Trending February 2024 # Uml Association Vs. Aggregation Vs. Composition # Suggested March 2024 # Top 8 Popular

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Relationships in UML diagram are used to represent a connection between various things. A relationship is a connection amongst things such as structural, behavioral, or grouping things in the unified modeling language.

Following are the different types of standard relationships in UML,





Other than these, UML allows the use of aggregation and a composition relationship.

In this UML tutorial, you will learn:

UML Association

It is a structural relationship that represents objects can be connected or associated with another object inside the system. Following constraints can be applied to the UML Association relationship.

{implicit} – Implicit constraints specify that the relationship is not manifest; it is based upon a concept.

{ordered} – Ordered constraints specify that the set of objects at one end of an association are in a specific way.

{changeable} – Changeable constraint specifies that the connection between various objects in the system can be added, removed, and modified as per the requirement.

{addOnly} – It specifies that the new connections can be added from an object which is situated at the other end an association.

{frozen} – It specifies that when a link is inserted between two objects, then it cannot be modified while the frozen constraint is active on the given link or a connection.

We can also create a class that has UML Association properties; it is called as an association class.

Reflexive Association

The reflexive association is a subtype of association relationship in UML. In a reflexive association, the instances of the same class can be related to each other. An instance of a class is also said to be an object.

Reflexive association states that a link or a connection can be present within the objects of the same class.


Let us consider an example of a class fruit.

The fruit class has two instances, such as mango and apple. Reflexive association states that a link between mango and apple can be present as they are instances of the same class, such as fruit.

Reflexive Association

Directed Association

As the name suggests, the directed association is related to the direction of flow within association classes.

In a directed association, the flow is directed. The association from one class to another class flows in a single direction only.

It is denoted using a solid line with an arrowhead.

UML Association Example:

You can say that there is a directed association relationship between a server and a client.

A server can process the requests of a client. This flow is unidirectional, that flows from server to client only. Hence a directed association relationship can be present within servers and clients of a system.

Directed Association

UML Composition

It is not a standard UML Relationship, but it is still used in various applications.

Composite aggregation is a subtype of aggregation relation with characteristics as:

It is a two-way association between the objects.

It is a whole/part relationship.

If a composite is deleted, all other parts associated with it are deleted.

Composite aggregation is described as a binary association decorated with a filled black diamond at the aggregate (whole) end.

The folder could contain many files, while each File has exactly one Folder parent. If a folder is deleted, all contained files are removed as well.

In a composite aggregation, an object may be a part of only one composite at a time.

UML Composition Example:

For example, in a windowing system, a Frame belongs to precisely one Window. In a composite aggregation, the whole system is responsible for the disposition of its parts, which means that the composite must manage the creation and destruction of its parts.


UML Aggregation

An aggregation is a subtype of an association relationship in UML. Aggregation and composition are both the types of association relationship in UML. An aggregation relationship can be described in simple words as “an object of one class can own or access the objects of another class.”

In an aggregation relationship, the dependent object remains in the scope of a relationship even when the source object is destroyed.

UML Aggregation Example:

Let us consider an example of a car and a wheel.

A car needs a wheel to function correctly, but a wheel doesn’t always need a car. It can also be used with the bike, bicycle, or any other vehicles but not a particular car. Here, the wheel object is meaningful even without the car object. Such type of relationship is called UML Aggregation relation.


Association Vs. Aggregation Vs. Composition

Association Aggregation Composition

Association relationship is denoted using an arrow. Aggregation relationship is denoted using a straight line with an empty arrowhead at one end. Composition relationship is denoted using a straight line with a filled arrowhead at any one of the ends.

Association can exist between two or more classes in UML. Aggregation is a part of an association relationship. The composition is a part of an association relationship.

There can be one-one, one-many, many-one, and many-many association present between the association classes. Aggregation is considered as a weak type of association. The composition is considered as a strong type of association.

In an association relationship, one or more objects can be associated with each other. In an aggregation relationship, objects that are associated with each other can remain in the scope of a system without each other. In a composition relationship, objects that are associated with each other cannot remain in the scope without each other.

Objects are linked with each other. Linked objects are not dependent upon the other object. Objects are highly dependent upon each other.

