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LISS stands for ‘Low-Intensity Steady State’ which aims for a low level of exertion for a long period of time. LISS cardio exercise is also called steady-state training (SST) which is good for people of all ages and fitness levels. These exercises involve slower aerobic activity and are beneficial for cross-training and endurance.

The types of LISS training include activities like walking, cycling or jogging at a comfortable pace. They are low-intensity cardio activities which concentrate on overall body conditioning rather than focusing on power and speed.

LISS is a steady approach to burning calories and improving cardiovascular health according to the American Heart Association. The AHA recommends getting 30-60 minutes of aerobic activities, three to four times a week for cardiovascular fitness and to minimize the risk of obesity.

Types of LISS Cardio

There are many types of LISS cardio exercises that you can incorporate into your fitness routine. As there are many options to choose from, you won’t get bored repeating the same type of LISS cardio. Some of the types include −

Walking at your pace


Cycling at home or outdoors





If you wish to do LISS cardio at the gymnasium, you can use cardio equipment like an elliptical trainer at a moderate pace for about 30 to 45 minutes.

LISS versus HIIT

One of the major differences between LISS and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is the intensity of the workouts. The higher your heart rate, the higher the intensity of the physical activity you are doing. This could be problematic for people with low fitness levels. If you are a beginner, you can spend 20 to 30 minutes on a LISS workout and as you build endurance; your sessions may last up to 60 minutes per day.

HIIT workouts are designed specially to raise your heart rate for burning calories and concentrate on limit-pushing bursts and slowed-down recovery periods.

Some of the major differences between LISS and HIIT include −

Time − LISS workouts are significantly longer as compared to HIIT exercises. HIIT workout usually takes 30 minutes and both workouts may offer the same benefits in terms of calories burned.

Speed − Normally, LISS training is done at the same pace while HIIT alternates periods of intense exercise and includes relatively short recovery time.

Attention and focus − In HIIT workouts, you have to pay more attention to the exercises as you are constantly switching up movements. However, in the LISS cardio workouts, you may require less concentration as you are doing the same activity for a long time.

Benefits of LISS Cardio

The primary benefits of LISS cardio include improvisation of cardiovascular health and reducing the risk of heart disease. Nevertheless, the benefits don’t end here. Let us understand the benefits of this LISS cardio for overall fitness.

Aids in recovery − LISS cardio makes your heart pump blood throughout the body and hence, the muscles may get nutrients to heal the micro-damage incurred from the workout sessions. Enhanced recovery and less soreness can motivate you to look forward to your training session.

Fat and calories burning − The body needs oxygen to metabolise fat. The lower the intensity of your activity, the more oxygen is available to be used to break down fat. LISS cardio may also help you achieve a caloric deficit which makes weight loss and fat loss manageable.

Good option if you are tired − You can achieve your fitness goals while avoiding strenuous workouts with the help of LISS cardio exercises. Also, the majority of the LISS exercises can be done outdoors which allows you to get fresh air. LISS cardio can have a mood-boosting effect on you and while increasing your endurance may also act as a stress buster.

Apart from the above-mentioned benefits, LISS cardio may also help lower the risk of high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes and obesity. These workouts may improve cognitive function, mental health, endurance, muscle strength and sleep cycle.

Who Should Do LISS Cardio?

If you are new to exercise or are getting back into it, beginning with LISS may help you increase your fitness levels without risking over-exertion. Additionally, if your goal is to improve aerobic fitness, LISS cardio can be a great option.

If you have a sedentary lifestyle, are obese or have knee or back issues, you can opt for LISS cardio as it put less stress on the joints as compared to HIIT and other high-impact workouts.

Usually, HIIT sessions are preferred by people who have less time and need to get fit in a short time. However, HIIT may cause more pressure on the body and mind. Also, if you love doing intense workouts, you still need LISS cardio in your well-balanced workout for cardiovascular training and recovery.

