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What is chúng tôi & How to Quickly Close it? All the information you need on this important process




The chúng tôi process allows you to control your desktop remotely from another computer.

If this process is causing issues on your PC, you can disable it on Task Manager.

Performing a malware scan can also be helpful if the process is using too much resources.



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The chúng tôi process is otherwise known as Windows VNC Server. This process is particularly important for users that use remote servers.

However, many users don’t know what the process does when it pops up on Task Manager. In this guide, we will detail everything you need to know about the process and how to stop it.

What is the use of WinVNC EXE?

The chúng tôi process is a Windows default process that allows you to control your desktop remotely. This can be done over a network or across the internet.

This process will be active when you are using any VNC-related software. One thing to note is that this process is completely safe since it is a system file.

However, we cannot rule out the fact that viruses can disguise as this process. So, you might encounter some issues with it at times.

How can I quickly close winvnc.exe? 1. End the process in Task Manager

If you are not running any VNC-related software and or the chúng tôi process is registering high CPU usage, you can end the process in Task Manager. Also, if you have multiple instances of the process running, ensure to close them.

2. Uninstall the VNC-related software

If you don’t want to see the chúng tôi process for a while, you can uninstall any VNC-related software like UltraVNC on your PC. In as much as you are not running this software, the process should not run.

3. Scan for malware

Malware activities on your PC can be the cause of issues related to chúng tôi especially if it is using too much of your PC resources. Performing a full malware scan should help you get rid of the virus disguising as the process.

4. Perform a system restore

If everything else fails to stop the chúng tôi process from running on your PC, you need to perform a system restore. This will help reverse the changes made to your PC that are causing the process to misbehave.

With this, we can now conclude this detailed guide on the chúng tôi process. This process is integral to your PC. So, you shouldn’t remove it.

But if you want to close the process or it is causing problems on your PC, the solutions in this guide should help you resolve it.

If you want to know about the chúng tôi process, check our detailed guide for all verified information.

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What Is Peer Review?

Peer review, sometimes referred to as refereeing, is the process of evaluating submissions to an academic journal. Using strict criteria, a panel of reviewers in the same subject area decides whether to accept each submission for publication.

Peer-reviewed articles are considered a highly credible source due to the stringent process they go through before publication.

There are various types of peer review. The main difference between them is to what extent the authors, reviewers, and editors know each other’s identities. The most common types are:

Relatedly, peer assessment is a process where your peers provide you with feedback on something you’ve written, based on a set of criteria or benchmarks from an instructor. They then give constructive feedback, compliments, or guidance to help you improve your draft.

What is the purpose of peer review?

Many academic fields use peer review, largely to determine whether a manuscript is suitable for publication. Peer review enhances the credibility of the manuscript. For this reason, academic journals are among the most credible sources you can refer to.

However, peer review is also common in non-academic settings. The United Nations, the European Union, and many individual nations use peer review to evaluate grant applications. It is also widely used in medical and health-related fields as a teaching or quality-of-care measure.

Peer assessment is often used in the classroom as a pedagogical tool. Both receiving feedback and providing it are thought to enhance the learning process, helping students think critically and collaboratively.

Types of peer review

Depending on the journal, there are several types of peer review.

Single-blind peer review

The most common type of peer review is single-blind (or single anonymized) review. Here, the names of the reviewers are not known by the author.

Double-blind peer review

In double-blind (or double anonymized) review, both the author and the reviewers are anonymous.

Triple-blind peer review

While triple-blind (or triple anonymized) review—where the identities of the author, reviewers, and editors are all anonymized—does exist, it is difficult to carry out in practice.

Proponents of adopting triple-blind review for journal submissions argue that it minimizes potential conflicts of interest and biases. However, ensuring anonymity is logistically challenging, and current editing software is not always able to fully anonymize everyone involved in the process.

Collaborative review

In collaborative review, authors and reviewers interact with each other directly throughout the process. However, the identity of the reviewer is not known to the author. This gives all parties the opportunity to resolve any inconsistencies or contradictions in real time, and provides them a rich forum for discussion. It can mitigate the need for multiple rounds of editing and minimize back-and-forth.

Collaborative review can be time- and resource-intensive for the journal, however. For these collaborations to occur, there has to be a set system in place, often a technological platform, with staff monitoring and fixing any bugs or glitches.

Open review

Lastly, in open review, all parties know each other’s identities throughout the process. Often, open review can also include feedback from a larger audience, such as an online forum, or reviewer feedback included as part of the final published product.

What can proofreading do for your paper?

Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words, and awkward phrasing.

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The peer review process

In general, the peer review process includes the following steps:

First, the author submits the manuscript to the editor.

The editor can either:

Reject the manuscript and send it back to the author, or

Send it onward to the selected peer reviewer(s)

Lastly, the edited manuscript is sent back to the author. They input the edits and resubmit it to the editor for publication.

