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Introduction to QGIS Version

An open-source application that provides geospatial data for viewing and editing and if needed, analysis of geographic information is called QGIS or Quantum Geographic Information System. QGIS can integrate with other GIS applications and can import different files form any of the GIS sites to provide information to the users in the application. Also, user can install plugins written in Python or C to QGIS so that new features can be added to the application to support various other applications. Many organizations use this application as this is offered for free and we can call QGIS a universal resource manager that provides information to users.

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Version of QGIS

Gary Sherman is the developer of Quantum GIS which was released in 2007. This was published in the open space Geospatial foundation. Graphical maps can be composed or exported so that users can analyze geospatial data in different dimensions. A raster image is also supported in QGIS where we can draw the data by ourselves and export it into the application. Also, vector images are supported from where we get the information of coordinates. These images can be georeferenced which helps in understanding the entire data. Data can be exported from any external sources such as internet and can be referenced for graphical images in the application. Binary packages to install the application is present in the website that can be used for downloading and installing the same. WMS server to relate to QGIS for the proper functioning of the application. We have different versions for the base applications where the server was connected and used directly.

In 2009, a new version 1.0 was released. In this version, global transparency was set which is hardcoded. Hence users can find global transparency in this version which is not found in initial version. The coordinate system is present in both versions but a dialogue box to change the coordinates is present near the coordinates itself in 1.0 version. Server search and layers definition is available in both initial and 1.0 versions.

When version 2.0 was released in 2013, the name was changed to QGIS. Also, we cannot use the same plugins used in version 1 to be used in version 2. The plugins must be compatible with each version or else the application will throw an error while displaying graphical images. We can do interpolation and buffering in version 2 in the improved mode that helps to serve the maps in a better manner. The database is available for QGIS that serves the purpose along with PostGIS.

QGIS 3.0 version was developed in 2023 and now we have the 3.19 version in the developing stage. We can give different expressions and calculate values from the application directly so that solutions of the problems can be found out from the graph and vector images itself. The codes can be written directly in the console and can be executed. If we need to get images of graphs, we can print them directly from the application by writing codes for the same. If we need to import it outside the application, we can use a print layout that prints the graphs in different modes and can be sent to the system. We should proper values for coordinates so that the system can set the properties to import the graphs for different usages and information.

Plugins are used widely in the application so that if users enter some values in the same, it can be stored and reused when they use the same coordinates. Some variables should be given to the values stored so that it will be easy to retrieve the same when it is needed. We have global, map layer, or project settings so that if a user needs to save some values specific to the project like background color or coordinate values, it can be saved and reused for the same project. But if some settings are needed globally for the application itself, maybe the location, then the settings need to be global. Map layer settings are different that it is an instance of the map which will not be available for the second time unless stored in the file.

Different authentication methods are used in the application that helps to secure the data inside the application itself. Hence, when we connect to a database, authentication is required that helps to save the data for specific users and to establish connection in a safe manner. Several plugins or widgets are available inside the application so that whenever developers need the database connection, they can use the same.

Geometry is very important in QGIS as it is used for drawing maps. We have points, lines or polygons that feature for various levels of geometry in the application. Geometry is represented by layers and various features can be extracted from these layers. We can create geometry from an existing geometry or write a code or text. Geometry type should be figured out to analyze and draw the same.

Documentation and community support for QGIS helps users to solve issues related to the application. Input data is needed to build a graph so that we can convert vector format into a graphical image. We can add more information while creating graphs so that additional data will be available in the graph.

While developing new versions of QGIS, developers make sure that available features are enhanced more and new characteristics are added to make it easy for users. Plugins are also available for different versions as older plugins do not support new versions. The codes used will be the same in any case.

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Which Version Of Python Is Better For Beginners?

In this article, we will see the better version of Python is better for beginners.

There used to be some controversy in the coding community regarding which Python version was the best to learn: Python 2 vs Python 3. (or, specifically, Python 2.7 vs 3.5).

