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What is Hacking?

Hacking is the activity of identifying weaknesses in a computer system or a network to exploit the security to gain access to personal data or business data. An example of computer hacking can be: using a password cracking algorithm to gain access to a computer system.

Computers have become mandatory to run a successful businesses. It is not enough to have isolated computers systems; they need to be networked to facilitate communication with external businesses. This exposes them to the outside world and hacking. System hacking means using computers to commit fraudulent acts such as fraud, privacy invasion, stealing corporate/personal data, etc. Cyber crimes cost many organizations millions of dollars every year. Businesses need to protect themselves against such attacks.

In this hacking tutorial, we will learn-

Before we learn hacking, let’s look at the introduction of hacking and some of the most commonly used terminologies in the world of hacking.

Who is a Hacker?

A Hacker is a person who finds and exploits the weakness in computer systems and/or networks to gain access. Hackers are usually skilled computer programmers with knowledge of computer security.

Types of Hackers

Hackers are classified according to the intent of their actions. The following list classifies types of hackers according to their intent:

Symbol Description

Ethical Hacker (White hat): A security hacker who gains access to systems with a view to fix the identified weaknesses. They may also perform penetration Testing and vulnerability assessments.

Cracker (Black hat): A hacker who gains unauthorized access to computer systems for personal gain. The intent is usually to steal corporate data, violate privacy rights, transfer funds from bank accounts etc.

Grey hat: A hacker who is in between ethical and black hat hackers. He/she breaks into computer systems without authority with a view to identify weaknesses and reveal them to the system owner.

Script kiddies: A non-skilled person who gains access to computer systems using already made tools.

Hacktivist: A hacker who use hacking to send social, religious, and political, etc. messages. This is usually done by hijacking websites and leaving the message on the hijacked website.

Phreaker: A hacker who identifies and exploits weaknesses in telephones instead of computers.

Introduction of Cybercrime

Cybercrime is the activity of using computers and networks to perform illegal activities like spreading computer viruses, online bullying, performing unauthorized electronic fund transfers, etc. Most cybercrime hacks are committed through the internet, and some cybercrimes are performed using Mobile phones via SMS and online chatting applications.

Type of Cybercrime

The following list presents the common types of cybercrimes:

Computer Fraud: Intentional deception for personal gain via the use of computer systems.

Privacy violation: Exposing personal information such as email addresses, phone number, account details, etc. on social media, hacking a websites, etc.

Identity Theft: Stealing personal information from somebody and impersonating that person.

Sharing copyrighted files/information: This involves distributing copyright protected files such as eBooks and computer programs etc.

Electronic funds transfer: This involves gaining an un-authorized access to bank computer networks and making illegal fund transfers.

Electronic money laundering: This involves the use of the computer to launder money.

ATM Fraud: This involves intercepting ATM card details such as account number and PIN numbers. These details are then used to withdraw funds from the intercepted accounts.

Denial of Service Attacks: This involves the use of computers in multiple locations to attack servers with a view of shutting them down.

What is Ethical Hacking?

Ethical Hacking is identifying weakness in computer systems and/or computer networks and coming with countermeasures that protect the weaknesses. Ethical hackers must abide by the following rules.

Get written permission from the owner of the computer system and/or computer network before hacking.

Protect the privacy of the organization been hacked.

Transparently report all the identified weaknesses in the computer system to the organization.

Inform hardware and software vendors of the identified weaknesses.

Why Ethical Hacking?

Information is one of the most valuable assets of an organization. Keeping information secure can protect an organization’s image and save an organization a lot of money.

Fake hacking can lead to loss of business for organizations that deal in finance such as PayPal. Ethical hacking puts them a step ahead of the cyber criminals who would otherwise lead to loss of business.

Legality of Ethical Hacking

Ethical Hacking is legal if the hacker abides by the rules stipulated in the above section on the definition of ethical hacking. The International Council of E-Commerce Consultants (EC-Council) provides a certification program that tests individual’s skills. Those who pass the examination are awarded with certificates. The certificates are supposed to be renewed after some time.


Hacking is identifying and exploiting weaknesses in computer systems and/or computer networks.

Cybercrime is committing a crime with the aid of computers and information technology infrastructure.

Ethical Hacking is about improving the security of computer systems and/or computer networks.

Ethical Hacking is legal.