Note: While this is generally the process, each journal has a slightly different peer review process. If you’re interested in publishing in a particular journal, make sure to read their peer review guidelines carefully!

In an effort to be transparent, many journals are now disclosing who reviewed each article in the published product. There are also increasing opportunities for collaboration and feedback, with some journals allowing open communication between reviewers and authors.

Providing feedback to your peers

It can seem daunting at first to conduct a peer review or peer assessment. If you’re not sure where to start, there are several best practices you can use.

Summarize the argument in your own words

Summarizing the main argument helps the author see how their argument is interpreted by readers, and gives you a jumping-off point for providing feedback. If you’re having trouble doing this, it’s a sign that the argument needs to be clearer, more concise, or worded differently.

If the author sees that you’ve interpreted their argument differently than they intended, they have an opportunity to address any misunderstandings when they get the manuscript back.

Separate your feedback into major and minor issues

It can be challenging to keep feedback organized. One strategy is to start out with any major issues and then flow into the more minor points. It’s often helpful to keep your feedback in a numbered list, so the author has concrete points to refer back to.

Major issues typically consist of any problems with the style, flow, or key points of the manuscript. Minor issues include spelling errors, citation errors, or other smaller, easy-to-apply feedback.

Tip: Try not to focus too much on the minor issues. If the manuscript has a lot of typos, consider making a note that the author should address spelling and grammar issues, rather than going through and fixing each one.

The best feedback you can provide is anything that helps them strengthen their argument or resolve major stylistic issues.

Give the type of feedback that you would like to receive

No one likes being criticized, and it can be difficult to give honest feedback without sounding overly harsh or critical. One strategy you can use here is the “compliment sandwich,” where you “sandwich” your constructive criticism between two compliments.

Be sure you are giving concrete, actionable feedback that will help the author submit a successful final draft. While you shouldn’t tell them exactly what they should do, your feedback should help them resolve any issues they may have overlooked.

As a rule of thumb, your feedback should be:

Easy to understand



Peer review example

Below is a brief annotated research example. You can view examples of peer feedback by hovering over the highlighted sections.

Studies show that teens from the US are getting less sleep than they were a decade ago (Johnson, 2023). On average, teens only slept for 6 hours a night in 2023, compared to 8 hours a night in 2011. Johnson mentions several potential causes, such as increased anxiety, changed diets, and increased phone use.

The current study focuses on the effect phone use before bedtime has on the number of hours of sleep teens are getting.

For this study, a sample of 300 teens was recruited using social media, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat. The first week, all teens were allowed to use their phone the way they normally would, in order to obtain a baseline.

The sample was then divided into 3 groups:

Group 1 was not allowed to use their phone before bedtime.

Group 2 used their phone for 1 hour before bedtime.

Group 3 used their phone for 3 hours before bedtime.

All participants were asked to go to sleep around 10 p.m. to control for variation in bedtime. In the morning, their Fitbit showed the number of hours they’d slept. They kept track of these numbers themselves for 1 week.

This shows that teens sleep fewer hours a night if they use their phone for over an hour before bedtime, compared to teens who use their phone for 0 to 1 hours.

Advantages of peer review

Peer review is an established and hallowed process in academia, dating back hundreds of years. It provides various fields of study with metrics, expectations, and guidance to ensure published work is consistent with predetermined standards.

Protects the quality of published research

Peer review can stop obviously problematic, falsified, or otherwise untrustworthy research from being published. Any content that raises red flags for reviewers can be closely examined in the review stage, preventing plagiarized or duplicated research from being published.

Gives you access to feedback from experts in your field

Peer review represents an excellent opportunity to get feedback from renowned experts in your field and to improve your writing through their feedback and guidance. Experts with knowledge about your subject matter can give you feedback on both style and content, and they may also suggest avenues for further research that you hadn’t yet considered.

Helps you identify any weaknesses in your argument

Peer review acts as a first defense, helping you ensure your argument is clear and that there are no gaps, vague terms, or unanswered questions for readers who weren’t involved in the research process. This way, you’ll end up with a more robust, more cohesive article.

Criticisms of peer review

While peer review is a widely accepted metric for credibility, it’s not without its drawbacks.

Reviewer bias

The more transparent double-blind system is not yet very common, which can lead to bias in reviewing. A common criticism is that an excellent paper by a new researcher may be declined, while an objectively lower-quality submission by an established researcher would be accepted.

Delays in publication

The thoroughness of the peer review process can lead to significant delays in publishing time. Research that was current at the time of submission may not be as current by the time it’s published. There is also high risk of publication bias, where journals are more likely to publish studies with positive findings than studies with negative findings.