Python 3 is the winner for beginners or those looking to update their abilities in 2024.

In this article, We’ll go through why Python 3 is better and why businesses are migrating from Python 2 to 3.

What is Python 2?

Python 2.0 was released to the computer world in the year 2000. The introduction of Python 2 by the BeOpen Python Labs team was designed to make programming simple and easy to learn for the general public.

The following is a timeline of the release of the various Python 2. X series versions −

Python 2.0 − October 16, 2000

Python 2.1 − April 17, 2001

Python 2.2 − December 21, 2001

Python 2.3 − July 29, 2003

Python 2.4 − November 30, 2004

Python 2.5 − September 19, 2006

Python 2.6 − October 1, 2008

Python 2.7 − July 3, 2010

What is Python 3?

Python 3, which was released in 2008, was more than just a debugged version of Python 2. Python’s creation was primarily motivated by the desire to eliminate redundancy – writing repetitive code or writing the same piece of code over and over – from coding. Python 3 is backwards incompatible and tries to solve the challenges that new programmers have when learning a programming language.

The following is a timeline of the various Python 3.X series releases −

Python 3.0 − December 3, 2008

Python 3.1 − June 27, 2009

Python 3.2 − February 20, 2011

Python 3.3 − September 29, 2012

Python 3.4 − March 16, 2014

Python 3.5 − September 13, 2024

Python 3.6 − October 2024

Python 3.7 − June 2023.

Which version of Python is better for beginners?

The answer is quite simple. Learn the most recent version.

Python3’s modifications have made it easier for beginners to understand, making it the greatest way to learn Python for the first time.

Which Is the Better to Learn? Python 2 or Python 3

Yes, it is better to learn than Python 2.

Many businesses continue to utilize Python 2 fourteen years after the release of Python 3 because converting code from Python 2 to Python 3 is time-consuming. It could take several years. DropBox took 3 years to migrate, even though Guido Van Rossum worked for them.

Python 3 is the latest, most user-friendly, secure, and most powerful option. Python 3 is the obvious choice for new developers now that Python 2 support has been withdrawn. Beyond the Python 2 vs 3 issues, there’s also Java or HTML language to consider, among many others. Starting with the most recent language is the safest option.

Moreover, employers will prefer Python 3 experience over Python 2. While it is beneficial to be skilled in several languages, Python 3 is the most widely used and is more likely to help your professional progress.

Why Should you Learn Python 2?

The following are some of the best reasons to learn Python 2 −

You will need to work with both Python versions if you want to become a DevOps engineer. For example, you might need to use configuration tools like puppet or ansible. Python 2 would be beneficial.

If your prospective employer’s code is written in Python 2, you’ll need to be familiar with it. Alternatively, if your organization is migrating from Python 2 to Python 3, you will need to master the latter.

If your team is working on a project that specifically uses third-party libraries or software in Python 2 and you are unable to convert it to Python 3, you must learn it.

Python 2 has been around for a longer time. This means that there are a lot more Python 2 libraries out there, and not all of them have migrated to Python 3. As a result, you may find yourself employing Python 2 on occasion.

It is up to you to decide whether it is worthwhile to work with earlier coding languages.

Why Should you Learn Python 3?

Python 3 improves AI, machine learning, and data science support. It has more updates that Python 2 does not have.

Python 3 is still supported and has a large user base to help with support, whereas Python 2 was discontinued in 2023. Python 3 is one of the most rapidly evolving programming languages. It is a simpler and more efficient language than Python 2, as well as C#, R, and Java.

Python 3 is a simpler language with a clearer syntax. Python 3 allows you to create code more rapidly and elegantly.

Avoid syntax ambiguity—slight grammatical variations between Python 2 and 3 may confuse newcomers. The better option is to learn Python 3.