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What Is Cyber Crime? How To Deal With It?

Any crime committed by means of or by using a computer and an internet connection or computer technology is known as Cyber Crime. There is not just a single aspect of the definition of cyber crime. The crime can be anything. It spans from malware injection to hacking to social-identity thefts and more. The scope of this article is to answer what is a cybercrime and how Microsoft deals with it.

What is Cyber crime – Definition & Explanation

Any crime to which, a computer, and the Internet or computer technology has been a part of, is known as Cyber crime. This is a very broad definition of cyber crime. If the use of any of the following activities is made, to carry out a crime – then it can be classified as a Cyber crime:


Stalking, Extortion, Blackmail, Bullying

Phishing. See how you can avoid Phishing Scams and Attacks



Exploiting vulnerabilities

Social Engineering and Identity Theft (Fake emails, fake phone conversions using data obtained from the Internet, to get more information about you and your bank, cards, etc.)

These are just the most basic aspects of cybercrime that I can recall at the time of writing. There are many more aspects to the illegal business – and in each instance of the illegal activity, there is one or more computers and/or an Internet connection involved. Such an attack committed with a view to commit a Cyber Crime can be called a Cyber Attack.

We will read more about this in our next post on Types of Cybercrime. You may want to also read about Organized and Unorganized Cybercrime.

Cyber crime incidence

Cyber crime is rampant!

There are nearly 400 million victims of cybercrime each year. And cybercrime costs consumers $113 billion per year. India, followed by Pakistan, Egypt, Brazil, Algeria and Mexico have the largest number of infected machines involving malware developed outside Eastern Europe.

Says Norton:

Cybercrime has now surpassed illegal drug trafficking as a criminal moneymaker

An identity is stolen every 3 seconds as a result of cybercrime

Without a sophisticated Internet security package, your Windows PC can become infected within 4 minutes of connecting to the Internet.

How to deal with Cyber crime – Prevention

Maintain good system hygiene. It goes without saying that you must have a fully updated operating system and installed software and a good security software to protect your computer – apart from having safe browsing habits.

Then, there may have been times when people may have contacted you claiming to be from a job portal or tech support or even your Bank and asked you for information initially and then maybe get you to make some payment for some imaginary service. Do not respond to such contacts. That is the first basic preventive step you can take.  There are many who would fall prey to it and yet won’t report the matter.

To fight cybercrime, you have to report it, in case you have fallen prey.  There is nothing to feel ashamed about! If an email or phone takes the aid of a known or popular service or brand, you should always alert the service or brand, that their name is being misused, so that they can take appropriate steps and at the least, alert their other customers to not fall prey.

Besides, if a cybercrime has made you suffer physical, mental, or financial loss, you can report it to the concerned department that every government has nowadays. Each country takes cybercrime seriously and has organizations that work actively to tackle the crime and to bring the criminals to justice.

If your system has fallen prey to a Botnet, you may want to have a look at some Botnet Removal Tools.

Report Cyber crime

If you are in the US, you can report to the Official Website of Department of Homeland Security. If it was a phone call or email, keep the logs and contents separately and securely as they will further help you. If it was a malware, you cannot do much except to hope that the organization, to which you have reported, comes up with some proper plan and takes some action.

The Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) is a partnership between the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the National White Collar Crime Center (NW3C). As a victim, you can report online Internet crime complaints here.

In case of spam, phishing, and social engineering attacks, you can keep the communications as a proof, but in case of malware attacks which may have compromised your system, you do not know who the criminal is and hence you can’t progress much in the fight, on your own.

This is where Microsoft’s Cybercrime Security Cell comes in. It is Microsoft’s own way of fighting cybercrime and the idea is to prevent the crime from happening rather than waking up after the crime has been committed.

How Microsoft helps reduce Cyber crime

Microsoft says that the first step towards fighting cybercrime is to use secure, reliable and honest IT (Information Technology spanning from firmware to operating system to the cloud). While it is true that a well-protected computer would reduce the chances of it getting hacked, it is also true that many computers come with pre-installed malware. That is why Microsoft used the word “honest”. You may not believe that many computers have pirated software installed on them, and in a way that they give false positives so that users believe the software is genuine. There are not many methods to detect the fake software (except for manual forensic methods) and these software are often bundled with malware that sends your information to the cyber criminals who created the fake software.