In UML Association, deleting one element may or may not affect another associated element. In UML Aggregation, deleting one element does not affect another associated element. In UML Composition, deleting one element affects another associated element.

a teacher provides instructions to the students. A car needs a wheel, but it doesn’t always require the same wheel. A car can function adequately with another wheel as well. A file is placed inside the folder. If one deletes the folder, then the file associated with that given folder is also deleted.


A relationship is a connection between things.

Association, dependency, generalization, and realization are various relationships provided by UML.

Apart from standard relationships, composition and aggregation are used inside the UML.

Aggregation and composition are both the types of association relationship in UML.

The UML Composition is a two-way relationship which is also called as a binary relationship.

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Whatsapp Vs Instagram Vs Facebook Messenger Vs Snapchat

We compare the best of the current crop. It’s WhatsApp v Instagram v Facebook Messenger v Snapchat.

What devices can I use them on and how much do they cost?

It will probably come as no surprise that these apps are available on nearly all mobile platforms. WhatsApp has versions for iOS, Android, Windows Phone, Blackberry, and even some Nokia phones! You can also use its clever desktop app for Mac and PC which connects to your phone to display chats and messages. To see exactly how this works you can read our How to use WhatsApp on any Windows PC guide.

Facebook Messenger covers a lot of the same ground, with iOS, Android, and Windows Phone apps available, but as its web version is baked into the main Facebook site, it offers a bit more of a streamlined experience in this regard. There’s also a new ‘ Messenger Lite‘ which is good for older Android phones or those with limited monthly data.

Instagram is available for iOS or Android, and there’s a very basic web version for PCs. Snapchat is the most selective of the bunch, limiting itself to just iOS and Android.

How easy it to navigate around the apps?

They’ve had time to mature, so each of them is fairly straightforward, albeit with some quirks. WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger default to your Chat list when they launch, giving you instant access to previous conversations, all of which are shown chronologically.

Both have simple navigation buttons at the bottom of the screen (well, the top if you’re using WhatsApp on Android) which allow you to move between Chat, Calls, the Camera, and either Settings or Games depending on which app you’re in.

This similarity of design could well be down to the fact that Facebook acquired WhatsApp a while back, and has quietly set about standardising the layout. Whatever the reasons, Facebook Messenger and WhatsApp feel primarily about messaging, rather than the visual emphasis used by the other two apps.

Instagram, which coincidentally is also owned by Facebook, opens to the photostream of your friends and contacts. Unlike the former pair, Instagram doesn’t have an actual chat option that you can see, but swiping left opens up the Instagram Direct page where you can send private videos, photos, or messages to individuals or groups of friends.

Of all the apps in this roundup, Instagram is the one that acts essentially as its own social media platform, with the messaging capabilities something of an add-on.

Compared to the other apps here Snapchat is the one that has the least intuitive interface. That’s not to say that it’s complicated, but it just takes a little more getting used to.

When you launch the app the camera opens automatically, giving you a clue of how Snapchat wants to be used. Swiping right will open up the chat window, while swiping left will bring you to Stories, which are collections of short videos and images.

Snapchat recently added that ability for groups to add content to a Story, making it a great way to celebrate a trip or event.

Swiping left a second time unveils the Discover section, where there’s various content available from news outlets and online creators. This is usually in the form of video articles, celebrity news, or new product releases, all of which can be loud and colourful.

Content that you or your friends create is designed to be automatically deleted within 24 hours unless you specifically choose to save it, so Snapchat does have a more temporary feel than its rivals.

What features do they have? Chat

As we’ve alluded to above, all of the apps have some kind of chat feature. You can either exchange messages with individuals or groups, using mobile data or Wi-Fi. All also allow images, video, and emoji to be included in the conversations.


If you want to make free phone calls over Wi-Fi then Facebook Messenger and WhatsApp offer this very handy ability. So, when the call minutes allowance on your tariff is running low, or you can’t get a signal, this is an excellent way to stay in touch. Video calls are also available on both apps.

Image sharing and editing

Instagram is often cited as the app that started the whole filters craze, and it still remains a firm favourite for those who want to add a bit of style to their snaps. After capturing an image you’re free to apply one of the many filters that can transform a simple picture into a noire masterpiece or lend a fuzzy 70s feel.

There are options to crop the shot, alter the colour or temperature balance, and even add multiple images into a collage via the free Layout app.   