Python 3 is in high demand in almost every business. Whether you want to be a software developer or not, including Python 3 on your CV can help you get a job. Python 3 developers are valued in industries such as recruitment, healthcare, finance, marketing, and education.

Why are companies migrating from Python 2 to Python 3?

As previously said, most businesses continue to use Python 2 for legacy reasons, but an increasing number of businesses are employing Python 3 or are in the process of migrating from 2 to 3.

So, let’s take a look at Instagram and Facebook, two companies that have either migrated to Python 3 or are doing so, and why they did so.

Instagram

Instagram migrated the majority of its Python code base from Python 2.7 to Python 3 in 2023.

Reasons

Python is not typically a typed language, but Python v3.5 now supports typing, which eliminates developmental issues while writing new code.

Python’s runtime gets quicker with each new version. Meanwhile, no one is working to make Python 2.7 run more quickly.

Python 3 has improved community support.

Facebook

Facebook is presently upgrading its infrastructure and handlers from Python 2 to Python 3.4.

“The simplicity of utilizing Python libraries means that product developers don’t have to create or maintain as much code, allowing them to focus on getting enhancements live,” according to RealPython. It also assures that Facebook’s infrastructure can scale efficiently.”

Difference between Python 2 vs Python 3

The following table shows the key differences between Python 2 vs Python 3 −

Parameters Python 2.x Python 3.x

Released Year 2000 2008

“Print” Keyword In Python 2, print is regarded as a statement rather than a function.eg − print “tutorials” In Python 3, print is regarded as a function rather than a statement.eg − print(“tutorials”)

Storage of Strings Strings are stored as ASCII by default in Python 2. Strings are stored as UNICODE by default in Python 3.

Division of Integers In python2, When you divide two integers, you always get an integer value. When two integers are divided, a float value is returned in python3

Syntax The syntax of Python 2 was relatively tough to grasp. The syntax of python3 is simple and easy to understand.

Exceptions In python2, Exceptions are enclosed in notations. Exceptions are enclosed within parentheses in python3

Variable leakage While using inside the for-loop, the value of the global variable will change. In python3, Variable values never change.

Libraries Many Python 2 libraries are NOT forward compatible. Many libraries are written in Python 3 to be used only with Python 3.

Backward compatibility Python 2 code can be converted to Python 3 with considerable effort. Python 3 does not support backward compatibility with Python 2.

Iteration For iterations, Python 2 includes the xrange() method. To execute iterations, Python 3 introduced the new Range() method.

Today’s use Python 2 has been deprecated since 2023. Python 3 is more widely used than Python 2 and is still in use today.

Conclusion

There is a clear winner in the Python 2 vs. Python 3 dispute. While Python 2 was popular in the early 2000s, Python 3 is the greatest option for learning in 2023. Python 2 may be required in specific instances, however, Python 3 is the most often used language.

Google Images To Show Credit Information

Google has coordinated with international standards organizations to show copyright and author information in Google images. The new feature will show on images containing author and copyright metadata. It’s expected to help drive more traffic.

Why You Should Consider Adding IPTC Metadata

According to an executive  of a digital assets rights management tool, adding this metadata will help boost your images being discovered via Google images. This is important to individuals and organizations that monetize their images as it will help drive more traffic.

“Employing IPTC metadata standards in Google Images results will help ensure proper attribution of credit and support photographers’ copyright, while also boosting the discoverability of content and creators. This is a win for the professional photo community.”

What is Image Metadata?

The IPTC Photo Metadata Standard is data that is embedded within the photograph itself. The metadata is purposely embeded in the image. It is not automatically present in every image. The creator and credit metadata needs to be present in order for Google Images to display it.

What Image Metadata is Google Showing?

According to the official announcement on the IPTC standards page Google will begin showing the data about the image’s creator, a credit line and a copyright notice. The credit line is a line of text that the image owner/creator requires to be shown when the image is displayed on Google Images.

