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Windows PE or Windows Preinstallation Environment is a lightweight OS environment from Microsoft which can deploy and recover Windows Installation on multiple computers. If I say that setting up Windows 10 on your computer is easy as compared to setting up a machine in an office environment, most of you would agree. Microsoft has built an operating system that one can use to install, deploy Windows on multiple computers. It can also be used to repair Windows 10 desktop editions including Home, Pro, Enterprise and Education. In this post, I will touch upon in brief what Windows PE is.

What is Windows PE

Windows PE is not an operating system you can use it as the standard one. One should only use it to deploy and recover. Even though it’s lightweight, you will not be able to use it also as an embedded OS. Microsoft had made sure that PE will stop running after 72 hours of continuous use. When you start it again, all changes will be lost including registry changes.

If you want to have something permanent, you will need to mount and customize it.

What can you do with Windows PE

Set up a hard drive before installing Windows.

Use Scripts or apps to Install Windows over a network or a local drive.

Capture and apply Windows images.

Use it to modify the OS while it’s not running.

Set up automatic recovery tools.

If the device cannot boot, you can recover data using it.

Add your custom shell or GUI to automate these kinds of tasks.

Create a Windows PE Rescue Disk.

Since you can do all these, it is evident that Windows PE does support a lot of features of the OS. It includes batch files, scripts, applications including Win32, generic drivers, networking protocols such as TCP/IT, NetBIOS over TCP/IP via LAN. It also supports  NTFS, DiskPart tool, and BCD Boot. When it comes to security, you can use BitLocker, TPM, Secure Boot, and others. Lastly, you can also use VHD, mouse integration, etc. which allows PE to run in a hypervisor.

However, there is no support for Terminal, Network domain, Remote desktop, MSI extension, 64bit over 32 bit and adding app packages through DISM.

Windows PE Size Limitations

Since Windows PE installation uses FAT 32, it creates a limitation. You can use a  maximum 4GB file size and maximum 32GB drive size. Even if you have a drive of more than 32 GB, it will still use only 32GB space. You can either create multiple partitions in the USB drive or use a separate USB for the image or use the image from a network location.

Where can you download Windows PE

At the minimum, you will need 512 MB of RAM, i.e., no hard disk required. But you will need RAM disk boot which can hold the entire Windows PE image. Also note that 32-bit Windows PE works with 32-bit UEFI and BIOS PCs, and 64-bit BIOS PCs while 64-bit Windows PE can boot 64-bit UEFI and BIOS PCs.

Starting with the Windows 10 October Update; Windows is now an add-on to the Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit. You’ll have to create a bootable WinPE USB flash drive, CD, DVD, or virtual hard drive. The files you need to develop WinPE media are included in the Winpe Add-on to the Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit.

To create WinPE media, you’ll have to install the ADK with the Deployment tools option and then install the WindowsPE addon kit.

Now read: What is Windows RE?

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What Is Huggingchat? Benefits, Limitations, Use & More

Discover the benefits, limitations, and how HuggingChat works. Find out why developers, entrepreneurs, and curious minds alike are choosing HuggingChat.

Are you tired of chatbots that lack personality and feel impersonal? Meet HuggingChat, an open-source AI assistant developed by Hugging Face. With HuggingChat, you can experience a chatbot with a friendly, human-like personality that can understand and respond to natural language queries from users. But what exactly is HuggingChat, and how does it work? In this article, we’ll explore the benefits and limitations of HuggingChat, its features, and how to get started with it. Whether you’re a developer, entrepreneur, or just someone curious about AI, read on to discover what HuggingChat has to offer.

More To See: What is Neeva AI?

HuggingChat is an AI-powered chatbot developed by Hugging Face, an AI startup that aims to make AI accessible to everyone. It is an open-source alternative to ChatGPT, an AI-powered chatbot developed by OpenAI. HuggingChat can handle many of the tasks ChatGPT can, such as writing code, drafting emails, and composing rap lyrics. HuggingChat is available to test through a web interface and can be integrated with existing apps and services via Hugging Face’s API.

