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Not to be confused with the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), FTTP stands for Fiber To The Premises. Broadband internet has historically been transmitted over copper cables. These are perfectly functional, but copper cable transmission suffers from distance-based signal degradation. The effect of signal degradation isn’t particularly severe over short distances.
Over medium to long distances, however, there is a drastic reduction in usable bandwidth. This wasn’t too much of an issue when copper cabling was used primarily for landline phone calls and slow dial-up internet. Still, even with large-scale infrastructure investment, copper cabling doesn’t offer high-speed connectivity over long distances from ISP network hubs to people’s homes.
A new transport medium was needed to enable higher bandwidth and internet speeds. Fiber optics offer an excellent alternative. Fiber cables can handle high bandwidth, run over long distances before needing a signal booster, and are immune to electromagnetic interference.
In 1977 the first urban fiber optic cable was laid in Turin as part of a test program. The first transatlantic fiber cable was laid in 1988. Since the late 1990s and early 2000s, national ISPs have been laying fiber optic cables to expand the bandwidth of their networks.The Problem of Scale
The main problem with rolling out fiber optic cables is scale. There are relatively few internet backbone cable runs. While these may need many cables and may be pretty long, the overall work to lay these cables isn’t too tricky. The problem comes as you expand the network further. Once the ISPs’ core networking hubs are connected, they’ve got to run fiber optic cables to nearby cities and towns. This requires many more cables to be run in many different areas. There aren’t that many cities, so even this process isn’t impossible.
Finally, the ISP needs to connect the fiber cables from the local network cabinet to each building or premises it serves. While one cabinet may not serve that many buildings, there are a lot of buildings across the country that need connecting. This goal of connecting a premise to the internet via fiber optic cable is called FTTP or Fibre To The Premise.Saving Graces
Thankfully this whole process doesn’t need to be carried out all at once, and each step increases the bandwidth available. This isn’t particularly noticeable to the end users in the early stages. Still, as the fiber connections get closer to the end user, the available speeds can increase noticeably.
For example, Fiber To The Neighbourhood FTTN, often meaning a mile of service radius, can generally provide internet speeds of 100Mb/s. Fibre To The Cabinet FTTC, often meaning a service radius of 300m or less, can usually offer half gigabit speeds. Though signal degradation can limit that near the edge of the range. Fibre To The Premises FTTP runs a fiber cable directly to a building.
Generally, buildings are small enough that signal degradation over electrical cabling is negligible, enabling gigabit connections or more. The building may be large enough to cause electrical signal degradation in large office and housing blocks. This can be countered by the building owner running fiber cables internally. Fiber connections within a building typically won’t be managed by an ISP. Large housing complexes like this may differentiate themselves further by claiming Fibre To The House or FTTH. This means they have fiber cable runs to each housing unit.Conclusion
Fiber To The Premises or FTTP is the end goal of the fiber optic infrastructure rollout. It minimizes the amount of electrical cabling used for Internet access which minimizes related losses and limitations, opening up the window for higher bandwidths. FTTP is a substantial infrastructure commitment and is essentially never rolled out equally.
Larger cities nearer to ISP network hubs are likely to be connected first, and small towns will likely be the last to be connected. Interestingly tiny villages near already connected cities may have an easier time getting FTTP as the extra investment is minimal compared to a town. Conversely, the return on that investment is also likely to be minimal. However, consumer goodwill may lead to a strong market share, even slightly inflated prices.
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In this post, we will see what the Close tab shortcut in Chrome and Firefox on a Windows PC. While working on a PC or laptop, keyboard shortcuts always make it easier for us to perform tasks quickly. They not only save us time but also enable us to work more efficiently. The Close tab shortcut is a keyboard shortcut you should know if you frequently work on web browsers.What is the Close tab shortcut in Chrome or Firefox on Windows 11?
There are built-in keyboard shortcuts for closing a tab in different browsers on Windows 11, including Chrome and Firefox browsers. Apart from these, there are ways to close multiple tabs or close all open tabs at once. The following sections will introduce you to various shortcuts that will help you exit the required tabs in your browser window.1] Keyboard shortcut to Close tab in Chrome or Firefox
To close a single tab in Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox (or any other browser for that matter) you may use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+W OR Ctrl+F4. The shortcuts also work in the browser incognito/private mode.