Getting Started with LISS Cardio

The best way to design a LISS workout is to think about your hobbies and activities that can be easily incorporated into your lifestyle and schedule. Many forms of LISS cardio may include low to moderate-intensity physical workouts such as −

Doing any one of the activities from walking, dancing, aerobics or water aerobics for 30 minutes

Swimming for 20 minutes

Walk up and down the stairs for 15 minutes

Cycling for 15 minutes

Jumping rope for 15 minutes

Shooting a basket for 30 minutes

You can try these LISS workouts −

Two to four mile walks aiming for a pace between 15 to 18 minutes per mile as per your fitness levels

Hop on a treadmill, cross trainer or exercise bike for 30-60 minutes at a moderate pace

Go for a Vinyasa or flow yoga class

You can begin with walking for 30 to 60 minutes and once you get used to it, try rucking (walking with a weighted backpack). You can also use intervals in between by slowing down for two minutes after 10 rounds and then beginning the walk again.

Word of Caution

LISS cardio may feel repetitive and boring, especially in a gym. You can do LISS with your friend to combat boredom as you can hold a conversation in the low-intensity physical activity. However, don’t shift your focus to talking and forget about the workout. Another shortcoming of LISS cardio is that it may cause overuse injuries.

If you experience chronic fatigue, brain fog or prolonged muscle soreness, this could be a sign of overtraining. In any form of workout, may it be high or low intensity, you must give your body adequate time to rest and recover.


If your goal is to improve your fitness, and you have time for longer workouts, LISS cardio may be a good option for you. LISS workouts are the opposite of HIIT workouts and are generally easier for beginners to maintain a healthy weight. To get the most weight loss benefit with LISS, you can add in some strength training and incorporate a nutrition strategy.

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How To Setup A Logitech Mouse (Beginner’s Guide)

You’ve just bought a new Logitech mouse, but you have no idea how to use it? Well, you don’t need to scratch your head as we bring you the beginner’s guide on how to set up a Logitech mouse.

Interestingly, Logitech has introduced various types of mice since 1982. Whether you’re looking for a normal mouse for your work or you need a multi-functioning gaming mouse, Logitech provides a variety of models.

Well, each type of mouse has a different way of setup. So, let’s jump into how you can use a wired, wireless, and Bluetooth-supporting Logitech mouse. 

How to Setup a Wired Logitech Mouse

While using a wireless mouse, you may face issues with the batteries or their connection. The same thing applies to a Bluetooth-supporting mouse. However, when you use a wired one, all you have to do is connect the two ends, and your mouse works completely fine unless there are faults in the cables.

Thus, when we buy a wireless Logitech mouse, we often receive a cable along with it. This is to ensure that if there’s a fault in our wireless connection, we can use the device with the help of the wire.

Well, setting up a wired Logitech mouse is not a difficult task for anyone. Here’s a general idea of how to do it the correct way so that you do not face any issues with the connection:

How Can I Setup a Wireless Logitech Mouse?

A wireless mouse runs with the help of radio frequency. Hence, you can even control it from a long distance compared to a wired mouse. However, the obstacles in between may not help you use the mouse from a much larger distance.

If you possess a wireless Logitech mouse, you do not require a dedicated cable to use the device. Nonetheless, you need to check whether your mouse has a USB dongle or not. 

Well, most Logitech models provide this inside the box containing your mouse. If you have lost it, you can use the Logitech Unifying receiver that helps connect multiple Logitech input devices.

Before proceeding with the steps below, ensure the wireless Logitech mouse supports your operating system. Now, let’s dive into the detailed guide on setting it up.

Configure Your Mouse Battery

A wireless mouse won’t function if your battery is drained. So, it’s important to insert batteries that are working.

Well, the cells on your Logitech mouse support mostly AA and AAA batteries. For any confusion, we have a comprehensive guide on how to change batteries of a wireless mouse.

In some Logitech mouse models, you have an option to charge your mouse battery. When the device is charging, you see a green light glowing on its dedicated LED.

Plug in Your Wireless USB Dongle

Once you’ve configured your mouse batteries, now you need the dedicated USB dongle. Remember that you can’t use another device’s USB receiver. 

Well, all you have to do is take the USB dongle and insert it into an available port on your PC. Make sure you have plugged it well so there won’t be a connection issue.

