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Upgrading your computer motherboard might be a cheaper alternative to buying a brand new PC. Whether or not to upgrade your motherboard is a subjective question, it truly depends on factors like, among other things, personal preference.

More so, these factors are also important when contemplating between replacing or upgrading the components attached to it. Let us look at some things you should consider before upgrading your motherboard.

Don’t Rush It…

Firstly, don’t be in a hurry to upgrade yours. The truth is, a motherboard’s lifespan is between 7-10 years. However, if you aren’t good at taking care of your PC motherboard, it might take less time before you’ll need an upgrade.

But if you’re not a heavy user and don’t put pressure on your motherboard, it can last much longer. Some motherboards are over 20 years old and are still working.

Exhaust All Other Options

Only upgrade your motherboard after you’ve exhausted all other options. The truth is, some motherboards cost more than some low-end PCs. Therefore, it isn’t always a cheaper alternative to buying a new PC. 

So, before you upgrade, try upgrading your video card and RAM. It’s cheaper to upgrade your graphics card and add a faster RAM than upgrading the whole motherboard or CPU. Also, the RAM and video card boost might improve your PC’s performance better than if you got a new motherboard or CPU. 

Another thing you need to know is this: installing your motherboard/CPU is difficult. First of all, you’ll have to remove each adapter card. Then you’ll need to take out all the wires or even disconnect parts of your case. And guess what? You’ll have to do it all over again.

In addition, your existing adaptor cards are one of the dependencies of your motherboard or CPU. These include a modem, sound, port cards, and video. Your motherboard needs the adaptor cards to take care of the video on your monitor, the sound you put in your speakers, and the internet in your browser. 

One more thing you’ll have to consider is this: you might need to remove all power supply and existing memory modules. It would be best if you did so because a new motherboard upgrade may force you to let go of every memory module you obtained over the years. 

When It’s Broken

As discussed earlier, upgrading your motherboard can be daunting and expensive. Given that you can use it for a very long time, you may not need to upgrade it just yet, unless, of course, for this reason: when it’s broken.

So, when you realize that your motherboard is no longer responding and you’ve tried several repairs and tests, then you may upgrade it. The motherboard isn’t common maintenance or replacement hardware, so only replace it when it’s causing your PC several problems.

More so, when there’s a component failure or parts connected to the motherboard are out of date (such as older CPU component type, DDR2 memory), it’s a sign that you need a new motherboard.

In addition, component failure on the motherboard might also be when your system is unstable or doesn’t boot. You should probably replace it at this point.

When You Need to Upgrade Your System

Perhaps your system no longer meets your needs, especially if you’re a programmer or a gamer, upgrading to a new CPU might be necessary. Also, if you need to upgrade your system and add new components, you might replace your motherboard.

The reason is that these components (RAM, CPU, etc.) might need a motherboard compatible with them. So, if you want to boost your RAM or add a faster core in your CPU but your motherboard doesn’t support it, then you can, of course, upgrade to one that supports it. 

New Technology

Motherboards come with specific capabilities. So, even if you update the BIOS firmware and add new capabilities to the motherboard, it still won’t give it new abilities.

For instance, let’s say your motherboard only supports USB 2.0 ports; it can’t automatically upgrade its native capabilities to USB 3.0. After all, the motherboard chipset is already soldered. 

The thing is, motherboards will support only a few new generations of a particular CPU line. Therefore, you can upgrade your CPU to a slightly recent model. And this applies to RAM as well.

However, it has a limit. It’s essential to find out what these limitations are from your manufacturer before deciding. You can do this by reviewing the technical documentation on your manufacturer’s website.

Alternatively, instead of replacing the motherboard, you might want to add a PCI card that supports the capabilities you’d like to add. For example, if you want to upgrade to a faster Ethernet port, more SATA ports, or a USB 3.0 port, then get a PCI card that supports these capabilities. 

However, the new PCIe 4.0 card is a new feature you might prefer. If that’s the case, then you might need to get a new motherboard that will support it.


Finally, as I said earlier, replacing your mother may not be necessary, and it’s always subjective. After considering all the factors explained above, it might boil down to age. You might have already used your motherboard for more than five years; therefore, age might be an indicator for replacement.

As a result of age,  you might begin to notice that your system is slower. The fault could come from your hard drive. You can quickly fix this issue by getting an SSD. 

Also, it would help if you were sure that the problem isn’t coming from your CPU because it might be struggling to keep up with current software demands. Another indicator could be that after seven years of use, your browser now takes an eternity to load.

At this point, it will be safe to say that what you do need to replace is your computer system. You could get a fairly used one that’s more recent in terms of generation than the older one.

You're reading When To Upgrade Motherboard ?

Orange Light On Motherboard: 10 Ways To Fix

If you have seen an orange light on your Motherboard, you know it can cause concern.

While orange lights can indicate a hardware issue, they don’t always mean something is wrong with your Computer.

Orange light on Motherboard may indicate faulty hardware, hardware installation issue, program bug, operating system failure, etc. It could be due to insufficient power supply, improperly installed RAM, damaged CPU, short circuit while building PC and damaged hardware.