Risk of human error

By its very nature, peer review carries a risk of human error. In particular, falsification often cannot be detected, given that reviewers would have to replicate entire experiments to ensure the validity of results.

Other interesting articles

If you want to know more about statistics, methodology, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

Frequently asked questions about peer reviews Cite this Scribbr article

George, T. Retrieved July 10, 2023,

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What Is Data Scraping?

The amount and range of data that is accessible online in the modern era is enormous, which makes it a gold mine of significant insights for corporations, researchers, and consumers. However, you must compile specific details before accessing the most valuable data elements. Data scraping, commonly called web scraping, has become a powerful method for obtaining and extracting this data from numerous online sources. This article reviews data scraping tools, how it works, its benefits, challenges, tools, and more.

What is Data Scraping?

It entails using automated programs or scripts to extract detailed data from web pages, including text, photos, tables, links, and other structured data. Data scraping enables users to gather data from several websites simultaneously, reducing the effort and time required compared to traditional data collection.

Web scraping software (commonly known as “bots”) is constructed to explore websites, scrape the relevant pages, and extract meaningful data. This software can handle large amounts of data by automating and streamlining this process.

How Does Data Scraping Work? Benefits of Data Scraping

Some of the benefits of data scraping include the following:

Improved Decision Making

Businesses can maintain competitiveness by using data scraping to comprehend market dynamics and determine prices.

Cost Savings

Data extraction by hand requires extensive staff and sizable resources because it is expensive. Web scraping has, however, addressed this issue similarly to how numerous other online techniques have.

The various services available on the marketplace achieve this while being cost-effective and budget-friendly. However, it all depends upon the data volume required, the extraction techniques’ efficiency, and your goals. A web scraping API is one of the most popular online scraping techniques for cost optimization.

Data scraping may prove to be a cost-effective data collection method, particularly for individuals and small enterprises who do not have the financial resources to buy expensive data sets.

Time Savings

Data scraping dramatically decreases the time and effort needed to obtain data collected from websites by automating the data-gathering processes. It makes it possible to effortlessly retrieve information, extract it simultaneously, handle vast quantities of data, manage ongoing operations, and integrate with current workflows, eventually resulting in time savings and increased productivity.

Once a script or tool for scraping has been created, it can be used for websites or data sources that are similar to them. It saves time by avoiding making a brand-new data-gathering procedure from scratch every time.

Enhanced Productivity

When web scraping is executed effectively, it increases the productivity of the sales and marketing departments. The marketing group can use relevant web scraping data to understand how a product works. The marketing team can create novel, enhanced marketing plans that meet consumer demands.

The teams may create targeted strategies and gain better insights using data gathered from web scraping. Additionally, the data collected positively influences how marketing tactics are implemented into execution. The sales staff can also determine which target audience group is likely to earn a profit and from where income grows. After that, the sales staff can closely monitor the sale to maximize profits.

Competitive Advantage

Web scraping can be an excellent approach to getting the information you require for competitor research. Data scraping might allow you to organize and represent relevant and useful data while assisting you in quickly gathering competitive data.

Data scraping may benefit you in gathering data on competitors, such as:

URLs of Competitors’ Websites

Contact Details

Social Networking Accounts and Followers

Advertising and Competitive Prices

Comparing Products and Services

The data can be easily exported chúng tôi files once it has been gathered. Data visualization software can help you discuss what you discover with other organization members.

Why Scrape Website Data?

Using data scraping, you can gather specific items from many websites, including product specifications, cost particulars, client feedback, current events, and any additional relevant data. This accessibility to various sources offers insightful data and expertise that may be used for several goals.

The tools and techniques generally used for data scraping are as follows:

Web scraper software can be used to manually or automatically explore novel data. They retrieve the most recent or new data, store them, and make them accessible. These tools benefit any individual seeking to gather data from a website. Here are some of the well-known data scraping tools and software:

Mozenda is a data extraction tool that facilitates gathering data from websites. Additionally, they offer services for data visualization.

Data Scraping Studio is a free web scraping tool for extracting data from websites, HTML, XML, and PDF documents. Only Windows users can presently access the desktop version.

The Web Scraper API from Oxylabs is made to gather real-time accessible website information from almost every website. It is a dependable tool for fast and reliable retrieval of data.

Diffbot is among the best data extraction tools available today. It enables you to extract products, posts, discussions, videos, or photographs from web pages using the Analyze API capability that automatically recognizes the pages.

Octoparse serves as a user-friendly, no-code web scraping tool. It also provides cloud storage to store the information that has been extracted and helps by giving IP rotation to prevent IP addresses from being blacklisted. Scraping can be scheduled for any particular time. Additionally, it has an endless scrolling feature. CSV, Excel, and API formats are all available for download results.