Turn on the Mouse

The next step is to turn on your Logitech mouse. The button you’re looking for should be in the bottom section of the device.

By default, the mouse is turned off. To turn it on, simply drag the slider toward the On letter printed on the device. Depending on your Logitech mouse, you’ll have to slide it upwards/downwards, while in some models, you’ll have to drag it sideways. In some models, you can simply press the ON button to turn on the mouse.

Check for the glowing light to ensure your Logitech mouse has turned on. For some reason, your light may not work. In such a case, simply unplug the USB dongle and plug it back again. Then, turn on the mouse, which should now light the LED.

Note: We recommend turning off the mouse once you’ve finished using it. This way, your battery is saved.

Check Connection

In some Logitech mice, you may have to press the Connector button in your mouse. However, most modern mice have removed this option. This means that once you plug in the USB and turn on your mouse, the connection will establish automatically.

But, if your model requires a connection to be set up, simply find the connector button on your mouse. Then, use a pin to press it.

Finally, check if your wireless Logitech mouse is working or not. To do so, drag your mouse around; if the pointer is moving well, Bravo! You’ve done it.

Install a Logitech Software [Optional]

Well, you can download and install either Logi Options+ or Logitech G Hub. These programs help you change the mouse DPI or even increase the polling rate.

How Do You Set up a Bluetooth Logitech Mouse?

Unlike wireless mice, a Bluetooth mouse works only for a shorter distance. Even they use radio waves for communication but in a lower GHz. 

Setting up a Bluetooth Logitech mouse is quite similar to a wireless mouse setup. However, there are a few more added steps you need to do to ensure proper connection.

Before moving on, make sure your Logitech mouse supports your OS. Also, ensure your battery is fine. Then, turn on your mouse and press the Connector button, if available. Now, head to the below guide to set up your input device.

Turn on Bluetooth

Firstly, you must turn on Bluetooth on your mouse and your PC. To turn on the Bluetooth of your mouse, navigate to the bottom and hold the Bluetooth button for a few seconds. This will make the light on your device blink continuously, meaning your mouse is in pairing mode.

Along with the mouse, you need to turn on the Bluetooth of your PC. Here, we will explore the steps on both Windows and macOS.

On Windows 11

On MacOS

Pair Mouse With PC

After you have turned on the Bluetooth on both mouse and PC, now you need to pair the Logitech mouse with your PC. Here’s a simple guideline to walk you through on both Windows and Mac.

On Windows

On Mac

Once you set up the Bluetooth mouse, you can download and install compatible Logitech software to access additional features. But, if your Bluetooth mouse is lagging, read our other article that will help you fix it.

What Is Protein? A Complete Scientific Guide

Amino acids (building blocks of protein) combine to form proteins, which are molecules that contain nitrogen and found in every cell of our body. They can be made up of one or more extended chains of amino acid residues. Proteins consist of amino acids, which are tiny chemical compounds. They consist of an alpha central carbon atom coupled to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and another component known as a side chain, are the building blocks of proteins.

Proteins are made up of a lengthy chain of amino acids that are connected by peptide bonds. Each of the amino acids has a distinct side chain and sequence that are used to build proteins.

There are in total of twenty amino acids that are discovered. Eleven of these amino acids are classified as non-essential, meaning that human bodies can make them and do not require their consumption from an outer source or diet. The remaining nine amino acids are said to as essential, which means that our diets must contain them, as our bodies cannot synthesize them.

The following are nine essential amino acids










And, the non-essential amino acids are −



Aspartic acid

Glutamic acid








Six of the eleven remaining nonessential amino acids are conditionally essential amino acids, and only become essential during specific conditions. These are the amino acids that are produced by the body but, due to severe physical stress or trauma, may become depleted. They are arginine, cysteine, glutamine, tyrosine, glycine, proline, and serine.

Why is Protein Essential for the Human Body?

Protein is a complex substance that is available in all living life forms. Any diet must have protein as a staple. Numerous foods include protein thus, many people can easily incorporate it into their diet. And foods contain much more than just protein, so it’s crucial to consider the other ingredients as well. Protein sources in food are typically obtained from either animal or plant sources.