The Cybercrime page of Microsoft says that in a sample they tested, almost 90% of computers using pirated operating systems or pirated software had the malware preinstalled. That means new Windows PCs were already infected and designed to send your personal information to the cyber criminals.

Microsoft has a huge cybercrime research cell which works in two ways:

Fight the malware that is utilized by criminals via spambots etc.

Gather information that helps them make better software for their cloud etc. platforms.

Microsoft has tapped the thousands of spambots originating from cybercriminals and led them to an artificial sink or honey pots, so that computers across the world, especially in the East Asia-Pacific region are safe. According to their study, most of the infected computers are found in countries situated in East Asia and outside Europe. However, they, sitting at Redmond, are running an analysis all the while to counter whatever type of malware they can detect, and stop them from spreading any further to contain the damage.

Using pirated software leaves your computer systems more open to malicious computer viruses, worms and Trojans? Or that as many as 65% of DVDs and PCs sold with pirated software in India are already pre-infected with malware that facilitates cybercrime?!

These were some of the explosive findings of Microsoft India’s Truthlabs report

About 65 percent of the samples had more than one category of malware.

Auto-Dialer Trojans, which can cause huge financial losses, were found in 100 percent of the samples.

90 percent of the samples in the form of DVDs gave false-positive results in Anti-Piracy

Check tests

, thereby cheating users to believe the installed product to be a genuine one.

In the words of Keshav Dhakad, Regional Director of Intellectual Property & Digital Crimes Unit (DCU), Asia, Legal & Corporate Affairs, Microsoft,

“With fighting malware and cybercrime, we also want cybercriminals to know that Microsoft platforms will always remain hostile to their nefarious activities, and we will continue to invest in innovative technology and tools to enable us to fight newer threats to protect our customers. That’s where we’ve been successful in creating a secure, trusted and reliable environment-be it on-premise or on the cloud”.

Microsoft not only is building and rebuilding its software, but it also warns cyber criminals against creating cyber bots and malware. According to Keshav, Windows 11/10 is one platform that has the highest security features, and that Microsoft technology-based cloud services have also safeguarded their clouds based on the inputs they gathered from their cybercrime cell.

Related: Online Fraud in Cyber crime: Prevention, Detection, Recovery.

What Is Data Analysis? Research, Types & Example

What is Data Analysis?

Data analysis is defined as a process of cleaning, transforming, and modeling data to discover useful information for business decision-making. The purpose of Data Analysis is to extract useful information from data and taking the decision based upon the data analysis.

A simple example of Data analysis is whenever we take any decision in our day-to-day life is by thinking about what happened last time or what will happen by choosing that particular decision. This is nothing but analyzing our past or future and making decisions based on it. For that, we gather memories of our past or dreams of our future. So that is nothing but data analysis. Now same thing analyst does for business purposes, is called Data Analysis.

In this Data Science Tutorial, you will learn:

Why Data Analysis?

To grow your business even to grow in your life, sometimes all you need to do is Analysis!

If your business is not growing, then you have to look back and acknowledge your mistakes and make a plan again without repeating those mistakes. And even if your business is growing, then you have to look forward to making the business to grow more. All you need to do is analyze your business data and business processes.

Data Analysis Tools

Data Analysis Tools

Data analysis tools make it easier for users to process and manipulate data, analyze the relationships and correlations between data sets, and it also helps to identify patterns and trends for interpretation. Here is a complete list of

Types of Data Analysis: Techniques and Methods

There are several types of Data Analysis techniques that exist based on business and technology. However, the major Data Analysis methods are:

Text Analysis

Statistical Analysis

Diagnostic Analysis

Predictive Analysis

Prescriptive Analysis

Text Analysis

Data analysis tools make it easier for users to process and manipulate data, analyze the relationships and correlations between data sets, and it also helps to identify patterns and trends for interpretation. Here is a complete list of tools used for data analysis in research.

Text Analysis is also referred to as Data Mining. It is one of the methods of data analysis to discover a pattern in large data sets using databases or data mining tools. It used to transform raw data into business information. Business Intelligence tools are present in the market which is used to take strategic business decisions. Overall it offers a way to extract and examine data and deriving patterns and finally interpretation of the data.

