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Unauthorized wireless devices can expose your organization’s confidential data and critical assets to the outside world. Left connected, these devices create a dangerous vulnerability at best, and at worst, a company disaster. Despite the widespread understanding that rogue devices are a leading security threat facing enterprises today, organizations continue to look for viable solutions and best practices for scouring the entire network to ensure that only approved devices are connected.

There are solutions available to root out unauthorized access points and other devices acting as access points, known as rogue peers. However, enterprises and government organizations should look for solutions that find and eliminate rogue devices while also being easy to deploy and manage – and cost-effective. A new approach that should be considered is wired side scanning using a security appliance, which can be a highly effective, lower cost solution to protect the entire network.

The Rogue Wireless Device Problem

As enterprise networks expand and more and more devices are introduced, it is critical to quickly discover and eliminate network infrastructure that poses a significant risk to the organization. The emergence of wireless networking has created a host of new threats that must be addressed under the umbrella of wireless vulnerability management. In particular, unauthorized devices connected to the wired network can pose the most acute risk.

Rogue wireless devices can be broken down into two broad categories: access point (AP) based threats and computer based threats.

Rogue Access Points

A rogue access point is an AP which is connected to the LAN without the blessing of a network administrator. Most commonly, rogue APs are added to the network by employees or contractors who want to improve their own productivity by being able to work wirelessly.

Rogue Peers

A rogue peer is an end-user computer—usually a laptop—that has both bridging and wireless enabled. Since the basic functions of an access point are bridging and wireless access, any laptop that has these capabilities presents a similar vulnerability or worse. In fact, the vulnerability with a rogue peer can be much more severe than with a rogue AP, because laptops provide almost no security features to prevent connections from other unauthorized users.

In addition to the problems of network access provided by rogue APs or rogue peers, there are also security concerns about other unauthorized networked devices. For example, a Web camera connected to the LAN could be used by an attacker to eavesdrop on confidential meetings. It may have been installed by a well-meaning employee, but it’s actually sharing your trade secrets.

Depending on your organization’s security policy, different devices may be considered security risks. In some organizations, even the act of connecting an unauthorized printer to the network is considered a serious vulnerability.

Discovering Everything on the LAN

The first step to being able to find unauthorized devices on the LAN is to find everything. The second step is to quickly hone in on the devices which meet the criteria of being a threat. With the network appliance scanning approach, a combination of passive and active techniques are used for discovering devices, because both techniques are needed to discover all of the devices. Passive techniques place the least load on the network and also help the system discover the network topology, but some devices may not communicate very frequently. Active techniques work quickly and are less dependent on the network topology.


Accurate classification is critical for any system responsible for discovering and identifying network infrastructure. Determining what a networked device is, based upon only what can be observed from the network, is very much like recognizing your friends from their silhouettes—the one with the long nose or protruding forehead is easy to recognize, but the others all look very similar. Solutions using the new wired side scanning approach collect as much information about each device as possible using the discovery techniques already mentioned. Once the basic device mapping is complete, additional probing is used for classification. The system then combines the information and matches the data against known device signatures to determine which one matches the best.

With over 300 different manufacturers of access points and tens of thousands of different models of network equipment, the major challenge for device classification has been in creating a database of fingerprints for all of these devices. Typically, the approach has been to acquire one of each device that needs to be fingerprinted and probe it in a laboratory. This technique simply can’t scale beyond hundreds of devices. Furthermore, it is limited to devices which can be easily purchased and acquired, which ignores devices that are no longer on the market, are only sold in foreign markets, or are relatively rare.

New collaborative classification techniques are now leveraged for building the classification database. This process leverages the collaboration of network administrators and networks.


The new wired side solution approach mitigates rogue wireless devices through the technique of Ethernet port disabling. Enterprises can leverage configuration capabilities for auto-blocking a particular device type. Whether automatic or manual, the product will block the switch port for the rogue wireless device.


Unauthorized wireless devices connected to the network continue to be the number one wireless security risk that network administrators need to address. With new wired side scanning solutions that can find, classify and remove rogue devices, it is now possible to scan an entire network to accurately find and remediate these threats. This protects organizations from wireless threats, whether they have implemented a wireless infrastructure or need to enforce a “no wireless” policy. And while the bane of classification systems has been their inability to properly identify devices and differentiate actual threats from authorized devices, the use of new classification techniques can finally solve this problem.