Web Scraping APIs

Web scraping APIs are specialized APIs created to make web scraping tasks easier. They simplify online scraping by offering a structured, automated mechanism to access and retrieve website data. Some known web scraping APIs are as follows:

ParseHub API: ParseHub is a web scraping platform that provides an API for developers to communicate with their scraping system. With the help of the ParseHub API, users may conduct scraping projects, manage them, access the data they’ve collected, and carry out several other programmed tasks.

Apify API: Apify is an online automation and scraping service that offers developers access to its crawling and scapping features via an API. The Apify API enables users to programmatically configure proxies and demand headers, organize and execute scraping processes, retrieve scraped data, and carry out other functions. API: chúng tôi is a cloud-based service for collecting data, and it provides developers with an API so they can incorporate scraping functionality into their apps. Users can create and regulate scraping tasks, obtain scraped data, and implement data integration and modification operations using the chúng tôi API.

Scraping with Programming Languages

Specific coding languages and their available libraries and software which can be used for data scraping are as follows:


BeautifulSoup: A library that makes navigating through and retrieving data from HTML and XML pages simple.

Scrapy: A robust web scraping platform that manages challenging scraping operations, such as website crawling, pagination, and data retrieval.

Requests: A library that allows users to interface with web APIs and send HTTP requests, enabling data retrieval from API-enabled websites.


Puppeteer: A chúng tôi library that manages headless Chrome or Chromium browsers to enable dynamic site scraping and JavaScript processing.

Cheerio: A jQuery-inspired, quick, and adaptable library for chúng tôi that is used to parse and work with HTML/XML documents.


rvest: An R package that offers web scraping tools, such as CSS selection, HTML parsing, and website data retrieval.

RSelenium: An R interface to Selenium WebDriver that allows online scraping of websites that need JavaScript rendering or interactions with users.


Simple HTML DOM: A PHP package parses HTML files and uses CSS selectors to retrieve data from them.

Goutte: A PHP online scraping package that uses the Guzzle HTTP client to present an easy-to-use interface for data scraping operations.


Jsoup: A Java package that parses HTML and XML documents and enables data collection using DOM or CSS selectors.

Selenium WebDriver: A Java-based structure that offers APIs for automating web page interactions that enable real-time web scraping.


Nokogiri: A Ruby gem that offers a user-friendly API for processing HTML and XML documents.

Watir: A Ruby library for web scraping operations that automates browser interactions.

Best Practices for Data Scraping

There are certain things one can do for an effective and efficient data scraping process:

Always read and follow the policies and conditions of services of the websites you are scraping.

Scraping unnecessary sites or unnecessary data could consume and waste resources and slow down the data extraction process. Targeted scraping increases efficiency by restricting the range of data extraction.

Employ caching techniques to save scraped data to avoid repeated scrapping locally.

Websites occasionally modify their layout, return errors, or add CAPTCHAs to prevent scraping efforts. Implement error-handling techniques to handle these scenarios smoothly.

Be a responsible online scraper by following every regulation and ethical rule, not overloading servers with queries, and not collecting private or sensitive data.

Maintain a constant track of the scraping procedure to ensure it works as intended. Keep an eye out for modifications to website structure, file formats, or anti-scraping methods.

Challenges and Limitations of Data Scraping

Some of the challenges and limitations of the data scraping process are as follows:

Ethical and Legal Issues

The ethical and legal implications of data scraping can be complex. Compliance with special conditions for services or legal constraints on websites is necessary to avoid legal repercussions when extracting data. Furthermore, scraping private or confidential information without proper approval is unethical. It is fundamental to ensure that the relevant regulations and laws are followed while preserving private rights.

Frequent Updates on the Websites

Websites often modify their basic layout to keep up with the latest UI/UX developments and introduce new features. Frequent changes to the codes make it difficult for web scrapers to operate since they are specially developed about the code parts of the website at the stage of creation.


To differentiate between humans and scraping software, individuals frequently use CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart), which presents visual or logical puzzles that are simple for people to solve but challenging for scrapers. Bot developers can incorporate various CAPTCHA solutions to ensure uninterrupted scraping. While CAPTCHA-busting technology might help acquire constant data feeds, it may still cause some scraping delays.

IP Blocking

Web scrapers are frequently prevented from accessing website data by IP blocking. Most of the time, this occurs when a website notices many requests from a particular IP address. To stop the scraping operation, the website would either altogether block the IP or limit its access.

Data Quality

Although data scraping gives users access to a wealth of data, it can be challenging to guarantee the reliability and accuracy of the data. Websites may have out-of-date or erroneous information, which may affect evaluation and assessment. Appropriate data validation, cleaning, and verification methods are required to guarantee the accuracy of the scraped data.