WordPress Plugins Can Remove IPTC Metadata

There are a number of WordPress plugins that optimize images. The image optimization process can remove the creator meta data by default. For example, the Optimus image compression plugin removes the EXIF and IPTC metadata by default. You have to manually adjust your settings to stop it from doing that.

That isn’t the only WordPress plugin that removes IPTC metadata. Check all image optimization plugins, regardless of CMS to see if the plugin removes IPTC metadata.

How to Add IPTC Photo Meta Data

“Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Lightroom

The free image manipulation tool GIMP – see their docs

Photographer tools such as ACDSee Pro, FotoStation, PhotoMechanic and the Digital Asset Management system Extensis Portfolio

For the more technical, the command-line ExifTool can be run in a script to update many images at the same time.”

Official IPTC Image Specifications

The official definition of the Creator line:

“Contains the name of the photographer, but in cases where the photographer should not be identified the name of a company or organisation may be appropriate.”

Official specification of the Credit line:

“The credit to person(s) and/or organisation(s) required by the supplier of the image to be used when published. This is a free-text field.”

Official specification of the Copyright line:

“Contains any necessary copyright notice for claiming the intellectual property for this photograph and should identify the current owner of the copyright for the photograph. Other entities like the creator of the photograph may be added in the corresponding field. Notes on usage rights should be provided in “Rights usage terms”.”

How To Install The Latest Version Of Krita In Ubuntu

You’ve updated and upgraded your Ubuntu installation, but Krita remains in its pre-4.3 version. That’s because Ubuntu’s official repositories don’t offer the latest and greatest from Krita’s developers. Let’s see how to install the latest version of Krita on Ubuntu.

Via Snap

It’s a well-known fact that Ubuntu’s latest version prioritizes snap over apt. Although apt insists on installing a pre-4.3 version of Krita, the latest one is available through snap. Terminal fans can install it with:

sudo

snap

install

krita

Those who prefer the visual way of doing things can bring it on-board through Ubuntu’s Software Center. Start by running the software center app, then typing Krita’s name in the top search field.

Via AppImage

Krita’s developers also offer their much-beloved graphics application in AppImage format. It’s almost as easy to install and use as the snap version but requires you to go over a series of steps until you can use it. Plus, you will have to update it manually in the future. Still, this is probably the most familiar way of installing software for former Windows users.

When the process completes, open the folder containing the downloaded file in your file browser.

If you have difficulty executing it, you can make use of the traditional way to make it executable. Open a terminal and type the following command:

Via Apt

Krita’s latest version might be missing from Ubuntu’s official repositories, but you can still access it via the developer repository.

Start by adding the third-party repository to Ubuntu’s list:

sudo

add-apt-repository ppa:kritalime

/

ppa

Acknowledge any prompt which may appear. After you have done so, update Ubuntu’s software list with:

sudo

apt update

Finally, install it with a typical:

sudo

apt

install

krita

With the latest version of Krita installed in your computer, it is now time to sketch like a pro with Krita. If Krita is not to your liking, you can also check out some of the best image-editing software for Linux here.

Odysseas Kourafalos

OK’s real life started at around 10, when he got his first computer – a Commodore 128. Since then, he’s been melting keycaps by typing 24/7, trying to spread The Word Of Tech to anyone interested enough to listen. Or, rather, read.

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Know Top 8 Most Useful Alternatives Of Operating System

Introduction to OS Alternatives

Operating System may be defined as the interface between the user and the hardware. It is the software that turns on right after the system gets started. So technically, it’s the kind of software that starts working before all the software. An OS consists of various fundamental or basic files that help in booting the system. Additionally, it has some system software that facilitates the communication between the user and the hardware device.

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Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

What is an Operating System?

OS is used in every device that needs to perform any function. If you are very new to this topic, you will be amazed after knowing that electronic devices like a smart refrigerator, internet router, smart TVs, CCTV and so on are being operated by the help of the operating system. Linux is the most commonly used OS in these electronic devices.