Author Dr. Christopher Waters is the CTO at Network Chemistry.

This article was first published on chúng tôi

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Yes You Can Install Ios 12 Beta Right Now, But Don’t

The anticipation for iOS 12 is high for many iPhone and iPad owners, and with iOS 12 developer beta out in the wild, many people may be tempted to install iOS 12 beta onto their devices right now.

Installing the iOS 12 developer beta is possible, but ultimately you shouldn’t. If you’re that interested in running beta system software, you should at least wait a while.

Installing iOS 12 Beta Right Now is Possible but…

It turns out that anyone can install iOS 12 beta right now through one of two means; signing up for an Apple Developer account, or by obtaining the iOS 12 developer beta profile. There’s no need to register a device UDID or anything else, all is needed is the beta profile and an iOS 12 supported device.

The first method requiring an Apple Developer account is just a matter of signing up and paying for the membership here at chúng tôi But the Developer program is intended for developers, not casual users, so this is really not a good idea unless you’re actually a developer of some sort.

The second method utilizes the iOS 12 developer beta configuration profile, which is a small file .mobileconfig file that installs onto an iPhone or iPad and then allows that device to access the iOS 12 beta system software through Software Update. The “iOS_12_Beta_Profile.mobileconfig” files can be found to download in a variety of places on the web, or perhaps from a colleague or friend with a developer account. While the beta profile can technically be installed onto any device, it is still not a good idea to do so for various reasons. One, it’s possible the beta profile .mobileconfig file is from a sketchy source and not actually legitimate or from Apple, in which case it’d be a very bad idea to install a random profile onto any iPhone or iPad. And second, even if the beta profile is legitimate and from Apple, the iOS 12 developer beta software is buggy and it will not be a good experience for most users. It’s even possible that permanent data loss could occur if the device runs into an issue with the iOS 12 developer beta system software builds. Just don’t take the risk, it’s not worth it.

Don’t Install the iOS 12 Developer Beta, Wait Instead

Early developer beta software is notoriously unreliable and is about as buggy as beta system software releases get. Thus, even if you get ahold of the iOS 12 beta profile yourself from the developer center or through a friend or elsewhere, you should fight the urge to install the early beta versions and just wait.

But I Want to Install and Beta Test iOS 12! What Should I Do?

If you really do want to beta test iOS 12, then you should wait for the iOS 12 public beta, which will start soon. The public beta builds of iOS 12 will be a bit further refined and should perform notably better than the early developer beta releases. Apple specifically created the public beta testing program to fit this desire of many users who like to explore and experiment with future system software.

If you find yourself in a bind and are currently running iOS 12 beta but regret it, don’t forget you can always downgrade iOS 12 beta back to revert back to a stable build of iOS 11.x if you need to, though you’ll want to be sure you have sufficient backups handy so that you can avoid total data loss.

Ultimately, the vast majority of iPhone and iPad users should never install beta system software at all – be it a developer beta or public beta – and instead most people are better off only installing and running the final versions of iOS when they are made available to the general public. For iOS 12, the final version will be available sometime this fall. Just have a little patience.


23Andme Can Now Test For Brca Mutations. Here’s What You Need To Know.

The Food & Drug Administration is finally allowing 23andMe to provide testing for the breast cancer-related genes BRCA1 and 2. Back in 2013, when the direct-to-consumer company originally starting selling the test, the FDA clamped down and forced 23andMe to verify its genetic health risk evaluations. 23andMe had to prove the genes they were testing for were related to a health condition, and show that the tests were accurate.

But it also means we’re handing out data to people who might not be adequately prepared to hear it, and who might not actually understand what they’re getting. Testing positive for a genetic mutation often doesn’t mean you’ll get the associated disease, and we still don’t really understand how exactly genes impact your overall health. Before, when you had to get your genetic information through a counselor, a trained expert walked you through the process and explained the complex factors that go into disease risk. Now you get your answer from a website.

There’s a lot to unpack about this new BRCA test, so let’s take a few minutes to discuss what’s at stake here.

What is BRCA, anyway?