Statistical Analysis

Statistical Analysis shows “What happen?” by using past data in the form of dashboards. Statistical Analysis includes collection, Analysis, interpretation, presentation, and modeling of data. It analyses a set of data or a sample of data. There are two categories of this type of Analysis – Descriptive Analysis and Inferential Analysis.

Descriptive Analysis

analyses complete data or a sample of summarized numerical data. It shows mean and deviation for continuous data whereas percentage and frequency for categorical data.

Inferential Analysis

Diagnostic Analysis

Diagnostic Analysis shows “Why did it happen?” by finding the cause from the insight found in Statistical Analysis. This Analysis is useful to identify behavior patterns of data. If a new problem arrives in your business process, then you can look into this Analysis to find similar patterns of that problem. And it may have chances to use similar prescriptions for the new problems.

Predictive Analysis

Predictive Analysis shows “what is likely to happen” by using previous data. The simplest data analysis example is like if last year I bought two dresses based on my savings and if this year my salary is increasing double then I can buy four dresses. But of course it’s not easy like this because you have to think about other circumstances like chances of prices of clothes is increased this year or maybe instead of dresses you want to buy a new bike, or you need to buy a house!

So here, this Analysis makes predictions about future outcomes based on current or past data. Forecasting is just an estimate. Its accuracy is based on how much detailed information you have and how much you dig in it.

Prescriptive Analysis

Prescriptive Analysis combines the insight from all previous Analysis to determine which action to take in a current problem or decision. Most data-driven companies are utilizing Prescriptive Analysis because predictive and descriptive Analysis are not enough to improve data performance. Based on current situations and problems, they analyze the data and make decisions.

Data Analysis Process

The Data Analysis Process is nothing but gathering information by using a proper application or tool which allows you to explore the data and find a pattern in it. Based on that information and data, you can make decisions, or you can get ultimate conclusions.

Data Analysis consists of the following phases:

Data Requirement Gathering

Data Collection

Data Cleaning

Data Analysis

Data Interpretation

Data Visualization

Data Requirement Gathering

First of all, you have to think about why do you want to do this data analysis? All you need to find out the purpose or aim of doing the Analysis of data. You have to decide which type of data analysis you wanted to do! In this phase, you have to decide what to analyze and how to measure it, you have to understand why you are investigating and what measures you have to use to do this Analysis.

Data Collection

After requirement gathering, you will get a clear idea about what things you have to measure and what should be your findings. Now it’s time to collect your data based on requirements. Once you collect your data, remember that the collected data must be processed or organized for Analysis. As you collected data from various sources, you must have to keep a log with a collection date and source of the data.

Data Cleaning

Now whatever data is collected may not be useful or irrelevant to your aim of Analysis, hence it should be cleaned. The data which is collected may contain duplicate records, white spaces or errors. The data should be cleaned and error free. This phase must be done before Analysis because based on data cleaning, your output of Analysis will be closer to your expected outcome.

Data Analysis

Once the data is collected, cleaned, and processed, it is ready for Analysis. As you manipulate data, you may find you have the exact information you need, or you might need to collect more data. During this phase, you can use data analysis tools and software which will help you to understand, interpret, and derive conclusions based on the requirements.

Data Interpretation

Data Visualization

Data visualization is very common in your day to day life; they often appear in the form of charts and graphs. In other words, data shown graphically so that it will be easier for the human brain to understand and process it. Data visualization often used to discover unknown facts and trends. By observing relationships and comparing datasets, you can find a way to find out meaningful information.


Data analysis means a process of cleaning, transforming and modeling data to discover useful information for business decision-making

Types of Data Analysis are Text, Statistical, Diagnostic, Predictive, Prescriptive Analysis

Data Analysis consists of Data Requirement Gathering, Data Collection, Data Cleaning, Data Analysis, Data Interpretation, Data Visualization

What Is A Marketing Plan And Its Types?

A marketing plan is a must-have for any business, as it helps keep track of all the details of a campaign. It will allow you to think of each aspect of a campaign in an organized manner, and it will also help you identify areas where you can improve. This will allow you to make informed decisions and improve the effectiveness of your marketing efforts.

What is a Marketing Plan?

It is basically a process that a company uses to develop its marketing strategy to promote its products to its target market. It includes the various elements of the campaign, such as the brand’s value proposition, the launch of the campaign, and the measurement of the effectiveness of the marketing efforts. The plan should be adjusted periodically based on the results of the evaluation.