HuggingChat’s model is based on Meta’s LLaMA, which is not permitted to be used commercially. HuggingChat is essentially a user interface that allows people to interact with an open-source chat assistant dubbed Open Assistant. The AI model driving HuggingChat was developed by Open Assistant, a project organized by LAION, the German nonprofit responsible for creating the data set with which Stable Diffusion, the text-to-image AI model, was trained. Open Assistant aims to replicate ChatGPT, but the group is made up mostly of volunteers and has a long way to go. HuggingChat will soon allow users the ability to plug in new chat models.

Hugging Face’s goal is to provide an AI assistant with a friendly, human-like personality and the ability to understand and respond to natural language queries from users. With HuggingChat, you can enjoy an AI assistant that is open-source and accessible to everyone. HuggingChat is not limited to just one task; it can handle many of the tasks that ChatGPT can. Plus, with HuggingChat’s easy-to-use web interface and API integration, you can easily integrate it with your existing apps and services.

See More: What is GPT-2 Output Detector? How Does It Work?

Friendly, human-like personality

Ability to understand and respond to natural language queries from users

Open-source and accessible to everyone

Handles many of the tasks that ChatGPT can

Easy-to-use web interface

API integration with existing apps and services

At the moment, HuggingChat has significant limitations, and licensing issues need to be worked out before it can be used commercially. HuggingChat’s model is based on Meta’s LLaMA, which is not permitted to be used commercially. HuggingChat’s developers are working on resolving these licensing issues, so stay tuned for updates.

Also Useful: AutoGPT Tutorial: Automate Coding Tasks with AI

Getting started with HuggingChat is easy. Simply visit the Hugging Face website, chúng tôi and access the best open-source AI chat models available to everyone, including HuggingChat. You can test HuggingChat through a web interface and integrate it with your existing apps and services via Hugging Face’s API.

HuggingChat is an open-source AI assistant developed by Hugging Face that aims to provide users with a friendly, human-like personality and the ability to understand and respond to natural language queries. With HuggingChat, you can enjoy an AI assistant that is accessible to everyone and can handle many of the tasks that ChatGPT can. While there are limitations at the moment, HuggingChat’s developers are working on resolving licensing issues, so stay tuned for updates. Get started with HuggingChat today and experience a chatbot that

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What Is Chatgpt? Best Uses And Limitations Of The Chatbot

blog / Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning What is ChatGPT? Top Capabilities and Limitations You Must Know

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According to MarketsandMarkets research, the global chatbot market is expected to reach $10.5 billion by 2026, at a CAGR of 23.5%. However, with the latest ChatGPT Artificial Intelligence (AI) innovation gaining 1 million users in a week, it seems the market is geared to expand at an even faster rate. Now coming to the obvious question, what is ChatGPT? It is a GPT-3-based natural language processing tool that allows users to have human-like conversations with an AI chatbot. It’s like having your personal genie in a digital bottle, always ready to offer a helping hand. 

Curious to know more? Read on to learn about this latest innovation in the field of AI.

ChatGPT Examples: Questions to Ask

Users can ask all kinds of questions to ChatGPT to get straightforward and uncluttered responses in return. For example, you can use the tool as an encyclopedia and ask questions. For instance, “define Newton’s laws of motion” or “write a poem”. Additionally, you may ask the AI tool to design a computer program and demonstrate all the different combinations to arrange the letters of a word.

Who Created ChatGPT?

ChatGPT is Open AI’s brainchild. Open AI is an artificial intelligence research startup organization whose mission is to create an AI system that is safe and beneficial. 

The company has previously made headlines with GPT-3, which can produce text that sounds like it was written by a human, and DALL-E (a generative AI tool), which creates AI art/digital images from natural language descriptions. 