There is a widespread misconception that certain necessary amino acids are actually absent from plant-based proteins. In reality, the majority of plant-based proteins include all amino acids, but they frequently have a low concentration of a few important amino acids, sometimes known as their limiting amino acids. It is crucial for people who eat little to no animal products, like vegans or vegetarians, to acquire their protein from sources that include complementary limiting amino acids.

Protein and sports performance have long been linked. After exercise, protein intake can help in strengthening and repairing muscle tissue. The appropriate combination of carbs, lipids, vitamins, and minerals should be included in the diet to get the benefits of protein, which is essential for developing muscle.

Uses of Proteins in Our Body

Although proteins can be used as a source of energy, they are not utilized until other macromolecules are broken down completely. Proteins are broken down into their most basic form, amino acids, in order to be utilized by the body. They are used in the formation of hemoglobin, enzymes, and hormones. They act as the primary structural element of the body’s muscles and other tissues.

Furthermore, proteins also help in molecular transportation across the body, assisting in cell growth and repair, defending the body against germs and viruses, and fostering healthy growth and development in people. Proteins are of extraordinary health benefits and directly help in chemical processes and metabolic cycles occurring in our body.

Research has shown that not getting enough protein or not being able to utilize it effectively can cause numerous symptoms, such as an increase in infections, swelling of legs, a slower rate of wound healing, and decreased muscle mass, which is sometimes referred to as sarcopenia in older individuals can result from a protein deficiency.

It’s vital to note that food insecurity causes millions of people around the world, particularly young children, to lack adequate amounts of protein. Severe Malnutrition (Kwashiorkor) and protein deficiency have a variety of serious consequences, including stunted growth, loss of muscle mass, weakened immune systems, heart and respiratory system problems, and even death.


Protein-rich diets, like the carnivore diet, can also be harmful and increase the risk of coronary heart disease, kidney stones, and breast, bowel, and prostate cancers. While food that is rich in protein is beneficial to our health, some generate more harm than good.

Particularly, eating a lot of red and processed meat has been linked to a higher risk of developing several malignancies. However, it is also a good source of protein and many other vital elements, like iron, vitamin B12, and zinc, so it’s not necessary to eliminate it instead consume it in moderate amounts.

Food allergies can develop when the immune system of the body attacks certain kinds of proteins. You will experience an allergic reaction, such as itching or breathing difficulties, when you eat or drink something like peanuts, eggs, or fish, containing a protein to which you are allergic.

Xrp Wallets: A Beginner’s Guide To Storing Xrp (2023)

A wallet is necessary in order to store, receive and send XRP. There are many different types of wallets available, and it can be confusing for beginners to know which one to choose. 

In this article, we will give you an overview of the most popular XRP wallets so that you can make an informed decision about which one is right for you.

What is an XRP wallet?

As the name suggests, an XRP wallet is a digital wallet that can be used to store XRP, the native currency of the Ripple network, and is used to facilitate transactions on the network. These wallets can be used to send, receive and store cryptocurrency.

Types of wallets

XRP wallet

An XRP holder has access to a variety of wallets, including hardware, desktop, mobile, exchange, and paper wallets, so they need to choose one that best suits their needs. For instance, if you’re a novice user looking to purchase or hold a small amount of XRP, a desktop or mobile wallet will offer you a fair blend of security and use.

On the other hand, if you need to hold a large amount of XRP for investment purposes or plan to trade XRP frequently, a hardware wallet is the best option.

Hardware wallets

A hardware wallet is a physical device designed specifically for storing cryptocurrencies. Hardware wallets are considered to be the most secure type of wallet as they store your funds offline on a physical device. Ledger Nano S and Trezor are popular hardware wallets for XRP.

Desktop wallets

A desktop wallet is a software program that you can download and install on your computer. Desktop wallets are considered to be fairly secure as they are not connected to the internet and are, therefore, less vulnerable to hacking. Toast Wallet and Edge are popular desktop wallets.