You won’t find many crazy animations, such as you will on Snapchat and Facebook Messenger, but it does boast Boomerang, which allows short videos to run forward then backwards, creating amusing, moving pictures.  

Snapchat takes a more youthful approach, offering facial animations that can add hats, animal features, or even turn you into a hot dog. Filters are based more on artistic styles which dramatically alter the colour and texture of an image, sometimes in quite spectacular fashion.

You can also add messages, draw on the images, or include geo-tagged titles letting people know where the photo was taken. Overall, it’s a lot more fun than Instagram, but might be a bit much for some.

Facebook Messenger takes its lead most definitely from Snapchat, offering plenty of amusing overlays, special effects, and ways to annotate an image. From floating disco balls, to Game of Thrones-style dragon fire, there’s plenty to keep you occupied. You can also employ some artsy filters, and various titles on your snaps.

WhatsApp is probably the most conservative of the bunch when it comes to image editing. You can apply a few different filters, add emojis, text, or draw on the image, but animations and wild styling are left to the other apps.

Stories So, which is the best app for you?

As with any software, this all comes down to what you intend to do. If keeping in touch with friends and family, while possibly arranging a holiday or event, then the simplicity and focus on group messaging that WhatsApp provides is a solid choice.

Instagram is the one for sharing photos and seeing what other people are creating, while Snapchat is perfect for quick videos and images that you can personalise and have fun with.

Facebook Messenger does a good job of mixing these various elements into one easy to use portal, and as such if you were only going to have one messaging app on your phone this would be the one we recommend. 

Of course, they’re all free, so there’s nothing stopping you from having them all!

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Python Vs C++ Vs C Vs Matlab: The Best Robotic Language

Python vs C++ vs C vs MATLAB which robotic language is best Intro

Python, C++, C, and MATLAB are all popular programming languages that are used in a wide range of applications. Each language has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the choice of language will depend on the specific requirements of the project at hand.


Python is a high-level, interpreted language that is known for its simplicity and ease of use. It is often used in scientific computing, data analysis, and machine learning. Python has a large number of libraries and modules that make it easy to perform complex tasks, and it has a large and active community of developers.


C++ is a high-level, compiled language that is widely used in the development of software, games, and other applications. It is known for its speed and efficiency, and it is often used in applications that require a lot of computational power. C++ also has a large number of libraries and modules available, and it is widely supported by many platforms.


C is a low-level, compiled language that is known for its efficiency and low-level access to system resources. It is often used in systems programming and in the development of embedded systems, operating systems, and other low-level applications. C is widely supported by many platforms and has a large number of libraries available.


MATLAB is a high-level, interpreted language that is widely used in scientific computing, data analysis, and engineering. It is known for its powerful mathematical and visualization capabilities, and it has a large number of libraries and modules available for specific tasks. MATLAB is often used in academia and in industries such as aerospace, automotive and finance.

Which programming language should you choose?

The choice of programming language depends on the specific requirements of the project. Python is a good choice for scientific computing, data analysis and machine learning, while C++ is a better choice for applications that require a lot of computational power. C is good for systems programming and the development of embedded systems, and MATLAB is best suited for scientific computing, data analysis, and engineering.

How fast can you learn this programming language?

The speed at which a user can learn a programming language depends on various factors such as the user’s prior programming experience, the language’s complexity, and the resources available for learning.

Python is known for its simplicity and ease of use, making it a great language for beginners to learn. Its clear and readable syntax, along with a large number of resources available for learning, can make the learning process relatively fast.

C++ can be slightly more complex than Python, as it is a compiled language and has more features and concepts to learn. However, with the right resources and guidance, a user can learn the basics of C++ relatively quickly.

C is considered a low-level language and can be more challenging to learn compared to Python and C++. It requires a good understanding of computer systems and memory management, and it is more prone to errors. C can be more time-consuming to learn than the other languages mentioned.

MATLAB, like Python, is considered to be relatively easy to learn, especially for users with a background in mathematics and engineering. MATLAB’s syntax is similar to that of other programming languages and has a wide range of resources and tutorials available for learning.

In general, a user with prior programming experience will be able to pick up a new language relatively quickly, but for a complete beginner, it might take more time to learn

Which of these programming languages is best?