Types of Marketing Plan

Although a single plan is ideal, it’s also important to consider the different kinds of businesses when it comes to planning. Having a distinct plan can help you identify the goals and objectives of each plan.

Quarterly or Annual Marketing Plans

A long-term marketing plan is a strategy that outlines the goals and actions that an organization will take over a certain period of time. It involves conducting deep research into the market conditions and coming up with a set of strategies that are geared towards achieving those goals. This process is carried out by the top management team of the company. It is based on their precise predictions and the risks that they are taking into account.

Social Media Marketing Plan

A successful book launch is an example of how social media and content marketing can be used to promote a product or service. Using data to improve your social strategy can help spread the word about your book and attract more potential customers.

Time-based Marketing Plan

A time-based marketing strategy is a type of strategy that focuses on the company’s current condition and best practices during a specific period.

Content Marketing Plan

A content marketing plan is a framework that will allow you to create and distribute content that will help promote your business. It can be used by both the marketing and sales teams, and it can be used to create and manage multiple types of content. Whether you are a small company or a global organization, you will most likely start using content to market your services or products. Having a plan will allow you to keep everyone on the same page and focused on the same goals.

Importance of a Marketing Plan

The process of marketing planning is an analytical exercise that can be used to develop a company’s marketing strategy. It can be associated with a company’s strategic business units or its whole organization. It provides a comprehensive view of a company’s future strategies, with a particular focus on its product expansion and sales promotion. Some of the common benefits are −

Through marketing planning, people can achieve their goals more quickly.

It can also help minimize the risks associated with failure.

It helps decrease the conflicting results of bad situations that arise outside the control of management.

The process of marketing planning allows a company to have a better view of its overall operations. It also helps with coordination among various departments.

The process of marketing planning can stimulate the alertness of individuals to make changes. It is comparable to the marketing sense that the business unit desires to achieve.

The marketing planning process is an organized process that involves gathering information about resources, developing marketing goals, and implementing strategies. It is performed in a circular manner and involves assessments to align all the elements of the plan. Hence, it is one of the most important things to implement in your business.


After you have a good understanding of the steps, it’s time to start implementing them. Having a plan will allow you to create and distribute content effectively. One of the most important steps that you should take is to document your strategy. You can download a content planner that will help you create and distribute content, as well as a variety of other free templates and tools.

Introduction And Installation Of Svelte

Svelte is the new method to create web applications, it can be used from a small part of the code to the complete page web application. Svelte is not a framework, it is a compiler that is much faster as compared to the other libraries of JavaScript such as Angular JS, chúng tôi and React JS. The main purpose of the Svelte is to create reactive web applications and provides the functionality that if any change comes in the data, that will reflect on the page rapidly and will not take much time.

Introduction to Svelte

As we have seen in the opening paragraph, Svelte is the new method to create web applications and it can be used from a small part of the code to the complete page web application which makes it easy to use for the RAD (Rapid application development). RAD means to produce quickly small coded applications for software and used in web optimization. The main thing that distinguishes between other technologies and the svelte is that it does not use the virtual DOM and it is free of cost of use.

Code for production is compiled at the time of the execution by svelte into a vanilla JavaScript bundle. Unlike other libraries, users don’t need to deploy Svlete over the internet for deploying their applications over the internet. These all points make fast execution possible while using the Svelte.


There are some technologies that are required to be present in the system or the computer before the user uses the Svelte on the local machine. These prerequisites are −

A text editor, for example, atom, sublime text 3, etc.

Node.js is installed in the local PC because chúng tôi is the Building block to run the Svelte.

Installation of Svelte

After getting the prerequisites, now we are ready to go for the installation of the Svelte. We will move in the steps to get a better understanding −

Step 1 − In the command prompt or the terminal type the given command −

npm install -g degit

Degit is a package that allows users to simply clone the previous commit from the GitHub repository.

Step 2 − The next step is to create a new directory on the local pc then run the command given below

degit sveltejs/template project_name

By this command degit will go to the sveltejs(repository) and will find the template to download it in the local pc for the user in the project named project_name.