Inside your cells, you have a set of proteins whose only job is to identify and fix mistakes in your DNA. Every time your cells divide (which, by the way, happens millions of times a day), they have to replicate your genetic code to pass it along. Individual mutations—which is what we call any mistake in your DNA—happen all the time, but your repair proteins fix most of them before they cause any harm. Mutations most often come in the form of one DNA building block being swapped for another, but sometimes they occur because a DNA strand breaks, and the repair protein mends the strand imperfectly. Maybe a piece is lost, or the wrong end of the strand gets stuck back on. If just one strand snaps, the repair proteins can usually match the right end. But if both strands break at once, repair proteins struggle to make it right.

This is why the majority of women with BRCA1 and 2 mutations go on to develop breast cancer. In the general population, 12 percent of women develop the disease at some point in their life. But having certain BRCA1 or 2 mutations ups those odds to 72 and 69 percent, respectively. It also increases your chance of getting ovarian cancer, though not by nearly as much.

These mutations are inherited, so women with a strong family history of breast cancer—especially family members who got cancer in both breasts and/or at an early age—are often encouraged to get a genetic test. Being a carrier of these mutated genes doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll develop breast cancer, but it increases your odds so much that doctors tell people with positive results to get screened for cancer earlier and more often.

Does the 23andMe test work?

In order to get greenlit by the FDA, 23andMe had to prove that their test was clinically valid, meaning it can detects BRCA1/2 mutations with high accuracy and precision.

The big caveat here is that the 23andMe test only looks for three possible mutations out of more than 1,000 known variations. Not all of those are harmful, but many are, and the 23andMe test can’t tell you whether or not you have most of them. A negative result means you don’t have the three most common BRCA1/2 mutations, but you might have others.

It’s also worth noting that these three mutations are almost exclusively found in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Though you may have Jewish heritage that you’re unaware of, most people not of Ashkenazi descent are going to test negative through 23andMe regardless of whether or not they’re actually a carrier for other BRCA mutations.

Should I get the 23andMe BRCA test?

Very few physicians would recommend BRCA testing for the broad population. Less than one percent of people have a BRCA1/2 mutation, so screening everyone isn’t practical or ethical. You’d end up with a lot of false positives—meaning the test says you have a mutation, even though you don’t—because no test is 100 percent accurate. But it is often recommended that you get a test if you have a family history of breast cancer, or if a family member has a known BRCA mutation.

Before home DNA tests, you’d have to go to a genetic counselor to discuss whether you should get a BRCA test at all. The National Society for Genetic Counselors argues that this should still be the standard. “Anyone who has a strong personal or family history of breast or ovarian cancer and is interested in finding out more about their individualized risk should consult with a genetic counselor to discuss their genetic testing options, or to discuss their results,” said Erica Ramos, President of the NSGC, in a statement. Though it’s never a bad idea to go talk to a counselor, not everyone still agrees with that idea.

“I have become more open to the fact that not every person who gets BRCA testing needs a pre-emptive counseling session with a certified genetic counselor,” wrote Leonard Lichtenfeld, Deputy Chief Medical Officer for the American Cancer Society, on his official ACS blog. “Even the genetic counselors have told me they have better things to do with their time, and that there are acceptable alternatives to informing those who want to know more about the test before they get it, such as computer-based information modules.”

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, which reviews evidence for various screening tests and offers a recommendation, says that women should first be screened for a family history of cancer and that “women with positive screening results should receive genetic counseling and, if indicated after counseling, BRCA testing.” They recommend against getting screened if you have no family history suggesting BRCA mutations.

“Given the importance of integrating medical and family history in understanding the implications of the results, it is similarly important that these be considered when deciding which tests are needed,” says Michael Watson, Executive Director of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. “Not only is it important to have knowledgeable professionals involved in interpreting the clinical implications of the results of these tests for a specific individual, it’s equally important that these knowledgeable professionals be involved in informing people of which test is most useful for them, if any.”

He notes that many of the other health conditions that direct-to-consumer tests look at don’t have a lot of clinical relevance. If you find out you’re predisposed to certain eye diseases, it probably won’t change what your doctor recommends you do to stay healthy. But Watson explains that the BRCA mutations do change your situation. Some women will have preventative mastectomies or hysterectomies to confront an extremely high likelihood of cancer.

There’s no one right or wrong answer to the question of whether you should get the test or whether you should talk to a counselor. But it can’t hurt to talk to a medical professional.

It’s also worth keeping in mind that companies who profit from selling you a genetic test are the ones encouraging you to take said test. It used to be that DNA testing companies got their business through doctors and genetic counselors. Now those companies are coming directly to consumers, and we shouldn’t assume they have our best interests at heart.