How Does ChatGPT Work?

With an understanding of what is ChatGPT, let’s explore how it works. At its foundation, ChatGPT is a GPT3 and GPT 3.5-based large language model. This AI tool applies machine learning algorithms to a massive corpus of text to respond to users’ requests using language that sounds surprisingly human-like.  

According to OpenAI, ChatGPT enhances its capability through reinforcement learning, which depends on human feedback. The business hires human AI trainers to interact with the model while assuming the roles of both a user and a chatbot. Trainers compare responses given by ChatGPT to human replies and grade their quality to reinforce human-like conversation approaches. 

Will ChatGPT Replace Google as an “Answer Engine”?

It can be helpful to ask questions to a computer and receive prompt responses, and ChatGPT does exactly that. Google typically provides users with links to websites it considers to be relevant as well as its own proposed answers to user inquiries. Often, ChatGPT responses surpass Google’s recommendations as it uses the latest, well-trained AI algorithms.  

However, before trusting ChatGPT replies, users should confirm the information from authentic sources. Verifying the accuracy of ChatGPT answers takes effort because, unlike Google, it uses raw text without any links or citations. Moreover, as ChatGPT continues to make progress, Google is also building large language models of its own and using AI extensively in its search algorithms. 

Therefore, to think that ChatGPT will replace Google’s answer engine sounds a bit far-fetched, but it is definitely showing the way toward it. 

What are ChatGPT’s Limitations?

Wrong Answers

ChatGPT is a large language model that is continuously being trained to increase the accuracy of responses. However, since it is a brand-new tech, the model has not yet undergone sufficient training. Therefore, the AI chatbot may provide wrong answers. Due to this, StackOverflow has banned ChatGPT, saying: “Overall, because the average rate of getting correct answers from ChatGPT is too low, the posting of answers created by ChatGPT is substantially harmful to our site and to users who are asking or looking for correct answers.”

Limitations in Training Data and Bias Issues

Like many AI models, ChatGPT has limitations in its training data. Both the constraints in training data and bias in the data can create a negative impact on the model’s output. In fact, ChatGPT has shown bias when it comes to training minority data groups. Therefore, it’s important to improve the data transparency of the models to reduce bias in this technology.


On Twitter, there is a conversation thread regarding how many Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are required to run ChatGPT. The takeaway here is that running ChatGPT is highly expensive. Given that ChatGPT is a free product, a lot of questions are currently being raised on how sustainable the technology is in the long run. 

What Can You Create With ChatGPT?

Besides providing responses to human queries, ChatGPT can be used to do the following:

Create Content

ChatGPT can be used for content creation, as it can easily write content based on a prompt. For instance, the AI tool can write a song based on a user’s command. Moreover, ChatGPT can also help users to add a touch of elegance to their writing style and achieve their literary goals.

Generate AI Art

Since the introduction of DALLE-2, Midjourney, and other artistic AI tools, AI art generators have been at the forefront of the creation of artistic images. Moving ahead, OpenAI’s ChatGPT has enormous potential in producing richly detailed Augmented Reality (AR) scenarios, when prompted.

Write Code and Debug

ChatGPT can process code, write code, and help developers debug codes as well. For instance, it can be used to generate SQL queries. Since knowledge of SQL is imperative for data scientists, using ChatGPT to enhance SQL skills can accelerate your career and take it to the next level.

Manage and Manipulate Data

Unstructured data is hard to sort, manage, and organize, making it redundant. ChatGPT comes to the rescue as it can convert unstructured data into a structured format by manipulating data. For instance, the tool can be used to add data to a table, make indexes, and understand JSON queries. 

Explain and Tutor

It is interesting how well ChatGPT can explain words, code, and even physics. As the AI tutor capabilities of ChatGPT develop and become more refined in the coming years, it can dramatically alter the way students interact with the outside world. 