List of OS Alternatives 1. Microsoft Windows

This is the GUI(Graphical User Interface) based OS developed by Microsoft back in 1985. In actual terms, it is the graphical interface of MS-DOS. The very first version of windows was 1.1 that had facilitates the disk partition feature through the graphical interface. The web browser was first used in the 3.0 version of windows that made the internet easily accessible to the users.

The windows are very popular and covering a large user base due to its simplicity in the graphical interface. It is designed by taking care of nontechnical users. The GUI is designed over the DOS which means it actually runs the commands in the DOS but due to the GUI the user is kept unaware of what’s going on behind the scene.

2. MAC OS X

Another best OS Alternative is MAC OS which was developed by Apple Inc back in 1984. That is just a year before Windows was developed. It is the second most widely used operating system and being used by 6.375 of the OS users. The first desktop version was out in 2001 and it was MAC OS X 10.0 and the next version 10.1 came right after the first version release.

It also offers a very interactive graphical interface and most of the features that Windows offers. The Apple laptops come with pre-installed MAC OS which couldn’t be changed. Though it comes with good features, it’s somewhat costly than Windows. It is considered a highly secure OS due to its feature to detect the threat and response accordingly feature.

As this operating system runs in only Apple laptops, it cannot be installed in normal laptops easily. For instance, we can run Windows or Linux-based operating system in a Lenovo laptop or desktop but if we need to run the MAC OS than in such case one has to buy an Apple desktop or laptop.

3. Linux

Similar to Windows and MAC OS, Linux is also an operating system that has some additional features. Based on the users’ requirements, there are several versions of OS like Ubuntu, Kali Linux, Parrot Linux, Mint Linux, and so on. Linux is also well known for its command lines interface and it’s also loved by hackers because of the pre-existing tools in Linux, specifically, Kali Linux.

A Linux OS is comprised of Shell, the bootloader, daemons, the kernel, and the applications that make Linux more efficient. Linux is widely used in servers as they are cost effective as compared to windows. It offers a highly secure platform where users can store their crucial data. It is very useful when it comes to making things done very efficiently in a very short period of time due to its quality of fast processing.

The Linux operating system is also a base OS for several distributions. Even the most popular mobile phone operating system “Android” also uses Linux as its base OS. The trending technology called IoT is also implemented using Linux as its the common operating system that is used by several smart electronic devices. From a programmer or developer point of view, we should be preferring windows but as per network admins and security executives’ view, it’s the most important operating system.

4. Feren OS

Feren operating system is based on Linux mint and hence possesses some of the functionality that is held by a mint version of Linux. This OS comes with inbuilt tools like Feren them and GMP image editor which usually doesn’t come pre-installed in several Linux versions. It provides the GUI interaction platform and also offers the terminal that works the same way a Linux terminal works.

Feren OS does need a bit of well-configured hardware to work smoothly as it comes with some of the important applications. In some of the CUI based Linux distributions, we usually require to download tools for every task like for editing photos, for changing the outlook of the interface, but in this operating system the important applications are made already available and the additional or other software could be installed easily.

5. Peppermint OS

Peppermint OS is another best alternative for Ubuntu or Linux-based operating system which is available in both 32 bit and 62 bit. It is a very lightweight operating system and hence needs fewer hardware configurations to work on any system. Even 512 MB RAM is enough to run this OS. It doesn’t come with lots of inbuilt system software but definitely one could add numerous software as per their requirement.

It also offers a Microsoft office suite that is not available in lots of different versions of Linux. Using this we can edit the office documents the same way we do in windows. It provides the shortcut to lots of applications like Google Drive, Gmail and so on and while opening such an application, it will open as a web page where there will be no option of the address bar. When working with the inbuilt shortcuts, it simply opens an instance of the browser rather than actually opening the browser and its such functionality makes it very fast to use.