Go to the tab that you want to close and press the ‘Ctrl’ key on your keyboard. While you keep pressing the ‘Ctrl’ key, press the ‘W’ key. Release both keys once the tab is closed.
This shortcut is especially useful when you want to close the active tab. So while you’ve finished typing or reading on the webpage, you don’t need to use the mouse in order to close the tab. You may do this using a simple hotkey (‘Ctrl+W’ or ‘Ctrl+F4’).2] Middle mouse button shortcut to Close tab in Chrome or Firefox
Open a new browser tab, type about:config in the address bar, and press Enter.
While the extension works perfectly fine for most web pages, it may not work for a few pages, such as the Chrome Settings page or Chrome Web Store pages.4] Other ways to Close tabs in Chrome and Firefox
Interestingly, you can use shortcuts to close not just one tab, but multiple tabs, or all tabs or windows within your browser. Here are some other useful keyboard shortcuts for closing tabs in Chrome and Firefox:
To close all tabs or the current window in Chrome or Firefox, press Ctrl+Shift+W or Alt+F4.
To exit Chrome (close all windows), press Alt+F and then press X.
To exit Firefox (close all windows), press Ctrl+Shift+Q.
Apart from these, you may use the built-in options to close tabs, either to the right of a selected tab, to the left, or both, in Firefox or Chrome.
While these options are built-in in Firefox and Chrome, there’s no hotkey associated with them. They still act as shortcuts when it comes to closing multiple browser tabs at once.5] Undo Close tab
If you’ve mistakenly closed the wrong tab, you may undo close using the Ctrl+Shift+T keyboard shortcut in both Firefox and Chrome.
I hope this helps.
Also Read: How to confirm before closing multiple tabs in Chrome, Edge, and other browsers.What is Ctrl Shift N on Firefox?
The Ctrl+Shift+N hotkey can be used to reopen a closed window. If you’ve accidentally closed a window in the Firefox browser, you can undo the close action using the Ctrl+Shift+N keyboard shortcut. However, the shortcut works only if you have at least one browser window left open. If you’ve closed all the browser windows (or have exited Firefox), the shortcut will not work.How do I close a tab in Chrome without closing it?
Read Next: Create a shortcut to open the Firefox browser in Private Browsing Mode.
Windows 11/10 has been getting a lot of useful features. These features released are both consumer-based and developer-based. Along with this, they have not missed improvising the old features. One of these features is USB Selective Suspend feature.What is USB Selective Suspend feature in Windows?
In Windows OS, the Selective Suspend feature allows the system to save power by putting certain USB ports into a suspended mode. It lets the hub driver suspend a single port but does not affect the functioning of other ports. For instance, it’s similar to how users put their laptops or other devices in Sleep Mode – Selective Suspend is almost like that. The feature which makes it so interesting is that it can suspend a specific USB port individually, without affecting the power of the entire USB port. However, the driver for the USB device must support Selective Suspend for it to run right.
The USB Core Stack supports a modified revision of the Universal Serial Bus Specification and is called ‘selective suspend’. This allows the Hub Driver to suspend a port and help conserve the battery. Suspending services like Fingerprint Reader, etc., which are not required all the time, helps improve power consumption. The behavior of this feature is different for devices operating in Windows XP and kept improving in Windows Vista and later versions.
Users don’t really need this on a system that is already charging and can avail of the plug-in power whenever it needs to. This is why Windows lets users enable the USB Selective Suspend based on the computer’s plug-in or battery. But the Selective Suspend feature isn’t exactly a requirement on a desktop machine that is plugged into power. When a USB port is powered down, it doesn’t necessarily save that much of power on a desktop. That’s why Windows allows you to enable or disable USB Selective Suspend based on the computer being plugged in or on battery power. This feature is incredibly helpful in portable computers for power-saving purposes.How to enable or disable USB Selective Suspend
Some users have reported that at times the USB port does not get turned back on after Selective Suspend has been applied. Or sometimes even turns itself off without warning. To fix this, you need to disable the USB Selective Suspend feature on your system. Here’s how you can do it:
Related: USB Suspend:USB Device not Entering Selective SuspendVia Power Options
Open Control Panel on your Windows PC. To do this, search for Control Panel in the search box.