Use Cases of Successful Data Scraping

The best-known real-world uses of data scraping are as follows:

Weather Forecasting Applications

Source: Analyticsteps

Weather forecasting businesses use data scraping to gather weather information from websites, government databases, and weather APIs. They can examine previous trends, estimate meteorological conditions, and give consumers reliable forecasts by scraping the information gathered. This makes it possible for people, organizations, and emergency response agencies to make decisions and take necessary action based on weather forecasts.

Tours and Travel Agencies

Travel brokers collect data from travel-related websites, including hotels, airlines, and car rental companies. They can provide users with thorough comparisons and guide them in locating the best offers by scraping rates, availability, and other pertinent data. Offering a single platform for obtaining data from various sources enables users to save time and effort.

Source: Datahunt

Social Media Monitoring

Businesses and companies scrape social media sites to monitor interactions, monitor brand mentions, and track consumer feedback. They can learn about consumer needs, views, and patterns by scouring social media data. This data supports establishing marketing strategies, enhancing consumer involvement, and promptly addressing consumer issues.

Source: Proxyway

Market Analysis

Financial institutions and investment organizations gather real-time financial data through data scrapings, such as share prices, market movements, and financial-related news stories. They may analyze economic conditions, discover investment possibilities, and choose wise trading options by scraping the data from multiple sources. Data scraping helps them to stay current on market trends and interact swiftly with changing industry dynamics.

Source: Dataman

End Note Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is an example of data scraping?

A. There are several examples of data scraping. One of the most common examples is Search Engine Optimization (SEO). It might help you gather the appropriate information to enhance your online visibility on search engines. You can look for keywords and prospects for backlinks. There are numerous ways to use web scraping for SEO. You may scrape SERPs, study your competitors, explore backlink possibilities, etc.

Q2. Is data scraping legal in India?

A. According to the Information Technology Act 2000, data scraping can be considered identity theft under specific provisions. Illegal forms of data scraping can create trouble for the individuals involved. Companies and businesses should always abide by the rules and regulations of the websites to avoid any legal actions.

Q3. Is it legal to scrape data?

A. If you use web scraping to obtain information that is freely accessible online, it is entirely legal. However, national and foreign regulations secure some data types, so exercise caution when collecting sensitive, creative work, or confidential information.

Q4. What is data scraping in Excel?

A. When you equip Excel for web scraping, you build a “web query.” This query needs a web URL to access a website and retrieve the data-containing web page from a web server. After processing the newly generated HTML, Excel removes the data tables found on the specified page. You can choose the table(s) you want to include in the Excel file.


What Is Predictive Validity?

Predictive validity refers to the ability of a test or other measurement to predict a future outcome. Here, an outcome can be a behavior, performance, or even disease that occurs at some point in the future.

Example: Predictive validityA pre-employment test has predictive validity when it can accurately identify the applicants who will perform well after a given amount of time, such as one year on the job.

Predictive validity is a subtype of criterion validity. It is often used in education, psychology, and employee selection.

What is predictive validity?

Predictive validity is demonstrated when a test can predict a future outcome. To establish this type of validity, the test must correlate with a variable that can only be assessed at some point in the future—i.e., after the test has been administered.

To assess predictive validity, researchers examine how the results of a test predict future performance. For example, SAT scores are considered predictive of student retention: students with higher SAT scores are more likely to return for their sophomore year. Here, you can see that the outcome is, by design, assessed at a point in the future.

Predictive validity example

A test score has predictive validity when it can predict an individual’s performance in a narrowly defined context, such as work, school, or a medical context.

Example: Predictive validity A local grocery store chain is dealing with high employee turnover. To investigate why, you develop an employee retention survey with Likert scales. This type of survey helps companies measure the likelihood that their employees will stay.

To establish the predictive validity of your survey, you ask all recently hired individuals to complete the questionnaire. One year later, you check how many of them stayed.

If there is a high correlation between the scores on the survey and the employee retention rate, you can conclude that the survey has predictive validity. In other words, the survey can predict how many employees will stay.

Tests aimed at screening job candidates, prospective students, or individuals at risk of a specific health issue often are designed with predictive validity in mind.

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Predictive vs. concurrent validity

Predictive and concurrent validity are both subtypes of criterion validity. They both refer to validation strategies in which the predictive ability of a test is evaluated by comparing it against a certain criterion or “gold standard.” Here,the criterion is a well-established measurement method that accurately measures the construct being studied.

The main difference between predictive validity and concurrent validity is the time at which the two measures are administered.

In predictive validity, the criterion variables are measured after the scores of the test.

In concurrent validity, the scores of a test and the criterion variables are obtained at the same time.

How to measure predictive validity

Predictive validity is measured by comparing a test’s score against the score of an accepted instrument—i.e., the criterion or “gold standard.”

The measure to be validated should be correlated with the criterion variable. Correlation between the scores of the test and the criterion variable is calculated using a correlation coefficient, such as Pearson’s r. A correlation coefficient expresses the strength of the relationship between two variables in a single value between −1 and +1.