This operating system could also be considered as the OS with the simplest user interface as some of the features that could add complexity has to keep abstract. In simple terms, this OS will simply give you what you ask. It won’t offer you several options to choose from. Normally users rarely use this OS but if someone wants to use the operating system in a very low hardware capability then it is definitely the preference to use peppermint.

6. Solus OS

For the users who are new or proficient in Linux, Solus is one of the various options to move with. It is another Linux-based operating system that gives a pretty close view of the other Linux-based operating systems. It comes with Firefox selected as the default browser to handle users’ internet-related queries. It has its own package manager and repository and is hence very different from other Linux distributions.

It is comprised of a very decent user interface together with the efficient functioning of the terminal. In this OS, the bottom bas show the running application, and the apps could be the switch from there which is opposite to that of other Linux distributions. It has a notification area that shows all the notifications generated by the system and next to the notification section, it has the quick application access area as well.

7. Parrot Linux

Parrot Linux is one of the best versions of Linux spatially used while working with networks. One can easily recognize this operating system by having the look on default terminal text colors as it is comprised of green and read texts. The parrot Linux is sort of a command-line interface-based operating system as a maximum of the things in this OS could be done using the terminal.

This distribution is designed for the purpose of penetration testing and is hence very effectively used in cybersecurity. In most of cyber forensic cases, Parrot Linux is used as the best OS due to its inbuilt tools that are mainly developed for investigation purposes only. The latest version of parrot Linux is 4.5.1 which was released on last of January 2023.

Parrot Linux also has some of the important tools which are used in Kali Linux. In organizations, parrot Linux is very frequently used in SOC operations, especially to exploit the vulnerabilities existing in the network. It works pretty the same as Kali Linux. The good part is, it comes loaded with lots of useful tools used in ethical hacking so the user will not require to add extra software in order to perform penetration testing.

8. Kubuntu

While we are talking about several versions of Linux, Kubuntu is the os that we must know about. It is an operating system that gives the taste of Ubuntu OS and is popular because of its particular feature to stand out of rush. On the other hand, where usually the operating systems use the GNOME desktop environment, the Kubuntu OS uses KDE Plasma Desktop.

As its user interface is almost the same as that of Ubuntu, the same way it also matches most of the functionality offered by Ubuntu. Due to its lightweight, it is potentially very strong in terms of fast execution. Though it is considered a bit better than Ubuntu the fact that it is produced after ubuntu could not be belied. It doesn’t need a system with a very high configuration to get installed. If you actually want to have a look at it, you can use virtualization to get its exposure.

Conclusion

There are several alternatives to OS that could be used per our requirement. Through Windows is the most used OS due to its easy-to-use interface, some other OS could also be used as its alternative. Just to summarize in straight words, if you are very much concerned about the security part then prefer to use either Linux or MAC OS and if there is a requirement to have non-technical users work in the decent platform then go with Windows.

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A Quick Glance On Opencv Version

Introduction to OpenCV Version

The OpenCV is the acronym of the open-source computer vision library used for virtual machine vision or eyesight. It is using in the computer or virtual machines for real-time applications. It is an open-source library used for video operating, image processing, and analysis vision applications. The OpenCV version is using to detect the object using image processing, save and display videos, and analyze and control the motion visions. It is the cross-platform library used for real-time vision and machine learning for robotics and the medical field. The OpenCV is an open-source library of images and videos for real-time computer applications. The users need to updated and adding new features to create the application effectively.

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Different OpenCV Versions 1. OpenCV Alpha Version

It was released in 2000.

It is the first version of the open-source library to create more effective images and videos.

The alpha versions are based on color changing, blending, and preserve the part of images using pixels.

The alpha version focuses on blending the two images without any disturbance of the image pixels.

The two images are placed in one place and create one image with setting color contrast.

The videos or images are collaborating and avoid overlapping of the images.

The latest alpha versions are OpenCV – 3.0.0 alpha and OpenCV – 4.0.0 alpha.