All of the programming languages mentioned (Python, C++, C, and MATLAB) are widely used in various industries and domains. However, based on the popularity rankings and job demand, Python is considered to be the most used one among the four.

Python is the most popular language among developers, according to the TIOBE Index, which tracks the popularity of programming languages. It’s also consistently ranked as the most sought-after language in job postings. Python’s popularity is attributed to its simplicity, readability, and wide range of libraries and modules that make it easy to perform complex tasks. It’s used in a variety of fields, such as web development, data science, artificial intelligence, and scientific computing.

C++ and C are also widely used, especially in the development of software, operating systems, and embedded systems. However, the C++ job demand is more than C.

MATLAB, while it’s not as popular as Python, is widely used in scientific computing, data analysis, and engineering. It’s often used in academia and industries such as aerospace, automotive, and finance.

Enterprise Unix Roundup: Eu Vs. Microsoft Vs. Ibm

Over on IT Jungle, I just read an interesting story about how Microsoft is (by proxy) cleverly using the same law that was just smacked over its head for Windows market dominance against IBM’s mainframe base in Europe.

The story, by Hesh Wiener, is a fascinating look into the world of litigation-as-business-strategy, and details the complaint filed by Platform Solutions (PSI) against IBM for violating Article 82 of the European Commission (EC) Treaty. The complaint was filed, according to a Dec. 18 Reuters story, way back on Oct. 19.

“The complaint alleges that IBM has violated Article 82 of the EC Treaty by refusing to supply interface information relating to mainframe computers and refusing to license third parties,” spokesman Jonathan Todd said in a statement.

As both the Reuters and IT Jungle articles detail, all of this came about after IBM sued PSI in 2006 for violating IBM patents with software PSI used on its mainframes. PSI has since countersued, citing unfair competition. Given that IBM didn’t make any legal moves against PSI until it started getting some of its mainframes into IBM customer sites in 2005, one has to wonder if PSI may have a point. All of that, of course, is still pending a court decision.

According to the PSI Web site, its System64 mainframes are Itanium-based and:

System64 is fully compatible with IBM z/OS, OS/390, z/Linux and associated ISV and customer applications. Major system components of the PSI solution include 2 32-socket dual-core Itanium 2 servers capable of supporting z/OS, OS/390, z/Linux, HP-UX, Red Hat and SUSE Linux, OpenVMS and Windows Server 2003.

The Itanium machines, according to the Wiener article, are actually “a firmware-based mainframe system that runs on Itanium servers from NEC and Hewlett-Packard.” What’s more interesting is that several companies just gave PSI $37 million in Series C funding — including Intel and Microsoft, two companies that would love to see more Itanium machines out on the market.

The ultimate irony of Microsoft throwing in with PSI to crowd out IBM’s alleged over-dominance of the European market is that Article 82 is the basis of the recent EC anti-trust decision to force Microsoft to start coughing up technical information to competitors that want to develop or work with Windows. Microsoft lost its appeal on Sept. 17, 2007, about one month before PSI made its complaint and two months before the latest round of funding for PSI.

Coincidental timing? Maybe. Or maybe even while it was being spanked, Microsoft realized that the EC was serious about enforcing this anti-trust Article, and it saw this ongoing litigation between PSI and IBM as a way of kicking open the door into the European mainframe market. Perhaps it’s one of the reasons why Microsoft seemingly capitulated to the EC demand to start forking over technical documentation to projects like Samba, an open source project that allows communication between Windows and Linux or Unix systems.

When Microsoft actually did hand over that documentation on Dec. 20, you could have knocked a lot of IT observers over with a feather. Many people, myself included, were expecting the company to drag its feet on this issue for a long time.

Whatever the timing, clearly Microsoft and Intel both see this as a way of boosting a company that’s friendly to their products in a market on which Big Blue has a solid lock. Hence, the investment into PSI in November.

It’s a story that may not bode well for IBM’s mainframe business in Europe, and should PSI’s Article 82 complaint succeed, it will certainly alter the face of Unix in Europe.

Brian Proffitt is managing editor of JupiterWeb’s Linux/Open Source channel, which includes Linux Today, LinuxPlanet, and AllLinuxDevices.

This article was first published on chúng tôi

Crystal Uhd Vs Qled Vs Oled – What’s The Difference?

Are you trying to get a new TV but confused about which display to choose in terms of your budget? Are different abbreviations we see like UHD, OLED, or QLED scaring you?