Now a new and more detailed box of Advanced power options will appear. There will be a menu that says USB Settings.
Expand that option, and you will find two sub-options there that will be labeled as On Battery and On Power.
You can choose to enable both of them individually as per your choice.
Related: Selective Suspend causes USB devices on USB hub to stop functioning.Using Windows Registry
To disable the Selective Suspend feature via the Registry Editor, do the following:
Since this is a registry operation, it is recommended that you back up the registry or create a system restore point as necessary precautionary measures. Once done, you can proceed as follows:
Press Windows key + R to invoke the Run dialog.
In the Run dialog box, type regedit and hit Enter to open Registry Editor.
Navigate or jump to the registry key path below:HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetServicesUSB
Input 1 in the Value data field.
Exit Registry Editor.
Restart your PC.
In our next post, we will see what you can do if the USB Selective Suspend is disabled.
The expense recognition principle is a concept in accounting that says when a business should recognize its expenses.
When a business wants to recognize expenses dictates whether it should use cash or accrual accounting.
The matching principle allows businesses to recognize expenses in the same period as the revenue associated with those expenses.
This article is for entrepreneurs and professionals interested in accounting software and practices.
Business owners need to spend money where they will get results, but how can you tell which expenses are generating a return on investment (ROI)? The expense recognition principle is an accounting tool in the business owner’s toolbox to identify expenses and any associated revenue related to those expenses. This information can help business owners better plan their investments to maximize their ROI and cut expenses that aren’t leading to performance.
Editor’s note: Looking for the right accounting software for your business? Fill out the below questionnaire to have our vendor partners contact you about your needs.What is the expense recognition principle?
The expense recognition principle is a concept that outlines when a business’s expenses are recognized in the company’s financials. Typically, the expense recognition principle involves expenses being recognized and recorded in the same period as the revenues associated with those expenses (under accrual accounting).
This method of accounting is a way for businesses to match expenses with the revenues related to those specific expenses (for example, commissions owed to employees for certain sales recorded when those sales happen, rather than later). Put another way, it shows the business using assets and converting them to expenses as their utility is expended.
The question of when expenses should be recognized represents the biggest difference between cash and accrual accounting. Instead of recognizing revenue and expenses in the same period, if a business instead recognizes expenses when they’re incurred, that means it’s using cash accounting.
Accrual accounting centers on the idea that expenses should be recognized during the same period as the revenue that the expenses are related to. When a company undertakes expenses to engage in some revenue-producing activity, the expense recognition principle says that those expenses should be reflected in the same period as the revenue derived from those expenses.How does the expense recognition principle work?
The expense recognition principle is a principle of accounting that helps businesses decide when and how to recognize expenses that they incur. Under the expense recognition principle, if work has been performed and you haven’t paid for it yet, you book it as an expense and accrue it as a liability. Conversely, if you have paid for something but haven’t received the associated benefit (revenue), you would book that benefit as an asset (a prepaid expense).
The bottom line is to match your business’s revenue and expenses in the same period.
On the other hand, businesses may choose to use the cash basis of accounting, wherein they recognize revenue or expenses when cash changes hands (whether going in or out) rather than when a transaction occurs.
When businesses recognize expenses is based on how they want to run their books – whether they want to take tax deductions earlier or later or if they want to try to match expenses with their associated revenues.
Businesses tend to prefer one accounting method or the other, and that will help decide which method they should use – assuming they have a choice. A lot of businesses are required to use accrual accounting.Example of the expense recognition principle
Let’s say a business incurred $50,000 in labor costs for the production of its products during the last quarter of 2023, but some of its employee paychecks weren’t sent out until after the last day of the year.
Based on the expense recognition principle, the company would still recognize those labor costs in 2023, since that’s when they were incurred. The work associated with those wages was performed in 2023, and the company benefited from that work in 2023, so the expense would be booked in 2023. The employee paychecks that hadn’t been cashed yet would simply be offset as a liability.
In cash accounting, on the other hand, the portion of wages not paid until after the first of the year wouldn’t be recognized until 2023. In this case, the company using cash accounting would get a delayed tax benefit by recognizing those wage expenses later. Also, there’d be misalignment between wages expenses and output created when employees were earning those wages.