Continue reading the article to learn what the orange light on Motherboard indicates and how to troubleshoot the problem.

Symptoms of an Orange Light on Motherboard

Orange light on Motherboard issue typically takes the form of one or more of the following:

Overheating of the internal components

Sudden freezing

Blue screen of Death appears with some error code while using or starting up the PC

Crashing and malfunctioning of the programs

Beeping sound from the Motherboard

The inability of the Motherboard to detect the hardware

Damaged RAM

10 Ways to Fix Orange Light on Motherboard

When a Computer experiences an issue with the orange light on its Motherboard, it’s often difficult to determine what caused it.

While there are several reasons why it could occur, it usually has the same outcome.

This article will explore the causes of the orange light on your Motherboard and how to resolve any potential issues.

1. Repair the Power Supply Unit (PSU)

The orange light on a Motherboard can indicate a problem with the power supply unit (PSU).

You can follow these steps to repair the PSU:

Ensure the PSU is correctly connected to the wall outlet and the Motherboard.

Check for any physical damage to the PSU, such as bent pins or a broken casing.

Test the rated voltage output of the PSU using a multimeter.

If the voltage output is incorrect or the PSU is damaged, replace the unit with a new one.

If the steps above do not resolve the issue, the problem may lie elsewhere in the system.

We will continue to troubleshoot the system for potential causes.

Discover whether you can Plug the Power Strip into Surge Protector or not.

2. Check for Damaged or Incompatible RAM/Slots

The orange light on the Motherboard could result from a hardware error or malfunction.

As a result, inspecting the RAM and its slots may provide useful clues in troubleshooting this problem.

We can verify the condition of the RAM and its slots in various ways.

First, we must ensure the RAM module is properly seated in the slots. If there is dust and dirt within the RAM module, we should consider cleaning it.

You can clean the RAM slots by spraying Isopropyl Rubbing Alcohol on the Microfiber Cloth.

Cleaning your Motherboard regularly may also help to prevent the problem. Continue reading to learn how to clean the Motherboard properly using various techniques.

As simple as it may sound, checking the compatibility of the RAM with the Motherboard is also one of the crucial steps.

Different types of RAM are available, and you should check the RAM that fits within the RAM slot and matches the required specification.

Moreover, sometimes the DRAM light may turn on your Motherboard which means that the RAM is faulty and incompatible with your Motherboard.

At last, if none of the above methods worked, you should also consider verifying the RAM condition by checking it on the other Computer systems.

If you get to know that your RAM module is faulty, you should consider replacing it.

Here are some of our top recommendations:

Continue reading to discover why RAM doesn’t work on Computer.

3. Check the Processor

The processor is responsible for the overall operation of the Computer; even a minor issue can affect the overall operation.

The faulty processor may also cause the orange light to glow in the Computer’s Motherboard.

First, check if the processor is securely and properly installed in the socket.

You can try reseating the processor to ensure a proper connection which may fix the problem.

You should also consider checking for any visible damage or defects on the processor.

On top of that, ensuring that the processor is compatible with the socket and the Motherboard is always a good idea.

If none of the above methods work, you can try a different processor, if one is available, to see if the problem is with the current processor.

4. Ensure Proper Power Cable Connections

Disruption in the proper power supply in the Computer system can cause the orange light in the Motherboard.

You should ensure the power connection is properly supplied from the power outlet to the PSU.

Additionally, you can also thoroughly check the condition of wires and the wiring structure to know whether cables are not worn out or bent.

You can also try unplugging all cables that connect your Motherboard or any internal hardware to the power supply and plug it in again.

Note: The orange light on the Motherboard may also appear if you recently cleaned your internal PC components and interfered with the connection.

5. Replace CMOS

Our PC needs to store BIOS settings and configuration even after the PC is turned off. For that purpose, the CMOS battery comes into play.

This provides the necessary power required for the BIOS when the PC is turned off and is not supplied.

The CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) battery has an average endurance of 4-5 years. After that time frame, you should consider replacing the CMOS battery.

6. Reset BIOS

BIOS (Basic Input Output System) is responsible for initializing and controlling all the components in the Computer system.

It performs crucial tasks like controlling data flow and IPO (Input-Process-Output).

Misconfigured BIOS settings and configuration might affect normal hardware functioning, resulting in orange light glowing inside the Motherboard.

In this case, the most effective action is to reset the BIOS. Resetting BIOS brings all of the configurations back to factory default.

Here, we will follow the CMOS battery method to reset the BIOS. Follow these steps:

Turn off your PC.

Disconnect the power cable from the power outlets.

Take out the CMOS battery attached to the Computer’s Motherboard.

Press the power button continuously for at least 15 to 30 seconds. This will reset your system’s BIOS to factory default.

Connect the power sources again and turn on your Computer.

Continue reading to learn how to set RAM speed in BIOS.

7. Check the Graphics Card

An orange light on a Motherboard could indicate a problem with the graphics card (GPU).

This could be due to a faulty GPU, an outdated driver, or a compatibility issue between the GPU and the Motherboard.