Correlation coefficient values can be interpreted as follows:

r = 1: There is perfect positive correlation.

r = 0: There is no correlation at all.

r = −1: There is perfect negative correlation.

You can automatically calculate Pearson’s r in Excel, R, SPSS, or other statistical software.

A strong positive correlation provides evidence of predictive validity. In other words, it indicates that a test can correctly predict what you hypothesize it should. However, the presence of a correlation doesn’t mean causation, and if your gold standard shows any signs of research bias, it will affect your predictive validity as well.

Example: Measuring predictive validityLet’s revisit the example of the employee retention survey. One year later, you measure the correlation between the survey results and the employee retention rates. If the correlation is, for example, r = 0.85, your survey has more predictive validity than another survey that has a correlation of r = 0.35.

The higher the correlation between a test and the criterion, the higher the predictive validity of the test. No correlation or a negative correlation indicates that the test has poor predictive validity.

Other interesting articles

If you want to know more about statistics, methodology, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

Frequently asked questions Cite this Scribbr article

Nikolopoulou, K. Retrieved July 10, 2023,

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Learn What Is Tensorflow Concatenate?

Introduction to tensorflow concatenate

Tensorflow concatenate is the methodology using which we can join and make one resultant out of two values. Concat() function is used in tensorflow framework for concatenating the tensprs along with 1-d format. In this article, we will have to try to gain knowledge about What is tensorflow concatenate, How to Concatenate, how to use tensorflow concatenate, tensorflow concatenate feature, tensorflow concatenate example and finally conclude our statement.

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What is tensorflow concatenate?

tensorFlowObject.Concat(input values, axis, operation name)

The parameters mentioned in the above syntax are as described one by one below –

Input values – This is the source input tensor or the list of tensors that we want to concatenate.

Axis – It is a tensor value of zero dimensions and helps in specifying the dimensions that needed to be followed while concatenating.

Operation name – It is an optional argument that needs to be passed in order to define the name of the operation to be performed.

Return value – The output of the concat() function is the tensor that has the concatenated value of the supplied input tensor arguments.

The concatenate layer is responsible for joining the input values and inherits its functionality from Module and Layer classes. Instead of concat() function, we can also make use of the function –

tensorflow.keras.layers.Concatenate(axis = 1, ** keyword arguments of standard layer)

Also, note that the shape of all the input tensors that are being supplied should be the same. The exceptional value in this is the axis of concatenation. As previously mentioned, in case of concatenate() function as well only one output tensor containing the combined or joined input tensors is obtained.

How to Concatenate?

One can simply concatenate the two or more tensor values stored in two or more different variables or objects by passing the list of them enclosed in square brackets [tensor1, tensor2, …] like this to input as the second parameter and first parameter with the value of the axis specifying the dimensions of the tensor to the concat() function. For example, if we have two matrices/tensors that have the same shape –

[[ 21,  22,  23], [ 24,  25,  26]]

[[ 21, 22, 23], [ 24, 25, 26]]


[[ 27, 28,  29], [30, 31, 32]]

[[ 27, 28, 29], [30, 31, 32]]

After we make the use of concat() tensorflow function to concatenate both of them, our matrix will look as shown in the below tensor value –

[ 24,  25,  26]], [[ 27, 28,  29], [30, 31, 32]]]

Used tensorflow concatenate

[[[ 21, 22, 23],[ 24, 25, 26]], [[ 27, 28, 29], [30, 31, 32]]]

The tensorkflow concatenate function can only be used provided if you have two or more tensor values of the same shape that you want to concatenate. Note that if the shapes of matrices are not the same then you will need to reshape the vectors before manipulating it for the concatenate() function.

The first step that we will follow once we have our inputs ready with us in the program is to import the necessary libraries and packages in the beginning.

Prepare the input tensors. Store them in objects or make a list of the same and pass it as the argument. If the shape is not the same then reshape before passing it as input.

Pass the axis and the input arguments to the tensor matrix.

tensorflow concatenate feature

The feature or properties of concatenate in tensorflow are as mentioned below –

Activity regularizer – This is an optional function and is used for preparing the output of this concatenation layer in tensorflow.

Dt type input – This is used for retrieval of the layer input and is only applicable if we have only single input for the layer. It then returns an output consisting of a list of tensors or a single tensor.

Losses – This loss is actually associated with the layer of concatenation. The tensors responsible for regularizing the tensors are also generated and created by using the property of loss associated and accesses by the layer. The working is similar to the eager safe which means the access of losses will propagate gradients under a tensorflow.Gradient back to the variables associated with it.

Non- trainable weights

Non- trainable variables

Output_mask – This property or feature is only applicable if the concatenation layer consists of only a single inbound node that means if the connection of only a single incoming layer is created. This feature helps in retrieving the output massk tensor of the layer.