In other cases, companies using cash accounting actually get tax benefits later. It depends on the transaction type and when money is changing hands.What are the methods to recognize expenses?
There are two methods that businesses can use for recognizing expenses: cash and accrual. There are rules and practices governing both types of accounting, including how to use them and who can use them. Each has its own benefits and drawbacks. If you want to use the expense recognition principle, though, accrual accounting is the better option.
CurrencyWhen are expenses recognized?When is revenue recognized?CashWhen paidWhen cash is receivedAccrualWhen incurredWhen transaction occursCash
Under cash accounting, income and expenses are recognized when cash changes hands, regardless of when the transaction happened. With cash accounting, the company isn’t focused on trying to match revenue and expenses in the same period; it is instead trying to keep in its accounting thorough records of the cash flow of its accounts.
Cash accounting is often preferred because it’s simpler and easier to use. In many cases, it lets companies get the tax benefits of deductible expenses earlier than it could under accrual accounting. This is because they book expenses when they’re paid rather than when revenue starts. But not all businesses are eligible to use cash accounting.Accrual
Unlike cash accounting, accrual accounting requires businesses to record income and expenses when transactions happen, rather than when cash changes hands. Many businesses are required to use accrual accounting, including those that make over $26 million in sales in any one year over a three-year period and businesses that make sales on credit.
Accrual accounting is important because it allows businesses to match revenues with their corresponding expenses. In this way, businesses that use accrual accounting can see how they convert assets into expenses in their financials. This also makes it easier for companies to gauge the profitability of particular activities in specific periods. For more info, check out our article on cash vs. accrual accounting.When to use the expense recognition principle
These are some examples of when businesses can benefit from accrual accounting and the expense recognition principle.
Salaries and wages: Accrual accounting lets businesses recognize wage expenses when work is performed, rather than when paychecks are cashed.
Sales commissions: If companies are paid commissions tied to sales, those commissions should be recognized when the sales occur.
Employee bonuses: Employee bonuses should be booked in the year the bonuses are earned, rather than when checks are issued.
Depreciation: Depreciation of assets needs to occur in the year the assets were used – and part of their utility expended.
Purchase of supplies: If a business buys supplies for use in production during a later period, that expense should be booked when the supplies are used, rather than when they’re purchased.
Liability for services provided: Once you’ve received the benefit of work performed – even if you haven’t paid for it yet – the expense recognition principle says to go ahead and incur those expenses and accrue them as liabilities for bills owed.
Thankfully, it’s very easy to track expenses and recognize them consistently using top accounting software. To learn about the leading options, check out our review of Intuit QuickBooks accounting software, our Zoho Books review, and our Oracle NetSuite accounting software review.
Whether you use cash or accrual accounting, accounting software lets you choose when to recognize expenses and recognize them consistently across time periods and lines of business.
You’ve identified your target prospective customers, are consistent with your content creation, and leverage different content types to promote your product or service. Your content strategy seems solid enough then, right?
The truth is, your content marketing efforts can, and should, always be evolving.
Just as marketing strategy best practices shift and adapt to current consumer behavior trends, so too should content marketing.
Your sales team has likely already mapped out a sales funnel to better understand what your target audience is thinking and doing at each stage of the purchasing journey.
You, too, can create a content marketing funnel to guide your ideal customers from the awareness stage to the conversion stage where they become actual customers.
In this post, we’ll explore what exactly a content marketing funnel is, how to create a successful content marketing funnel that converts, and the types of content pieces to include in each stage of the funnel.What Is A Content Marketing Funnel?
A content marketing funnel enables content marketers to visualize how to leverage existing content to attract potential customers and guide them through their journey until they reach the end goal.
This end goal may include a sale, a demo, a download, or another type of conversion.
A marketing funnel can provide brands with greater visibility into where they may have content gaps along the customer journey.
For example, if a brand has a considerable amount of content aimed at buyers in the awareness stage but not enough content in the decision stage, they may want to shift their efforts to creating more bottom-funnel content.How To Start Mapping Your Content Funnel
When reviewing each piece of content, you’ll then want to assign what stage of the buyer journey the content aligns with. These stages will include:
Top of the funnel (TOFU): Awareness stage. In this stage, potential customers are searching for information.
Middle of the funnel (MOFU): Interest and consideration stage. In these stages, potential customers are looking at your products or services and reading customer reviews. They may also present this information to key stakeholders.