Consequently, ChatGPT will also have a huge impact on the education tech industry. Many edtech companies can now teach the fundamentals of a topic and make use of ChatGPT to offer students a platform to ask questions and clear their doubts. 

ALSO READ: 12 Workplace Trends to Expect in 2023

How Can I Get Started Using ChatGPT?

In spite of its limitations, ChatGPT is demonstrating its suitability in meaningful use cases. Therefore, businesses are looking forward to leveraging it for commercial purposes. Hence, now is the ideal time for enthusiasts to learn about the latest trends and exciting opportunities in this field. To further understand the tech that is powering such innovations, check out Emeritus’ world-class AI and ML online courses spanning the latest industry topics and innovations. 

By Rupam Deb 

Write to us at [email protected]

Deploying Windows Xp, Using The Windows Pe

At some point, nearly every system administrator in a large computing environment will be faced with the challenge of automating the setup of a new operating system. While an upgrade is typically an easier option to implement, it does not provide the same flexibility as a new installation and typically leaves systems vulnerable to issues inherited from legacy software and configuration options.

The benefits gained from an install make the effort worthwhile and allow the admin to considerably limit time spent setting up new computers and ensuring each of them is configured to the same set of standards. Fortunately, a significant part of the installation — dealing with core operating system and its main components — is well documented (DEPLOY.CAB file, included with the installation CD of every Windows version located in the SUPPORTTOOLS folder provides detailed information on deployment tools as well as “Guide to Unattended Setup” detailing Answer File parameters) and augmented by Microsoft (the same file contains the utilities Setup Manager and chúng tôi which assist with the creation of answer files, creation of distribution share points, and cloning), which greatly simplifies its automation.

On the other hand, implementing two remaining stages in this process, one immediately preceding the operating system installation and one that follows it, require extra creativity and can vary greatly from one environment to another.

The next few articles of the “Deploying Windows XP” series will explore some of the more common ways of dealing with both of these stages, starting with the initial one.

Deployment Methods

In essence, there are two basic methods of deploying Windows on larger scale: scripted installation, which automates and customizes standard setup process using Windows source files and cloning (also known as imaging), during which a drive containing operating system installation is replicated and transferred to the hard drive on a target computer (this type of operation is made possible through use of such utilities as Ghost from Symantec, RapiDeploy from Altiris, ImageCast from Innovative Software, or TrueImage from Acronis). Source files or images can be located in one of three places:

Removable Media: Typically a CD-ROM, the system being installed must have the ability to boot either directly from this media or from another device (such as a floppy drive) and load necessary drivers to be able to access device where operating system source files reside.

Network Share: This is the most traditional and best documented method. A network link is used the distribute the files from the server for installation. This can be accomplished two ways: 1) by initiating connection from a client machine (by either booting from a removable media, such as a floppy or CD-ROM disk and loading necessary network adapter drivers and network protocols, or by using the network boot feature, present in overwhelming majority of systems produced today), or 2) by employing solutions, such as virtual floppy disk or Wake-on-LAN (which remotely trigger boot process on target computers using functionality provided in Advanced Configuration and Power Interface-compliant hardware and firmware).

Local Drive: This method typically involves cloning, but it obviously requires the image be first copied from its original location on removable media, network share, or via a direct link to another hard drive.

Each of these methods has benefits and drawbacks with respect to such features as hardware dependencies (introduced by need-to-load appropriate network adapters in case of network-based installation methods or incompatibilities between images required for different types of systems when using cloning), ease of maintenance (e.g., the ability to apply modifications), or time required to complete an installation. The issues with hardware support are probably most acute when dealing with network installations. The most traditional approach involves booting from an MS-DOS-based floppy disk, loading appropriate network adapter driver, connecting to a network share containing source files, and launching the setup (or image copy).

Unfortunately, unless all your computers have identical hardware, to implement these few simple steps you must develop a mechanism for customizing floppy disk content to match every network card on the systems to be deployed (and, potentially, provide support for mass-storage devices, whenever required). This can be a challenging task considering you not only have to locate necessary 16-bit drivers (the availability of which might be limited), but also must fit them on a floppy disk.