23andMe receives a steady stream of income from selling customers’ genetic information. Some of it goes to research institutions, but they also sell to for-profit companies who use that data to try to develop new drugs. Though they may have nothing but good intentions, 23andMe only profits if people take their tests. It’s not in their interest to tell you that this may not be the right choice for you.

That being said, 23andMe is also a fairly cheap and easy way of looking at genetic markers for health risks. It’s probably not the ideal way to learn about those risks—that’s why we have counselors—but it’s not the worst. And if you’re unaware of your family history—if you’re adopted or estranged from your biological family—getting a test like 23andMe can be an accessible way to learn some basics.

What happens if my test says I’m positive?

Should your test say you have a BRCA1/2 mutation, now you should definitely talk to a genetic counselor. 23andMe doesn’t directly provide those services, so your best bet is to use the NSGC’s “Find a Counselor” tool. You’ll also probably want to talk to your primary care doctor about the results, since they should be aware of your situation. It’s possible they’ll ask you to consider some proactive treatments, depending on how high your risk is. And if you test positive for one of the common BRCA mutations, they’ll definitely want to put you on a more intense cancer screening regimen than the general population.

You may think that if you know what the results mean and don’t care to do anything about them, you don’t need to see a counselor. But here’s the thing: you don’t know what you don’t know. Genetic counselors are trained to talk to people who have just received what is, undeniably, life-changing news. They will know what you need to be aware of, and should you experience any anxiety or depression from the news, they’ll get you help. And perhaps even more importantly, they’ll know if you should follow your 23andMe results with a more in-depth genetic screening. There are many other mutations out there related to breast cancer, and some of them can raise your risk for other kinds of cancer, too.

23andMe repeatedly brings up the study they did showing that receiving a positive BRCA test didn’t have negative impacts on their customers. That may very well be true, but you should also know the conclusion came from interviewing just 32 people who responded to a request to participate in the study, out of 136 people who tested positive. Out of those, 16 were men. Male carriers still have a significantly elevated risk, but their lifetime risks of 1.2 and 6.8 percent for BRCA 1 and 2 respectively are still lower than the average woman’s breast cancer risk. It also slightly elevates the risk of prostate cancer.

When asked about their emotional response to the news, three women and one man reported that they were moderately upset, indicating they “couldn’t stop thinking about the result.” Another three women and 6 men were somewhat upset, meaning they felt “initial disappointment” or “felt anxious at first but then anxiety went away.” Nine women and eight men were neutral (some of these may have been people who already knew they were carriers, since five women reported they had already been tested).

And what if it’s negative?

Since the test only looks for three mutations, a negative result on the 23andMe test isn’t a guarantee of anything. If you have a family history of breast cancer, you should go to a genetic counselor and ask about getting a full screening. It’s only with a broader test that you’ll know whether you’re truly a carrier, which can inform your future plans for cancer screenings like colonoscopies and mammograms. So unless you also want to take 23andMe for other reasons, it doesn’t make much sense to use it for BRCA. Just skip right to talking to your doctor. 23andMe may be cheaper if you’re trying to get tested without insurance, but it’s still not going to do you much good when you’re left with incomplete results.

What if I don’t want to know?

No genetic test is to be taken lightly, so everyone should consider the possible outcomes before they get one. Maybe it’s right for you, maybe it isn’t. Just think about it first. And if you’re at all willing or able to do so, talk to a doctor or genetic counselor, too.

Quality Score Update: What You Need To Know

AdWords Quality Score Changes Sept. 12, 2023

The change from Google is that keywords with insufficient data, either new keywords or keywords with sparse recent history will now get a null QS. I think this is a useful change because it gives us cleaner data to monitor what Google really thinks about our accounts’ QS.

What Changes From the 2023 QS Update

The problem with the 2023 update was that it created two possible reasons why a keyword might have a QS of 6:

The keyword earned a QS of 6 based on its history

The keyword had too little data and was defaulted to QS 6

You can see why that can create some confusion: it’s very hard to determine if a keyword with a QS of 6 is worth optimizing or if it might improve on its own given a bit more time. In our research at Optmyzr we concluded that after approximately 100 impressions, an ad with a QS of 6 was probably really a QS 6 keyword and not merely waiting for more data.