Step 3 − Now we have completed the basics and for the next step we have to open our text editor in that, under the project_name folder we have our src folder, which will contain the chúng tôi file, this file is mainly used to execute the user’s svelte app. Here, two more files are present that are App.svelte and package.json, chúng tôi file contains all the dependencies which are required to be installed, and another file will that is App.svelte is the root component of an application.

Step 4 − In this step, the user has to install all the dependencies, and the point to look over here is to install all dependencies in the folder with the current project which is the project_name folder.

npm install

Run the above command in the terminal.

With all these commands a user can start the application based on the Svelte.

Uses of Svelte

Svelte can be used to construct both standalone programs and specific interface components. Using Svelte, you can either create your UI from start or progressively integrate it into an application that currently exists.

Svelte is most suited to handle the following situations, though −

Svelte-built applications have smaller bundle sizes, making them ideal for gear with slow network connections and poor processing power. Web apps made for low-power hardware. Less code means fewer memory-intensive KBs to download, parse, and execute.

Highly interactive websites or complex visualizations: If you’re creating data visualizations that need to display a lot of DOM elements, performance gains from a framework with little runtime overhead will ensure that user interactions are swift and responsive.

Users with no prior web development knowledge can easily onboard with Svelte thanks to its fast learning curve. The complexities of Svelte are easily understood by web developers who have a basic understanding of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

Basic Working of Svelte

Because Svelte is a compiler, it can extend HTML, CSS, and JavaScript and generate the optimal JavaScript code with no runtime cost. To do this, Svelte expands on existing web technologies in the following ways −

It extends HTML by allowing JavaScript expressions in markup and providing directives that use conditions and loops in a style similar to handlebars.

It broadens CSS and enables each component to express its own styles without worrying about them clashing with those of other components by supplying a scoping mechanism.

It extends JavaScript by reinterpreting a number of the language’s directives in order to achieve true responsiveness and streamline component state management.

The compiler only intervenes when Svelte components are implicated and only in extremely specific situations. Extensions to the JavaScript language are kept to a minimum and are carefully selected in order to prevent disrupting JavaScript syntax or alienating developers. Actually, the majority of the time you will be utilizing normal JavaScript.

Structure of Application

First, we will get the file moz-todo-svelte, which will contain the −, package.json, package-lock.json,rollup, chúng tôi .gitignore, node_modules, public.

public will further contain the −

favicon.png, index.html, global.css,build, chúng tôi chúng tôi ,

Scripts, that will further contain the setup TypeScript.js

src that will contain the App.svelte and main.js


In this tutorial, we have learned about the introduction and installation of the svelte. Svelte is the new method to create web applications, it can be used from a small part of the code to the complete page web application. Svelte is not a framework, it is a compiler that is much faster as compared to the other libraries of JavaScript such as AngularJS, chúng tôi and React JS. Code for production is compiled at the time of the execution by svelte into a vanilla JavaScript bundle.

What Is Hashing In Cybersecurity? Learn The Benefits And Types

blog / Cybersecurity Want to Know What is Hashing in Cybersecurity? The Ultimate Guide

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To safeguard its data, any organization must prevent malware attacks. A crucial way of doing this is for businesses to implement hashing algorithms in their cyber systems to ensure security. We look closely at what is hashing in cybersecurity, its purpose, and other associated details. 

What is Hashing in Cybersecurity?

In computer science and cryptography, a hash function is a deterministic procedure that takes an input (or “message”) and returns a string of characters of a fixed size—which is usually a “digest”—that is unique to the input. 

A hash function is used in many cybersecurity algorithms and protocols, such as password storage and digital signature. Hashing is also used in a data structure, such as a hash table (a data structure that stores data), for a quick search and insertion.

The Purpose of Hashing

Learning the answer to the question about what is hashing in cybersecurity can help a professional use hashing algorithms for data encryption and data security. Cybersecurity professionals convert a large block of input data using the hashing algorithm into a smaller fixed-length string as the final output. 

Businesses always want to secure their data servers and cloud storage systems from vulnerabilities to malicious software. Hashing helps cybersecurity professionals ensure that the data stored on servers and cloud storage systems remains unreadable by hackers.

What is Hashing Used for?

Hashing is a one-way function that turns a file or string of text into a unique digest of the message. The hash value is calculated by a hashing algorithm using the binary data of a particular file. Now let’s look at the different uses that hashing has in cybersecurity. 