Bottom of the funnel (BOFU): Intent, evaluation, and conversion stage. Buyers are ready to move forward with their purchasing decision.
As you can see by examining each stage individually, your target audience needs diverse pieces of content depending on where they are at.
Your funnel content can’t adopt a one-size-fits-all approach, or you won’t effectively reach potential buyers. Relevant content must be presented at each funnel stage.
Let’s explore the most effective types of content for each funnel stage.Top Funnel Content
The top of the funnel is where customers are gathering information to help guide them through the buyer journey.
At this stage, a customer is likely just getting familiar with your business and what you have to offer.
Here, you want to build a positive customer experience to show the buyer you’re worth engaging with further.
A study conducted by Semrush found the following types of TOFU content work best when attracting traffic.
“How-to” guide (72%).
Landing page (35%).
Ebook/white paper (26%).
Video tutorial (23%).
As you can see, most of these types of content are educational materials designed to provide more information in the awareness phase.
The primary goal of your content in this stage is to offer help, and it shouldn’t be too sales-oriented.Middle Funnel Content
Once your ideal customers reach the middle of the funnel, they’re no longer looking for surface-level, introductory content.
You’ll instead want to look towards creating content that nurtures prospective customers further down the funnel. They might be looking for customer stories, product reviews, or a how-to video.
Looking at the results from the same Semrush study, the following types of MOFU content work best when attracting traffic.
“How-to” guide (44%).
Product overview (40%).
Case study (34%).
Landing page (31%).
Success story (30%)
Consider these potential customers were likely already introduced to your brand during the discovery stage, and therefore should not be presented with discovery stage content. An effective content strategy entails personalizing content for your audience.
In fact, research shows 71% of consumers expect companies to deliver personalized interactions – and 76% get frustrated when this doesn’t happen.
If you’re not tailoring your content plan and content marketing formats to customers at every stage, you risk creating a poor customer experience with your business.Bottom Funnel Content
Once a potential customer has reached the bottom of the funnel, they’re seeking content that helps them finalize their purchase decision.
They’re looking to learn how your product or service will make their return on investment worthwhile and why you’re the better option than your competitor.
Because these customers are well beyond the awareness stage and looking to potentially convert, the type of content you present to them is crucial to building trust and, ultimately, completing the purchase.
The content you present during the consideration phase can make the difference between a conversion and a lost sale. The top-performing content types in the BOFU stage include:
Consider sharing success stories of current customers that are similar to your prospect at this stage of the funnel.
Other examples of content to include at this stage are email campaigns featuring positive customer testimonials and product collateral. Include special offers, free trials, or live demos, too.What To Do Once You’ve Assessed Your Content
Once you have a comprehensive view of the content that already exists for every stage of the journey, it’s time to identify where you have gaps.
You’ll also want to determine the types of content assets you need to create. For example, maybe you’ve identified you don’t have any how-to content for buyers in the awareness phase. Or, perhaps, you don’t have enough customer success stories.
After you’ve identified content gaps, it’s time to put together an editorial calendar to prioritize what you need to tackle first and when.
Your editorial calendar should be monitored daily to keep track of what you have in the queue, what’s coming up, the intended content audience for the piece, and where the piece falls in the content marketing funnel.
It may also be worthwhile to conduct a competitive analysis of your competitor’s content marketing strategy to identify opportunities for new additional content pieces and how you can make your content better.
You want both relevant and helpful content to meet Google’s Helpful Content System’s standards and create an optimal user experience.Conclusion
Having a comprehensive and cohesive content strategy is critical for creating a rewarding buying experience. Keep your audience in mind with each piece of content you create.
You’ll also want to have a thorough understanding of your target customer, how they think, what they are looking for, and how you can solve their problem.
An effective content marketing funnel takes time, testing, and patience to perfect, but it’s absolutely necessary to outshine your competitors and come out on top.