2. OpenCV Beta Version

It was released from 2001 to 2005.

The beta version focused on the contrast of the images and the brightness of the images and videos.

The different OpenCV beta versions were released between 2001 and 2005 year.

The OpenCV beta is mainly focused on the contrast of the images or video’s background and color co-ordinations.

 The beta is set the brightness of the images and videos using pixels of the images.

The beta version is to operate and access the pixel values of the images and initialize with the matrix of the videos or images.

The latest beta versions are OpenCV – 3.0.0 beta and OpenCV – 4.0.0 beta.

3. OpenCV – 1.X Version

The OpenCV – 1.0 version released in the 2006.

The OpenCV – 1.0 is released in 2006 and OpenCV -1.1 version released in 2008.

It mainly focused on face detection and computational geometry using image processing.

The OpenCV – 1.0 version was used for motion templates for videos or images, SIFT features, and camera standardization.

It is focused on the Lucas – Kanade method for the movement of the image objects.

The OpenCV – 1.0 version is useful for decision-making trees, boosting methods of machine learning.

4. OpenCV – 2.X Version

The OpenCV-2.0 version released in the 2009.

The OpenCV 2.0 is based on the C++ library from 2009 – 2010.

The OpenCV – 2.3.0, OpenCV – 2.4.9, OpenCV – 2.4.10, OpenCV – 2.4.11, OpenCV – 2.4.12, and OpenCV – 2.4.13 are available for all browsers and operating system.

The OpenCV – 2.x version binding java and python automatically.

It is based on data structure, multidimensional array, linear and non-linear image filtering, and video analyst.

The OpenCV 2 version is used for geometrical image transformation like resize, color, space, etc.

The OpenCV 2 version focus on video motions modifying, background modification, and basic UI functions.

It was started with GPU acceleration for real-time applications in the computers.

 It was started to set the functions easily in machine learning.

It is using for Java API and android manager for images and video operations.

5. OpenCV – 3.X Version

 The OpenCV-3.0 version released in the 2024.

The OpenCV – 3.0.0, OpenCV – 3.1.0, OpenCV – 3.2.0, OpenCV – 3.3.0, OpenCV – 3.4.0, OpenCV – 3.4.12, and OpenCV – 3.4.13 are available for all browsers and operating system.

The OpenCV – 3.0.0 Alpha, OpenCV – 3.0.0 Beta, and OpenCV – 3.0.0 RC1 are available for all browsers and operating system.

It contains all basic functions with core, image processing, video input/output, image filtering, camera calibration, and video analysis.

It is used for machine learning with High-level GUI, video or image stabilization, and deep neural network module.

 3.x version is focused on 3D image object recognition, improve foreground and background segmentation of the images, medical images, and vision method.

It was started with deep RGB image processing and text recognition or detection.

It extends the image processing and object detection features and modules.

It starts super 3D visualization and better image resolutions using image pixels.

6. OpenCV – 4.X Version

The OpenCV-4.0 version released in the 2023.

The OpenCV – 4.0.0, OpenCV – 4.1.0, OpenCV – 4.1.1, OpenCV – 4.1.2, OpenCV – 4.2.0, OpenCV – 4.3.0, OpenCV – 4.4.0 and OpenCV – 4.5.0 are available for all browsers and operating system.

The OpenCV – 4.0.0 Alpha, OpenCV – 4.0.0 Beta, and OpenCV – 4.0.0 RC1 are available for all browsers and operating systems.

The OpenCV 4.x is based on C++ 11 library and the OpenCV – 1.x version has been removed.

The OpenCV 4.x is the store and load the data from XML and JSON files.

The OpenCV 4.x is added to the graph-based image processing pipeline (G-API).

The OpenCV 4.x is focused on QR code detecting and decoding using the “objdetect” module.

The OpenCV 4.x is supporting to the features of deep learning.

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