Mobile wallets

A mobile wallet is a software program that you can download and install on your smartphone. Mobile wallets are considered to be fairly secure and very accessible. Edge is a popular mobile wallet for XRP.

Exchange wallets

An exchange wallet is a wallet that is provided by a cryptocurrency exchange. Exchange wallets are considered to be less secure than other types of wallets as they are often connected to the internet, making them more vulnerable to hacking. However, many exchanges offer two-factor authentication and other security features to help protect your assets. GateHub is a popular exchange wallet for XRP.

Paper wallets

A paper wallet is a paper copy of your private key. Paper wallets are considered to be very secure as they are less vulnerable to hacking. However, it is important to keep your paper wallet in a safe place as it can be easily lost or stolen. XRP Paper Wallet is a popular paper wallet for XRP.

Security features

When choosing a wallet, it is important to consider the security features that are offered. Some of the most important security features to look for include two-factor authentication, multi-signature support, and a secure connection.

Two-factor authentication

Two-factor authentication (2FA) is an extra layer of security that is used to verify your identity when logging into your wallet. 2FA requires you to enter a code that is sent to your cell phone in addition to your password, making it more difficult for hackers to gain access to your funds as they would need both your password and access to your cell phone.

Multi-signature support

Multi-signature (multi-sig) support allows you to set up your wallet so that it requires more than one signature to authorize a transaction. This makes it more difficult for hackers to gain access to your assets, as they would need more than one key to sign a transaction.

Secure connection

A secure connection is important for keeping your XRP safe from hackers. Look for XRP wallets that use HTTPS or SSL to encrypt their connection. This will help to ensure that your XRP is safe when you are sending or receiving XRP.

Which XRP wallet should you use?


The type of XRP wallet that you use will depend on your needs. If security is your main concern, then a hardware wallet is the best option. If convenience is your main concern, then a software or web wallet might be better for you.

No matter what wallet you choose, be sure to keep your recovery phrase in a safe place. This phrase is used to recover your XRP if your wallet is lost or stolen.

Should I move XRP to the cold wallet?

Ripple cold storage with an XRP cold wallet is recommended for anyone holding XRP, whether you have 100 or 100,000. Cold storage keeps your XRP holdings safe from hacking attempts and other security risks.

An XRP cold wallet is a device that stores your private keys offline, making it impossible for hackers to access them through the internet. Cold wallets can range from hardware devices such as Ledger or Trezor to paper wallets and mobile apps such as Guarda Wallet.

One of the main benefits of cold storage is that it requires you to physically possess your wallet in order to access your funds. This means that even if someone were to gain access to your private keys, they would not be able to move any XRP without having physical possession of the device containing those keys.

Final thoughts

When choosing an XRP wallet, it is important to consider your needs and the security features that are offered. Hardware wallets are considered to be the most secure type of wallet, while software and web wallets are more convenient.

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Beginner’s Guide For Data Analysis Using Sql

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon

Overview Important Definitions

The most significant part of the database is its tables, which contain all of the data. Normally, data would be divided among several tables rather than being saved all in one location (so designing the data structure properly is very important). The majority of this script would deal with table manipulation. Aside from tables, there are a few more extremely helpful concepts/features that we will not discuss:

table creation

inserting/updating data in the database

functions – takes a value as an input and returns a value that has been manipulated (for example function that remove white spaces)

#Improts import numpy as np # linear algebra import pandas as pd # data processing, CSV file I/O (e.g. pd.read_csv) import sqlite3 import matplotlib.pyplot as plt # Load data from database.sqlite database = 'database.sqlite' We’ll start by connecting to the database and seeing what tables we have.

The query’s basic structure is straightforward: After the SELECT, you specify what you wish to see; * denotes all possible columns. Following the FROM, you select the table. After the WHERE, you add the conditions for the data you wish to use from the table(s).