Yes, abbreviations like these can make us more insecure about choosing the wrong monitor. It’s like the TV/Monitor industry is purposefully making things more complicated.

But, please do not get confused. Once you understand what these abbreviations mean, they will be with you for life.

Whenever you hear HD in any abbreviations, think of Resolution or Pixels. Think of display types if you see or hear any abbreviations with LED.

Now that we know the core difference between these abbreviations, let us check each TV type in detail.

Whenever you see this tag on TVs, think of two things, Pixels /resolution, and Samsung. Crystal UHD is a classification given by Samsung to a particular line of its TVs with a UHD resolution.

The UHD in Crystal UHD refers to Ultra-high-definition. It means the TV has a pixel of 3840*2160. This pixel combination is commonly referred to as “4K” or approximately four times the HD resolution.

But why include the word Crystal?

These Samsung TVs have dynamic crystal color technology, which brings over a billion hues to your screen. This development is possible through an actual processor embedded inside the 

TV called Samsung Crystal Processor 4K. This hardware helps in making the picture more vivid. The TVs with the Crystal UHD also come with High Dynamic Range (HDR).

High Dynamic Range: The technology makes the brighter tones in pictures brighter without overexposing them. It also makes Dark tones darker without underexposing.

It focuses on the contrast (difference between the lightest white and darker blacks of the picture) and the brightness (luminance) of the TV.

The Displays used are LCD panels backed up by LED backlighting. The company also provides these TVs from 43 inches to 85 inches. So, you have plenty of options. Depending on the size, model, and features, the prices can be anywhere from $350 to $2000.

So, in essence, Crystal UHD is a classification given by Samsung to its line of TV that have UHD resolution and supports dynamic crystal color technology and HDR.


Support 4K Resolution

Embedded hardware 4k processor.

Multiple Voice Assistant Features

Free Sync to reduce tearing/shuttering during gaming.

Real Game enhancer+ features for better visibility, motion-clarity, and synchronized sound

High Dynamic Range

Cheap compared to OLED or QLED


Poor Brightness/Black Levels compared to QLED or OLED

As TV uses backlight, the chance of bleed is a possibility

Will consume a lot of power due to the backlight

Thicker in size compared to OLED or OLED

Screen is known to be quite reflective

TV’s smart interface constantly crashes frequently as reviewed by users

Note:The features of a Real game enhancer will depend on the type of game console you have. Free Sync is not included on TVs 49 inches or below in size.

To understand QLED, you must understand traditional LED backlight TV. Keep in mind both QLED and LCD use some form of the backlight to light up the picture. If the backlight doesn’t work, there will be no display of pictures. The difference is in how both displays filter light.

In the traditional LCD or LED, the backlight produces a blue light coated with a layer of phosphorus to turn the light white. That white light gets filtered with an RGB filter, which produces any color needed on display.

In QLED, it’s the same concept, except there is no phosphorus coating. The backlight emits light, which gets absorbed by a nanocrystal filter called Quantum dot, which becomes self-illuminating once the light hits.

The light then passes to the RGB filter producing any color needed. The light wastage is very less. As more light is properly utilized, the picture is more vivid and bright than traditional LED or LCD.

QLED (Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode) is a display panel technology, not just a classification. Do not get confused by the LED in QLED; the display is still LCD but has a quantum dot film embedded inside the tv.


Less wastage of light in comparison to traditional LED or LCD TVs.

Quantum dot filter embedded inside the TV.

Quantum Dots are moisture Resistant.

More vibrant/vivid pictures compared to traditional LCD/ LED TVs.

Lower power consumption than LCD/ LED/ OLED TVs

Burn-in issues are comparatively less than in OLED TVs


It still uses a backlight source to display the picture.

Not be able to reach the same black levels/contrast as OLED.

More expensive than traditional LED / LCD TVs and cheaper than OLED TVs.

Poor viewing angles.

It depends on the specific brand or model, but QLED does face light bleeding issues.

OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) is also a display panel technology. Unlike QLED or LED backlight TVs, OLED TVs do not use a backlight. Instead, the light is generated through organic compounds that glow when the current is run through them.

This process allows for the most vibrant color combinations and the deepest black levels.  The quality of the picture is unrivaled.