Output_shape – Applicable only if one output layer is present or the shape of all the outputs has the same shape.


Trainable variables

Set weights

Get weights

Get updates for

Get output shape at

Get output mask at

Get output at

Get losses for

Get input shape at

Get input mask at

Get input at

Get config

From config

Count params

Compute output shape

Compute mask


tensorflow concatenate example

Here are the following examples mention below

Example #1


The output of executing the above program is as shown in the below image –

Example  #2


return educbaModel

The output of executing the above program is as shown in the below image –


The tensorflow concatenate function is used in tensorflow to combine or join two or more source tensors and form a single output consisting of a single tensor that has both the input tensors combined in it. We can provide and specify the input axis dimension which helps in representing the dimensions of tensor.

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This is a guide to tensorflow concatenate. Here we discuss What is tensorflow concatenate, How to Concatenate, how to use tensorflow concatenate. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

What Is A Greedy Algorithm?

Introduction to Greedy Algorithm

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What is a Greedy Algorithm?

It is an algorithmic strategy used to make the best optional choice at a very small stage while eventually outputting a globally optimum solution. This algorithm picks the best solution feasible at that moment without regard to any consequences. The greedy method says that problem should be solved in stages wherein each one input is considered given that this input is feasible. As this approach only focuses on an immediate result with no regard for the bigger picture, it is considered greedy.

Defining the Core Concept

Till now, we know what it is and why is it named so. The below pointers will make you understand the greedy algorithm in a better way. By now, it has been very clear that the greedy algorithm only works when there is a problem; nevertheless, this approach is only applicable if we have a condition or constraint to that problem.

Types of Problems

Minimization Problem: Getting a solution to a problem is easy, given that all the conditions are met. However, when this problem demands a minimum result, it is then called a Minimization Problem.

Maximization Problem: A problem that demands the maximum result is known as the maximization problem.

Optimization Problem: A problem is called an optimization problem when it requires either minimum or maximum results.

Types of Solutions

Feasible Solution: Now, when a problem arises, we have many plausible solutions to this problem. Yet, taking into consideration the condition set on that problem, we choose solutions that satisfy the given condition. Such solutions that help us get results meeting the given condition is called a Feasible Solution.

Optimal Solution: A solution is called optimal when it is already feasible and achieves the objective of the problem; the best result. This objective could either be the minimum or maximum result. The point here to be noticed is that any problem will only have one optimal solution.

Core Components of Greedy Algorithm

Now when we have a better understanding of this mechanism, let’s explore the core components of a greedy algorithm that sets it apart from other processes:

Candidate set: An answer is created from this set.

Selection function: It selects the best candidate to be included in the solution.

Feasibility function: This section calculates if a candidate can be used to contribute to the solution.

An objective function: It assigns a value to a complete or a partial solution.

A solution function: This is used to indicate if a proper solution has been met.

Where does the Greedy Algorithm work the best?

It can be applied to the below-mentioned problems.

The Greedy approach can be used to find the minimal spanning tree graph using Prim’s or Kruskal’s algorithm.

Finding the shortest path between two vertices is yet another problem that can be solved using a greedy algorithm. Applying Dijkstra’s algorithm along with the greedy algorithm will give you an optimal solution.

Huffman Coding


Knapsack Problem: Most commonly known by the name rucksack problem, it is an everyday problem faced by many people. Say we have a set of items and each has a different weigh and value (profit) to filled into a container or should be collected in such a way that the total weight is less than or equal to that of the container while the total profit is maximized.


It is best applicable when one needs a solution in real-time and approximate answers are “good enough”. Clearly, it minimizes time while making sure that an optimal solution is produced; hence it is more applicable to use in a situation where less time is required. Post-reading this article, one might have a fair idea about greedy algorithms. In addition, this post explains why it is regarded as the best framework that answers nearly all programming challenges along with helping you to decide the most optimal solution at a given point in time.

However, on the rough side, for applying the theory of greedy algorithms, one must work harder to know the correct issues. Although it’s a scientific concept that has logic, it also has an essence of creativity.

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What Is Sms For Business?

SMS messaging can be used as part of a text message marketing campaign to reach customers directly on their mobile device.

What is SMS?

SMS stands for Short Message Service. It’s a text message which has only text, restricted to 160 characters. SMS doesn’t include video or pictures. SMS is one of the earliest texting technologies, since it was designed from the 1980s. It’s also among the most frequently used, even though there are lots of newer and different techniques to communicate with other individuals.

SMS vs. text messages

SMS is just like text messaging. Both terms refer to sending text messages using a 160-character limitation. But a lot of men and women refer to”texting” or”text messages” like any kind of message between text, such as MMS and messages delivered on other programs.