The section’s structure and order of content, with spaces, new lines, capital letters, and indentation to make the code easier to understand.

conn = sqlite3.connect(database) tables = pd.read_sql("""SELECT * FROM sqlite_master WHERE type='table';""", conn) tables List of countries

This is the most basic query. The only must part of a query is the SELECT and the FROM (assuming you want to pull from a table)

countries = pd.read_sql("""SELECT * FROM Country;""", conn) countries List of leagues and their country

When joining tables, you must do the following:

Choose the type of join you want to utilize. The following are the most common:

INNER JOIN – only maintain records in both tables that match the criterion (after the ON), and records from both tables that don’t match won’t appear in the output.

LEFT JOIN – all values from the first (left) table are combined with the matching rows from the right table. NULL values would be assigned to the columns from the right table that doesn’t have a corresponding value in the left table.

Specify the common value that will be used to link the tables together (the id of the country in that case).

Ensure that at least one of the values in the table is a key. It’s the chúng tôi in our case. Because there can be more than one league in the same nation, the id is not unique.

leagues = pd.read_sql("""SELECT * FROM League JOIN Country ON chúng tôi = League.country_id;""", conn) leagues List of teams

ORDER BY defines the sorting of the output – ascending or descending (DESC)

LIMIT limits the number of rows in the output – after the sorting

teams = pd.read_sql("""SELECT * FROM Team ORDER BY team_long_name LIMIT 10;""", conn) teams

We’ll just show the columns that interest us in this example, so instead of *, we’ll use the actual names.

The names of several of the cells are the same (, We’ll use AS to rename them.

This query, as you can see, includes a lot more joins. The reason for this is that the database is designed in a star structure, with one table (Match) containing all of the “performance” and metrics, but only keys and IDs, and other tables including all of the descriptive information (Country, League, Team)

It’s important to note that the Team is joined twice. This is a hard one because, despite the fact that we are using the same table name, we are bringing two separate copies (and rename them using AS). The reason for this is that we need to bring data for two separate values (home team API id and away team API id), and joining them to the same database would imply that they are equal.

It’s also worth noting that the Team tables are linked together using a left join. The reason for this is that I’ve decided to keep the matches in the output, even if one of the teams isn’t on the Team table.

ORDER comes before LIMIT and after WHERE and determines the output order.

detailed_matches = pd.read_sql("""SELECT chúng tôi chúng tôi AS country_name, chúng tôi AS league_name, season, stage, date, HT.team_long_name AS home_team, AT.team_long_name AS away_team, home_team_goal, away_team_goal FROM Match JOIN Country on chúng tôi = Match.country_id JOIN League on chúng tôi = Match.league_id LEFT JOIN Team AS HT on HT.team_api_id = Match.home_team_api_id LEFT JOIN Team AS AT on AT.team_api_id = Match.away_team_api_id WHERE country_name = 'Spain' ORDER by date LIMIT 10;""", conn) detailed_matches Let’s do some basic analytics

Here we are starting to look at the data at a more aggregated level. Instead of looking at the raw data, we will start to group it to the different levels we want to examine. In this example, process the previous query, remove the match and date information, and look at it at the country league season level.

The functionality we will use for that is GROUP BY, which comes between the WHERE and ORDER

Once you chose what level you want to analyze, we can decide the select statement into two:

Dimensions are the values we’re describing, and they’re the same ones we’ll group by later.

Metrics must be grouped together using functions. sum(), count(), count(distinct), avg(), min(), and max() are some of the most common functions.

It’s critical to use the same dimensions in both the select and the GROUP BY functions. Otherwise, the output could be incorrect.

HAVING is another feature that can be used after grouping. This adds another layer of data filtering, this time using the table’s output after grouping. It’s frequently used to clean the output.

