TO5MAC (valid til 12/31/21)

How much is your MacBook Pro worth? How much is your MacBook Air worth? How much is your MacBook (12-inch) worth?

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