For people who were monitoring account-level QS through scripts like the one I published or tools like the Quality Score Tracker from Optmyzr (my company), the 2023 change resulted in all accounts moving closer to an account-level QS of 6. In the example shown here, an account with great QS dropped a bit because a lot of keywords with sparse data got defaulted to QS 6.

What is Not Changing

If the ad is eligible to appear for the query

In what position the ad will appear (rank and top-of-page promotion)

The actual CPC needed to beat the next competitor

What extensions and other features like dynamic keyword insertion (DKI) the ad is eligible to use

Free AdWords Script to Calculate Account Quality Score

If you’re interested to track how the Sept 2023 change impacts your account QS, be sure to start calculating it before the change with a script like this one. By calculating the score before and after the change using the same methodology, you can get a good understanding of how the change impacts you directionally.

I first published a version of this script in 2013 and have now updated it in a few important ways:

It only uses QS data when the QS is a number from 1 to 10. Keywords with no QS, i.e. ‘–’ are excluded from the calculation.

The script still calculates the score using only data from Google Search. This is because different ad layouts on search partners could impact the score, so Google removes this variation by excluding data from search partners.

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What You Should Know About Leasing An Office

More office leasing tips

Here are a few other things to keep in mind if you want to rent commercial office space.

Decide whether you’re renting long term or short term.

As you determine what you want in an office space, figure out if it’s in your best interest to rent on a long- or short-term basis. Many lessors expect you to rent their space for one to three years and may provide you with a contract that asserts this. If you’re not willing to make that kind of commitment, adjust your search accordingly.

Consult with an expert. 

Remember that tricky terminology we mentioned? A commercial real estate expert, such as a trusted broker or attorney, can help you make sense of anything you don’t understand. No matter how much research you conduct, there’s no replacement for talking to someone who has been working in real estate for many years. There will always be elements of the process that you don’t fully grasp or understand, leaving you vulnerable to making major missteps and getting stuck with unfair terms. However, if you regularly consult with a seasoned professional during the leasing process, you can minimize these risks.

Did You Know?

You can lease equipment for your business just like you would an office. Doing so may be more cost-effective than purchasing equipment outright.

Be flexible. 

Even if you take excellent inventory of your company’s office needs and don’t rush the process, you may not be able to find a location that hits every preference on your list. Be willing to make reasonable adjustments and alterations to your plans as needed. If you are 100 percent married to a certain vision and refuse to consider other options, you may miss out on great properties that could serve your business well, even if they aren’t what you originally intended. Plus, as you tour various spaces, you may notice that your priorities and desires for an office space change.

Make a list. 

The shopping process when looking for office space isn’t all that different from the buying process you’d follow if you needed new software or equipment. Research the market, assess your options, consider each option’s limitations and drawbacks, and factor in costs. Make lists so you can keep track of the information you’ve collected and can easily compare and contrast properties. Then you’ll be able to more confidently make a final decision. [Read related article: Property Leases: What SMBs Need to Know] 

Pros and cons of leasing an office in a world of remote work

As remote-work trends suggest such arrangements are here to stay, you might be wondering if renting a commercial office space makes sense for your business in this day and age. After all, many people today prefer virtual setups where they can work from home or their favorite coffee shop. Read on to consider the pros and cons of leasing commercial office space in today’s working environment. 

Pros of leasing an office 

Even for digital-first roles, there are certain benefits to working in an office. Here are a few reasons your organization may have a lot to gain if you lease commercial office space.

Social benefits for workers: According to an Indeed survey of people who switched to remote work in 2023, 73 percent reported missing socializing with their co-workers. The bonds formed by colleagues in the office can be hard to replicate in a remote world.

Greater access to office equipment: If your organization needs certain equipment to conduct business, an in-person office setup may be necessary to ensure every employee has the supplies required for their role. 

Easier team meetings: As more and more people experience Zoom burnout, collaborating in person can boost productivity and keep your team better aligned.

Cons of leasing an office 

It’s no surprise many big companies are downsizing and selling office space. The need for extensive physical workspaces has dramatically decreased in recent years. Here are a few reasons relying on office space isn’t ideal. 

Employees want a remote option: Remote work has helped some people achieve a greater work-life balance. A study by Owl Labs found that 80 percent of full-time workers surveyed expect to be able to work remotely three times per week. 