Featured Image: Vitalii Vodolazskyi/Shutterstock
In Windows 11/10/8/7, if you check Windows Task Manager at different intervals, you may notice that it sometimes contains a chúng tôi process running. When you hover your mouse over the process, it says Windows Volume Shadow Copy Service. It is not always running but is triggered by certain events to make a copy of your entire hard disk as a single or multiple sets depending on the number of disks you have. In this post, we will discuss (what is) Microsoft Volume Shadow Copy service in Windows and try to cover as many details as possible.Hard Disk Backup Vs Hard Disk Imaging
Most of us regularly back up our data files using some third-party program or MS-DOS commands like XCOPY. When we are backing up, our main intention is to create and retain the latest possible copies of our important data files. Thus, Hard Disk backup is mainly associated with data files.
On the contrary, we create an image of the entire hard disk or at least the system drive so that we can use it in the event of facing a corrupt operating system. The main reason behind disk imaging is that manually installing the operating system and then installing, configuring each application we use, takes up much time and effort. If you have an image of the system drive, we can simply boot using the device where the image is stored and restore the system drive so that it is usable again. Thus, disk imaging is more of backing up system files and properties rather than user data.
In short, you back up your data files, and you create an image of your system drive (program files/settings). When you restore using backed-up data, you get back the last backed-up data files. When you use imaging to restore your computer, you are copying back the program files, OS state, and properties – including the Windows registry and other databases/files relevant to the operating system.
Thus there is a difference between backing up data and creating a disk image. I hope I was able to clarify the difference here.
The Volume Shadow Copy service in Windows is relevant to disk imaging. The service is used to restore your computer – complete drive or a folder – to some previous state.Volume Shadow Copy in Windows 11/10
The VSS service is also used by third-party programs to create a disk image whenever you want. On its own, the VSS starts upon certain triggers, to create an image of the system drive and other disks/drives associated with the computer in question. If all the drive types are of the same type – i.e., NTFS, it takes a single snapshot. If the drives are of different types and maybe also from different makes or models, the VSS takes a series of snapshots for each type of drive. Be it a single snapshot or set of snapshots, they are stored in a well-protected area of your system drive and are assigned a unique ID (date-time stamp) with which, they can be used to restore entire system drive or a folder therein, to a previous state.
Remember that, for VSS to function, the system drive needs to be the NTFS type. It won’t work if you are still using FAT32. Anyway, post-Windows XP, the system drives have always been NTFS thereby allowing VSS to function without any problems.
According to Microsoft, VSS is defined as follows:
“The Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) is a set of COM interfaces that implements a framework to allow volume backups to be performed while applications on a system continue to write to the volumes.”
The definition stresses the fact that while other programs make you wait – sometimes for hours – for backing up data or imaging, the VSS takes few seconds (up to 60 seconds) to create an image of the system drive. The definition also specifies that you can continue working with other applications while VSS is running. In the case of backing up or imaging a computer drive using third-party programs, you have to wait until the operation is complete because you would not want to write to the hard disk drive that is being backed up.
Read: Use Vssadmin command-line to manage VSS.How does VSS Work
There are three important functions called by VSS to create a snapshot:
Freeze: For a moment, the Hard Disk is marked read-only so that nothing new can be written on it;
Snap: Imaging the drive with parameters necessary to reconstruct that snap whenever necessary in the future;
Unfreeze: Release the Hard Disk so that fresh data can be written to it. Since you continue to work while VSS is functioning, there may be another process that holds your input in some memory section until the Snap process is over.
The entire process is fast – so that you do not have to stop working. Going back to the definition, it takes up to a minute only to create a snapshot or a series of snapshots – depending upon the drive types and makes.
The Volume Shadow Copy Service in Windows provides two features:
It stays side by side with the existing, working volume without interfering or obstructing user applications;
It provides an API for third-party programs to create an image and to restore the volume or part thereof – to a previous state that is stored as a snapshot or a set of snapshots.
That means that most of the third-party programs that we use for imaging the hard disks, employ the VSS service. It also means that if the VSS service is stopped, some of the third-party programs will not function – i.e., they will not be able to create a disk image.
You can also use ShadowExplorer to access & restore Shadow Copies.
TIP: This post will help you if you face chúng tôi high disk usage issue.
Starting with Windows 8, Microsoft has introduced a feature called File History. File History saves copies of your Libraries, Desktop, Favorites, and Contacts so that you can get them back anytime if they are ever lost or damaged. While System Restore allows you to completely restore your computer to an earlier state, File History lets you restore your files and data from an earlier point in time.
Read next: The VSS service is shutting down due to idle timeout.
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