leages_by_season = pd.read_sql("""SELECT chúng tôi AS country_name, chúng tôi AS league_name, season, count(distinct stage) AS number_of_stages, count(distinct HT.team_long_name) AS number_of_teams, avg(home_team_goal) AS avg_home_team_scors, avg(away_team_goal) AS avg_away_team_goals, avg(home_team_goal-away_team_goal) AS avg_goal_dif, avg(home_team_goal+away_team_goal) AS avg_goals, sum(home_team_goal+away_team_goal) AS total_goals FROM Match JOIN Country on chúng tôi = Match.country_id JOIN League on chúng tôi = Match.league_id LEFT JOIN Team AS HT on HT.team_api_id = Match.home_team_api_id LEFT JOIN Team AS AT on AT.team_api_id = Match.away_team_api_id WHERE country_name in ('Spain', 'Germany', 'France', 'Italy', 'England') GROUP BY,, season ORDER BY,, season DESC ;""", conn) leages_by_season df = pd.DataFrame(index=np.sort(leages_by_season['season'].unique()), columns=leages_by_season['country_name'].unique()) df.loc[:,'Germany'] = list(leages_by_season.loc[leages_by_season['country_name']=='Germany','avg_goals']) df.loc[:,'Spain'] = list(leages_by_season.loc[leages_by_season['country_name']=='Spain','avg_goals']) df.loc[:,'France'] = list(leages_by_season.loc[leages_by_season['country_name']=='France','avg_goals']) df.loc[:,'Italy'] = list(leages_by_season.loc[leages_by_season['country_name']=='Italy','avg_goals']) df.loc[:,'England'] = list(leages_by_season.loc[leages_by_season['country_name']=='England','avg_goals']) df.plot(figsize=(12,5),title='Average Goals per Game Over Time') df = pd.DataFrame(index=np.sort(leages_by_season['season'].unique()), columns=leages_by_season['country_name'].unique()) df.loc[:,'Germany'] = list(leages_by_season.loc[leages_by_season['country_name']=='Germany','avg_goal_dif']) df.loc[:,'Spain'] = list(leages_by_season.loc[leages_by_season['country_name']=='Spain','avg_goal_dif']) df.loc[:,'France'] = list(leages_by_season.loc[leages_by_season['country_name']=='France','avg_goal_dif']) df.loc[:,'Italy'] = list(leages_by_season.loc[leages_by_season['country_name']=='Italy','avg_goal_dif']) df.loc[:,'England'] = list(leages_by_season.loc[leages_by_season['country_name']=='England','avg_goal_dif']) df.plot(figsize=(12,5),title='Average Goals Difference Home vs Out') Query Run Order

Now that we are familiar with most of the functionalities being used in a query, it is very important to understand the order that code runs.

First, order of how we write it (reminder):









Define which tables will be used and how they will be connected (FROM + JOIN).

Only the rows that apply to the conditions should be kept (WHERE)

Sort the information by the required level (if need) (BY GROUP)

Select the data you wish to include in the new table. It can contain only raw data (if there is no grouping), or a combination of dimensions (from the grouping), as well as metrics. You’ve decided to show the following from the table.

Order the new table’s output (ORDER BY)

Add extra filtering conditions to the newly generated table (HAVING)

Limit the number of rows – this would reduce the number of rows, as well as the need for filtering (LIMIT)

Sub Queries and Functions

Use a subquery as a solution. The attributes database would need to be grouped to a different key-player level only (without season). Of course, we would need to decide first how we would want to combine all the attributes to a single row. use AVG, also one can decide on maximum, latest season and etc. Once both tables have the same keys, we can join them together (think of the subquery like any other table, only temporal), knowing that we won’t have duplicated rows after the join.

You can also see two examples of how to use functions here:

– A conditional function is an important tool for data manipulation. While the IF statement is widely used in other languages, SQLite does not support it, hence CASE + WHEN + ELSE is used instead. As you can see, the query would return varied results depending on the data input.

– ROUND – straightforward. Every SQL language comes with a lot of useful functions by default.

players_height = pd.read_sql("""SELECT CASE WHEN ROUND(height)<165 then 165 ELSE ROUND(height) END AS calc_height, COUNT(height) AS distribution, (avg(PA_Grouped.avg_overall_rating)) AS avg_overall_rating, (avg(PA_Grouped.avg_potential)) AS avg_potential, AVG(weight) AS avg_weight FROM PLAYER LEFT JOIN (SELECT Player_Attributes.player_api_id, avg(Player_Attributes.overall_rating) AS avg_overall_rating, avg(Player_Attributes.potential) AS avg_potential FROM Player_Attributes GROUP BY Player_Attributes.player_api_id) AS PA_Grouped ON PLAYER.player_api_id = PA_Grouped.player_api_id GROUP BY calc_height ORDER BY calc_height ;""", conn) players_height players_height.plot(figsize=(12,5)) EndNote About the Author