More distractions: A company office can make collaboration simpler, but it also increases the chances for distraction. For example, nearby conversations in an open office space can make it difficult to focus. So too can the temptation to take a few too many breaks with a work friend.

Higher team stress: Some co-workers find the busy environment of an office stressful, which can decrease their productivity and affect their well-being.


There are good and bad qualities to both remote and in-person work. Organizations can strike a balance via a hybrid work option. Such an arrangement could impact the amount of office space you need.

Take your time when searching for a commercial office space

Signing a commercial lease is a big commitment, so it’s important to be diligent in your search. If you’ve evaluated your organization’s growth needs and determined now is the right time for new office space, don’t hurry. Take as much time as you need to research, tour spaces, and find an expert that can answer all your questions. Commercial office space can benefit your company tremendously — as long as you take the right path to find it. 

Natalie Hamingson contributed to the writing and reporting in this article. Source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article. 

Sata: What It Is And What You Need To Know

SATA is two different things: a physical connector standard and a logical communication bus. When SATA was first designed, the two were linked. In fact, the physical SATA connector can only use the logical SATA bus. However, the SATA bus can be accessed over newer physical connectors. In this article, we’ll cover both.

The SATA Bus

In computing, a logical bus is a communication protocol to transfer data. SATA stands for Serial AT Attachment. The AT isn’t technically an acronym to avoid patent infringements. It is based on IBM’s predecessing Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) standard, which was later renamed PATA. The P standing for Parallel to differentiate it from the Serial bus. The SATA protocol was first standardized in 2003.

The SATA Connector

The SATA protocol came with a new connector, a pair of connectors: one for data and one for power. Both connectors are long and thin with a small L shape at the end to ensure they’re connected the right way up. The power connector is wider than the data connector, making it easy to distinguish. The power cable plugs into the drive directly from the PSU. In contrast, the data cable will connect the drive to the motherboard.

Other Connectors

There are a small variety of secondary connectors included in the SATA standard. However, most were short-lived and can’t be found in modern devices. Outside of the SATA standard, the physical M.2 connector supports transferring data over the SATA bus. When purchasing M.2 SSDs, it’s important to double-check if the SSD is a SATA or NVMe drive.

SATA M.2 drives will use a B key, though most M.2 SATA drives also have an M key cut out. The M key has a cut-out after five pins from the right. The B key has the cut-out after 6 pins from the left. Most M.2 SATA drives have both keys cut out, making them easy to identify.

When looking over an M.2 connector, the key is a visual indicator of what bus the slot is connected to. Typically, it is connected to the NVMe bus for high-speed connectivity. But with the B key, data instead runs over the SATA bus. This has the same limitations as the standard SATA connectivity and does not support any extra bandwidth.

Any M.2 slot will only have a single key cut-out, depending on which bus it connects. This makes it impossible to accidentally connect an NVMe M.2 SSD to a SATA M.2 port. While a dual-keyed SATA SSD can physically plug into an NVMe M.2 slot, it is still limited to the SATA transfer speeds. Additionally, this would be non-standard and may not be supported by the BIOS.

What is SATA Good for in a Modern Computer?

SATA is primarily useful for storing data where the writing and reading of said data are not time-sensitive. This can work well for images, relatively low-resolution video, or standard documents where the read/write time is in a relatively short burst. Or the required transmission speed for real-time use is below the bandwidth restrictions of the drive over the SATA connection.

For example, suppose you want to save a word document. In that case, the amount of data to be read or written is so tiny that the relatively slow speed of SATA isn’t an issue. Similarly, the bitrate needed to watch or save 720p 30fps video is lower than the maximum data rate of the SATA connection.

SATA isn’t ideal when speed is an essential factor, or substantial transfers are likely to happen. For example, suppose you want to edit 4K 60fps video footage. In that case, the bandwidth SATA offers simply isn’t enough to do this in real-time. Loading times in video games are also slower on SATA drives as the data simply can’t get loaded into the RAM and VRAM fast enough. Similarly, these will take longer over a slow SATA connection if you want to perform large system backups. Critically it will also take longer to restore from a backup over SATA.


Due to speed limitations, SATA is a legacy connector and logical standard primarily useful for HDDs. Early SSDs used the connector because it was already standard, making market adoption easier. Additionally, early SSDs were much slower than modern drives due to low levels of technological maturity.

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