If you like watching Netflix and movies on a regular basis, OLED TVs will change your viewing experience.


Each pixel in OLED TV is self-emissive, meaning each pixel can light and turn off on its own.

No backlight needed

Best for content with low light

Black levels are superior to QLED or LED/ LCD TVs.

They can be made very thin in width.

Flexible substrates that can be used to create bending or for transparent displays.

Costs are very expensive.

No wastage of light compared to QLED, LED, or LCDs.


Very Expensive compared with QLED and LED/ LCD TVs.

Limited brands

Known to have burn-in issues on screen.

Very susceptible to water damage or moisture.

Shorter Lifespan in comparison to other TV types.

Will consume the highest power compared to QLED, LED/LCD TVs

Think of these different technologies as a hierarchy. The order according to display technology is Crystal UHD to QLED to OLED.

So, the best possible TV among these three will be OLED, and the worst in comparison will be Crystal UHD. Consider QLED as a moderate choice.

In terms of display quality, OLED is hands down the best choice. You will find the crystal UHD to be the cheapest. As you move to QLED or OLED versions, the prices will increase drastically.

Remember, there are also plenty of other 4k TVs in the market if UHD is what you want. In the end, it entirely depends on mostly following factors:


Technology users want

Color Quality

Solidity Vs Clarity Vs Move: The War Of Smart Contract Programming Languages

Bitcoin was invented to replace banks and the lengthy banking process. But to everybody’s surprise, the underlying blockchain technology that powered the bitcoin functionalities became even more popular. Blockchain technology has revolutionized almost any intermediary. Following the successful implementation of a disruptive trend, the blockchain circle came up with a new concept called

The battle of smart contract programming languages

Language is a crucial component of human communication. But when machines communicate, they use a different pattern called programming languages to convey their needs to the hardware or software programs. Similarly, smart contracts also require easy programming languages to streamline their operations. Smart contract programming languages provide easy interaction and utilize the blockchain to its full extent. There are over thousands of smart contract programming languages available in the market today. Unfortunately, the availability of so many programming languages creates nothing but chaos and bad choice. Therefore, we have listed three top smart contract programming languages and provided a complete outlook on every one of them.  


Solidity is a programming language that is specifically designed to develop Ethereum smart contracts. But to work on Solidity, you should be both experienced and proficient in the field of Javascript technology. Solidity is a high-level, human-readable code that breaks it down into specific instructions that are easily understandable for machines. The programming language comes with a handful of benefits. Some of them are listed as follows,

Providing inheritance properties in contracts is not a common thing. However, Solidity breaks the ice by leveraging inheritance properties in contracts including multiple level inheritance properties.

In order to ease representation and arrangements, solidity keeps the contract open for multiple members. Therefore, many can view and clarify doubts related to the contract.

Even developers who are not experienced with Solidity can adopt the concept if they are well-versed in JavaScript and C++. Remarkably, Solidity’s blockchain development basics coordinate with that of these familiar programming languages.

Solidity helps develop a secure, easy, and reliable medium for various sources which have the involvement of two parties to do an agreement on something.


Clarity is a smart contract programming language introduced by Blockstack for their very own Stacks blockchain. Blockstack, a powerful platform that is aiming to build its own internet, provides smart contract facilities. Clarity is a decidable programming language used in Blockstack, which is designed as a ‘non-turning complete’ and ‘not intended to compile.’ The programming language avoids all the issues of turning complete programming language.

Clarity can analyze the side effects of contracts and in particular, transactions. This helps improve the user experience and allows users to gain credibility.

At Clarity, the contract source code itself is published and executed by blockchain nodes, removing any intermediate, compiled representation.


Built to support digital asset creation, Move is an open-source programming language. The move is used to preserve simplicity while supporting the complex needs of a global financial infrastructure by striking a balance between the expressivity of the source language and safety measures. It is a stack-based language that works similar to all the other languages by pushing and pop; ping as operations are prepared. Based on Rust, Move aims to develop customizable transaction logic and smart contracts for the Libra digital currency.

Move encodes ownership of the digital assets and creates procedures for the transfer of those assets.

Move even addresses the problems of indirect representation by introducing resources, a customizable type inspired by linear logic.

Besides, every single Libra transaction has a Move transaction script that is responsible for encoding the logic a validatory should perform on the client’s behalf.

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