As the result, a designated image is loaded from the RIS server and executed on the local computer (launching the boot process and starting installation). However, although PXE technology is available on the majority of newer computers, older systems are unlikely to support it. Similarly, Floppy Disk Generator has limited selection of available network card models (which, in addition, is not updatable). Furthermore, the solution works only in environments that have implemented an Active Directory infrastructure with DHCP-based IP addressing.

Apple Silicon: What It Is, Benchmarks, Reviews, News, And More

What is Apple Silicon?

During its WWDC 2023 keynote, Apple officially confirmed its transition from Intel chips to its own Apple Silicon for the Mac. In addition to details for developers, Tim Cook announced that the first Mac with Apple Silicon would ship to consumers by the end of this year.

Apple M1

At its ‘One More Thing’ event in November, Apple officially announced its first Apple Silicon processor designed specifically for the Mac, dubbed the M1. The M1 chip features an eight-core design alongside a powerful Neural Engine and GPU, offering dramatic efficiency and performance improvements for the Mac.

With Apple controlling the processor in a Mac, it can offer significantly better software optimization than others like Intel. In the case of the Mac, this means that macOS 11 Big Sur is optimized specifically for the M1 processor. By creating the silicon themselves, Apple has much more control over how well macOS and a Mac hardware perform together. Even without touching on the technical specifications of the new M1 chip, the improved optimization in macOS should make for dramatic performance and reliability improvements.

Using Apple Silicon in the Mac also means that the Mac can now run iPhone and iPad applications. While developers can opt-out of this, it means that you’ll be able to find iPhone and iPad applications in the Mac App Store for the first time.

iPhone and iPad apps on the Mac through the Mac App Store

Rosetta 2 translation allows you to run apps made for Intel Macs on Apple Silicon, and sometimes apps perform better in Rosetta with Apple Silicon’s M1 than they do natively with Intel, Apple says.

Universal apps are apps built for Apple Silicon and Intel processors and are downloadable from the Mac App Store or from the web.

When it announced the new M1 processor during the special “One more thing” event from Apple Park, Apple touted that it’s the “first chip designed specifically for the Mac.” It’s built using a 5-nanometer with 16 billion transistors, and Apple says it was designed “for Mac systems in which small size and power efficiency are critically important.”

As such, the M1 features industry-leading performance per watt. This is why the first Apple Silicon MacBook Air and MacBook Pro models are able to offer such notable improvements in battery life compared to their Intel predecessors.

Apple Silicon’s M1 chip is an 8-core CPU with four high-performance cores and four high-efficiency cores. The high-performance cores each provide industry-leading performance for single-threaded tasks, and Apple says they are “the world’s fastest CPU cores in low-power silicon.”

Apple also says that the four high-efficiency cores deliver “outstanding performance at a tenth of the power.” In fact, the high-efficiency cores are so powerful themselves that they deliver similar performance to the dual-core Intel MacBook Air while being much more efficient.

In total, Apple says that the eight cores work together to provide “incredible compute power for the most demanding tasks and deliver the world’s best CPU performance per watt.”

M1 GPU Apple Silicon Neural Engine

The M1 chip also brings Apple’s industry-leading Neural Engine to the Mac for the first time. The M1 Neural Engine features a 16-core design that can perform 11 trillion operations per second. Apple has used the Neural Engine in the iPhone and iPad since the A11 processor was introduced in 2023. Neural Engine was something designed specifically for machine learning tasks like video analysis, voice recognition, artificial intelligence, photo scanning, and much more.

What’s next for Apple Silicon?

The M1 chip is just the beginning of a “new family of chips designed specifically for the Mac.” Again, the new M1 processor is designed specifically for lower-power machines where efficiency is especially important. Over the next two years, Apple will likely release new Apple Silicon chips for the iMac, Mac Pro, and higher-end MacBook Pros.