SMS includes a 160-character limitation, whilst multimedia messaging support (MMS) enables a lot more personalities (it’s restricted solely by the service supplier ). MMS allows you to send movies, pictures, sound, and links using all the text message. MMS also lets you add a subject line for your own message, whereas SMS doesn’t.


Rich Communications Services (RCS) is a next-generation SMS protocol, and is proprietary to Android apparatus in Google Messages. It’s an update on text messaging, but it’s not been widely embraced. RCS supports numerous rich features, such as read receipts, higher quality images, big videos (without the requirement to compress websites ), and implied activities.

SMS vs. Verified SMS

Verified SMS is a improved variant of SMS and can be proprietary to Android apparatus in Google Messages. It provides another degree of empowerment for texts delivered by companies. Verified SMS enables companies to exhibit their emblem to encourage the branded experience. Additionally, it enables clients to opt in to receive SMS from a company, which ought to help to decrease spam.


Over-the-top (OTT) programs, for example WhatsApp, iMessage, WeChat, and Facebook Messenger, utilize the world wide web as opposed to a mobile network to send messages.

To see these messages, recipients need to download the program to their smartphone or cellular device. Each OTT program has its own protocols for receiving and sending messages, utilizes different programs, and contains distinct network requirements. It’s also free to send and receive messages via OTT applications.

Types of SMS messages

There are different types of SMS messages that you can send.


Person-to-Person (P2P) SMS calls for text messaging from human-to-human communications. The equilibrium of messages delivered versus obtained ought to be approximately one to one. P2P SMS shouldn’t exceed 1 message per second (MPS).


Application-to-Person (A2P) SMS calls for text messaging via an application to someone. Additionally, this is a sort of company messaging. A2P SMS enables sending of automatic texts, therefore it may transcend one MPS. Additionally, it requires specific quantities, for example short codes, toll-free and 10DLC

Short code

Short codes are fiveto six-digit amounts used for sending high-volume, high-throughput A2P text messages. They can’t be utilized for two-way communications or to make voice calls. However, recipients may use certain key words (e.g.,”YES” to affirm,”STOP” to determine ) as answers to these sorts of messages.

Toll-free SMS

Toll-free SMS supports sending high-volume, high-throughput text messages utilizing toll-free telephone numbers (e.g., 800, 888). Most toll-free amounts can encourage SMS messages. Toll-free SMS supports two-way communications; recipients may respond to such messages because they would for ordinary text messages, and also may call the amount if it’s voice enabled.


Also read: Top 10 Best Artificial Intelligence Software

Benefits of using SMS for business

There Are Lots of benefits to using SMS for Company, Especially related to text message marketing campaigns:

SMS is compatible on all hardware and software platforms. Messages can be sent and received on any modern mobile device.

SMS messages are small and transmitted via a cellular network, so they can be delivered and received very quickly.

Since SMS messages use a lower bandwidth, they can be sent in areas where voice is not available and can even be sent and received by email when there is no mobile service.

SMS messages are very reliable. They will get delivered either right away or as soon as the recipient’s phone is turned on and connects to a network.

SMS adds more versatility to a business’s communications and marketing strategies, as it is widely accepted and used.

SMS messages get read right away. They have a 98% open rate, which makes them much more effective than other mass marketing methods.

SMS messages cost less to send than MMS messages. They are also more cost effective than having people make and monitor phone calls.

How do businesses use SMS messaging?

Businesses can use SMS messaging in many ways.

Marketing Sending alerts, notifications, and reminders

When a client places an order, they could obtain an automatic SMS message if their purchase was processed, in addition to if the item is out for shipping. When a client schedule an appointment, then they may be sent a reminder the day before the appointment, in addition to an automatic text when there’s a change in the time or date. As a result of this large open rate of SMS messages, most companies know that clients will get and read their own SMS message punctually.

Sending coupons and special offers

Firms can send hyperlinks to electronic coupon codes, discounts, and special offers via SMS messaging. This permits clients to benefit from this deal without needing to remember to bring anything together, since the connection will be on their mobile phone. This has the benefit of making it easier for consumer to buy services and products out of your company, which can increase participation and earnings.

Providing customer support

Firms can incorporate SMS to their customer care system. This permits them to create more efficient utilization of the individual resources, as customer service representatives will have the ability to deal with many requests at exactly the exact same moment. Additionally, it enables customers to ask voice calls whenever they should deal with a problem through direct communications. Firms can increase the efficacy of the contact centres without needing to employ extra employees.

Two-factor authentication

Also read: Top 10 Best Artificial Intelligence Software

Supporting group messaging

It’s possible to use SMS messaging allowing groups of three or more participants to send and receive messages. Some devices will encourage group messages up to 30 individuals. This allows your organization to communicate with multiple parties simultaneously. This may be valuable if time is a variable, like if a household is buying a house.

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