Storage Password

Hashes provide security to an organization’s cyber system so that hackers cannot steal it; for example, email passwords stored on servers.

Digital Signatures

Hashing is a way to encrypt and decrypt digital signatures, verifying the message’s sender and receiver.

Document Management

The authenticity of data can be verified with the use of hashing algorithms. When a document is entirely written, the cybersecurity specialist will use a hash to secure it.

File Management

Businesses use hashes to index data, recognize files, and erase duplicate files. An organization can save significant time utilizing hashes when working with a cyber system with thousands of files.

A Hashing Example

Suppose you are a cybersecurity professional and wish to digitally sign a piece of software before making it accessible for download on your website. To do so, you will generate a hash of the script or a software application you are signing and then generate another hash after adding your digital signature. Then, the whole thing is encoded in a way that makes it possible to download it.

Types of Hashing in Cybersecurity

As a cybersecurity professional, you can select from a wide variety of different types of hashing. Some of the most widely used for decryption are described below:

1. MD5

The Message Digest hashing algorithm’s fifth iteration is MD5, which creates a 128-bit hash function.

2. SHA-1

SHA-1, the first iteration of the Secure Hash Algorithm, generates a hash function output that is 160 bits long. This SHA is one of the primary hashing algorithms used by professionals in the field of computer science.

3. SHA-2

SHA-2 is not just one hashing algorithm. Instead, it is a group of four algorithms: SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA-512. The name of each hashing algorithm is the same as the bit output it generates.

4. CRC32

The CRC32 hashing algorithm uses a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) as its primary method for identifying unauthorized changes to data that has been saved. When data is encoded using CRC32, the output hash value will always be of a consistent length. Hashing is performed with the CRC32 method on Zip file formats and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) servers.

ALSO READ: What is Cybersecurity and Why is it a Great Career Choice for You

Benefits of Hashing in Cybersecurity

Hashes are helpful for cybersecurity professionals to discover a threat on a computer system. It also helps them to investigate the entire cyber network to determine whether or not a particular file is present. The following pointers will further help you understand why hashing is essential in cybersecurity.

Hashing is a technique used in database management systems to search for the location of data without making use of an index structure

It makes it easy to determine whether or not two files in a computer system are the same

The retrieval and processing of data can be done very quickly with hash tables 

Hash gives a consistent amount of time on average for performing operations such as searching, inserting, and deleting data

Limitations of Hashing in Cybersecurity

Let’s also look at some drawbacks of using hashing in cybersecurity.

Hash algorithms cannot process null values (where the value is missing)

The implementation of hash tables can be difficult

When there are a large number of collisions (two data pieces in a hash table sharing the same hash value), hash becomes inefficient

Common Hashing Algorithms LANMAN

The Microsoft LAN Manager hashing algorithm, more commonly referred to as LANMAN, is primarily responsible for storing passwords.


The NT LAN Manager hashing algorithm is another name for the NTLM, which goes by both names. NTLM is quickly replacing LANMAN as the standard authentication method because of its ability to generate password hashes.


It is a hashing algorithm that uses much computing processing power and takes a long time to make a hash compared to other algorithms.


The Ethereum network developed and deployed a proof-of-work mining algorithm known as Ethash to ensure the integrity of the blockchain.

Hashing vs. Encryption

Significant differences between hashing and encryption are visible in their respective functionalities.


Encryption is a two-way process using an encryption key to scramble information. In contrast, a decryption key is used to unscramble the information after it has been encrypted by a user. On the other hand, hashing is a one-way function that turns a file or string of text into a unique digest of the message.


Data is mapped to an output of fixed size using hash functions, referred to as hashing. It is employed to confirm the integrity of files containing data. In the case of encryption, the message is encrypted so that only those users with the proper authorization can read it.

Primary Function

Verification of data and ensuring its integrity is the primary goal of hashing. On the other hand, encryption’s primary function is to ensure the confidentiality of data transmission by providing efficient protection facilities.

Gain a Deeper Insight Into Cybersecurity

Hashing in cybersecurity is a convenient option to prevent security threats to your system. To get the knowledge to do so, along with learning more about other aspects of cybersecurity, enroll in the online cybersecurity courses offered by Emeritus. It will not only help you gain expertise in hashing algorithms but also help you build a career in this specialization. 

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