What Is Microsoft Sway And How To Use It

Microsoft Sway has been available for years, but remains one of Microsoft’s best-kept secrets. The digital storytelling app provides a quick way to create beautiful, animated presentations that are automatically tailored for different devices.

Unlike PowerPoint, there’s not much of a learning curve to Sway. Think of Microsoft Sway as PowerPoint for people who don’t want to learn PowerPoint. In fact, Sway doesn’t even want you to call them “presentations.” You’ll be creating “Sways.”

Table of Contents

Is Microsoft Sway Free?

Microsoft Sway is a web app that’s free for anyone with a Microsoft account. Go to Sway on your browser and login with your Microsoft account. If you’re using Sway as part of Microsoft 365, you’ll have access to a few extra features that people using a free account won’t have, like removing the footer and adding password protection to your Sway presentation. 

Microsoft 365 users enjoy higher limits to the number of Sway elements they can use in each Sway they create.

Again, these limits are per Sway presentation. The free account will likely suffice for most users.

How You Could Use Sway

A presentation for work

A newsletter for clients

A slideshow of embarrassing photos for a friend’s Zoom birthday party

A compelling story on any topic you wish 

A good first step is to look through the templates that Sway provides or “Get inspired by a featured Sway” and view some great examples of what you can do with the app. Alternatively, you can search for a topic, and Sway will create an outline for you to follow. Don’t you wish PowerPoint would do that for you?

How to Create and Design a Sway

The Sway workspace is divided into two tabs: Storyline and Design. 

Since your final Sway isn’t likely to be a series of slides (although you will have that option), but rather a single, flowing web page that you’ll navigate through by scrolling (either top to bottom or left to right), think of your presentation as a trip you’ll be taking viewers on from start to finish.

Sway’s Storyline Workspace 

Select Create New to begin a Sway from scratch, or select Start from topic to let Sway create an outline for you. Alternatively, you can begin by uploading a PDF, Word, or PowerPoint document, and Sway will use it as a template.

In this case, we’ll search for a topic and select the Create outline button. Sway will create the framework of your presentation for you. 

Sway has automatically given the Sway a title and content cards which you can edit at any time. Delete any card by selecting the trash icon on the card you want to remove.

You add content to your Sway by adding cards to the Storyline, and you can rearrange cards at any time with Sway’s drag-and-drop controls. 

Another way to add content to your Sway is by searching for content on your computer or on the web. From the menu bar, select Insert.

From there you can search a variety of sources for content to add to your Sway.

Select a content source and then type a word or phrase into the field marked Search sources. Finally, select the magnifying glass icon or press Enter. Check the Creative Commons Only box to restrict the results to content that doesn’t require a license to use. 

Card Options

Cards in the Storyline workspace offer a number of options depending on what type of content they hold. Image cards allow you to format the text of the image’s caption, choose the Focus Points on your image, and choose how much you want to emphasize that card.

Setting focus points is important because it helps Sway choose how to position the image. Select the most important part(s) of the image, and Sway will determine the best position for the image depending on your device and the style you choose. 

You can see previews of how your content will look on a computer screen or a mobile device. 

Text cards also provide options for text formatting, linking, and emphasis.

Sway’s Design Workspace

The Design workspace is where you can control the look and feel of your Sway. Select the Design tab from the menu. 

Then select Styles.

You’ll always see a preview of how your Sway will appear to others in the Design workspace. 

If you’re feeling uninspired, select the Remix button to let Sway choose the design and layout for you.

Select the Play button to get the full experience. 

How to Share Your Sway

The Share button gives you several ways to share your Sway. 

You can generate a view or edit link or share to Facebook, Twitter, or LinkedIn, or you can get the code to embed the Sway on a website. 

Save Time and Impress Others with Microsoft Sway

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