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Beginner’s Guide To Cryptocurrency Investments For 2023

Throughout the years, the cryptocurrency market has gathered a lot of momentum and investors’ attention from all over the world. Crypto investments are gaining traction as digital assets gain prominence. But, especially for newcomers, investing in cryptocurrencies can be rather difficult. There are more than 22,000 cryptocurrencies available for trading as of February 2023. Not to forget how volatile the cryptocurrency market is. It is indeed crucial to do proper research and refer to a guide who wishes to invest before entering the world of cryptocurrencies.

Understand Cryptocurrencies- It is essential to have a firm grasp of what cryptocurrency is before stepping foot into the realm of cryptocurrency investment. A digital or virtual currency secured by cryptography referred known as cryptocurrency, makes it nearly impossible to forge or double spend. Cryptocurrencies, as opposed to conventional money, are decentralized, meaning they run without the assistance of a central authority or financial institution. There are many other kinds of cryptocurrencies available, with Bitcoin being the most well-known. Ethereum, Litecoin, and Ripple are a few other well-liked cryptocurrencies. Before making an investment in a cryptocurrency, it is crucial to comprehend its fundamentals and features.

Conducting Research- Investing in cryptocurrency is a long-term investment, and it is vital to conduct thorough research before investing in any digital asset. This research involves studying the market trends, the cryptocurrency’s history, and the project’s development team. Researching the market trends will give you an idea of the cryptocurrency’s performance over time while studying the cryptocurrency’s history will give you insight into the project’s viability. Investors should also research the development team responsible for the project. The team’s credentials, experience, and vision will give you an idea of the project’s potential for success. It is crucial to invest in a project with a strong development team with a proven track record.

Choosing the Right Cryptocurrency Exchange- Cryptocurrency exchanges are platforms that allow users to buy, sell, and trade cryptocurrencies. It is crucial to choose the right cryptocurrency exchange to invest in cryptocurrency. Some of the popular cryptocurrency exchanges include Coinbase, Binance, Kraken, and Bitfinex. When selecting a cryptocurrency exchange, it is essential to consider factors such as fees, security, and user interface. Fees are the charges imposed by the cryptocurrency exchange for using their platform. Security is another critical factor to consider when selecting a cryptocurrency exchange. The exchange should have robust security measures to prevent hacking and other cybersecurity threats. Lastly, the user interface should be user-friendly, making it easy for investors to navigate the platform.

Creating a Cryptocurrency Wallet- A cryptocurrency wallet is a digital wallet used to store cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrency wallets come in two types, hot wallets, and cold wallets. Hot wallets are connected to the internet and are used for quick and easy access to cryptocurrencies. Cold wallets, on the other hand, are offline wallets and are used for long-term storage. Investors must choose the right cryptocurrency wallet to store their digital assets. Some of the popular cryptocurrency wallets include Trezor, Ledger Nano S, and MyEtherWallet. When selecting a cryptocurrency wallet, it is essential to consider factors such as security, user-friendliness, and supported cryptocurrencies.

Investing in Cryptocurrency- Investing in cryptocurrency requires a long-term investment strategy. The volatility of cryptocurrency markets means that the value of digital assets can fluctuate rapidly. As such, it is essential to invest in a cryptocurrency that you believe in and that has a strong potential for long-term growth.

Dollar-cost averaging is a popular investment strategy used in cryptocurrency investment. Dollar-cost averaging involves buying small amounts of a cryptocurrency over a set period, instead of investing a lump sum at once. This strategy helps reduce the impact of market volatility on the investment.

Diversifying Your Portfolio- Diversification is a critical investment strategy used in cryptocurrency investment. Diversification involves investing in multiple cryptocurrencies to spread the investment risk. This strategy helps reduce the risk of loss in case one cryptocurrency underperformance.

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