To resolve the issue, check for compatibility between the GPU and Motherboard or replace the GPU if necessary.

Follow the steps outlined below to check and replace the graphics card;

First, shut down the Computer and unplug all of the cables.

Next, open up the case and locate the graphics card.

If you see any dust or dirt on the card, blow it off with a can of compressed air.

Once the card is clean, reattach all the cables and power on the Computer.

If the orange light is still on, the problem is likely with the graphics card.

If the problem persists, it may be best to consult a professional repair service or the manufacturer for further assistance.

Meanwhile, do not forget to check our article on Task Manager Not Showing GPU.

8. Protect Components From Overheating

An orange light on a Motherboard indicates that one or more system components are overheating.

Overheating can damage components, reduce system performance, and even cause the system to shut down unexpectedly.

To troubleshoot, clean the system’s interior, check that the PC fans are working properly, and make sure the thermal paste on the CPU and GPU is still effective.

If the problem persists, additional cooling solutions may be required, such as adding fans, liquid cooling, or replacing the overheating component.

Furthermore, seeking further assistance from a professional repair service or manufacturer is always a good idea.

Read on to learn how to replace the thermal paste on a Computer properly.

9. Improperly Assembled Hardware

An orange light on a Motherboard indicates that the hardware has been assembled incorrectly.

This can include incorrect component placement, cable connection, or jumper configuration.

To resolve the problem, carefully re-examine the system’s assembly, double-check that all components are securely connected and properly configured.

If unsure about the proper assembly procedure, consult the Motherboard and other components manual or seek assistance from a professional repair service or manufacturer.

10. Fix the Short Circuit Problem

A short circuit, a low-resistance connection between two points in an electrical circuit that allows a large amount of current to flow, can also cause an orange light on a Motherboard.

A short circuit can damage components and even cause a Fire.

To resolve the problem, immediately turn off and unplug the system.

Then, carefully inspect the system’s interior for any signs of damage, such as burn marks, melted components, and loose or disconnected cables.

If you discover a faulty component, you should replace it.

Continue reading to learn about the chances of your laptop catching Fire and ways to prevent it.

The Bottom Line

The orange light in the Motherboard is the thing to concern. If it is left unaddressed, it can cause serious hardware failure.

Therefore, it is always a good idea to seek further assistance from a professional repair service or manufacturer if you are unsure about the issue.

Continue reading to learn how to fix your freezing Computer.

How To Install The Motherboard In Your Pc Case

The motherboard is a major component in the PC building process. Most of your system components, including the CPU, GPU, RAM, and storage, among other things, are all installed on the motherboard. It is truly the backbone of your computer and is one of the first parts we install while building a PC from scratch. So you need to ensure that the motherboard has been installed correctly in the PC case before you proceed to install the GPU or connect the power supply. Now, installing a motherboard inside a computer case isn’t as mountainous a task as some might have you believe, but you need to keep a few things in mind. With that said, if you are building a new PC or upgrading your existing one, let’s look at how to install the motherboard on your PC.

Step-By-Step Guide to Installing Motherboard (2023)

We will also help you plug in your case’s front I/O perfectly, a step that is otherwise confusing for many PC builders. This is a step-by-step guide on how to install the motherboard inside your PC case.

Things to Remember Before Installing Motherboard

Although this might seem like an obvious prerequisite to building a PC, remember to gather and organize your tools in your workplace. In this case, you will primarily need a Phillips Head screwdriver. Also, make sure your workplace is clean and ground yourself before starting work on PC components. Use an anti-static bracelet during the installation process to avoid electrostatic damage.

Check Motherboard Compatibility with PC Case

Picking the right PC case is the next important step in the process. Depending on the size of your PC cabinet, it can either fit a full-size ATX, microATX, or mini-ITX board. As we described in our in-depth guide on different types of motherboards, you can learn what motherboards can fit into what type of PC cases.

Install Core Components on Motherboard

Before you mount the motherboard inside your PC, make sure to install the core components and complete the basic build outside the case. We suggest you install the CPU on your motherboard, along with the RAM modules and memory sticks, before proceeding further with this guide. Also, you can install an air cooler or AIO prior to placing the motherboard inside the case.

Check for Required Power Connectors

Your motherboard either has a single 6-pin/8-pin CPU power connector or two 8-pin power connectors. High-end motherboards like the ASUS ROG Z790-E tend to have two power connectors to support higher power limits for unlocked CPUs. So, prepare your power supply cables accordingly for a successful installation of the motherboard.

Keep Your Motherboard Manual on Hand

Make sure you have the motherboard manual handy before starting work on the build. If you are missing your motherboard manual, you can download it from the manufacturer’s website. Why do you need it? Since not all motherboards are built the same, we might need to refer to the manual to confirm connectors for USB headers, RGB lights, Front I/O, and more.

Motherboard Standoffs Explained

So you unboxed your PC case and found small metallic screw-like pieces installed where you need to place the motherboard. Now, you are wondering what they are and what are they used for. Well, these small metallic pieces are called standoffs, and you need to install them in your PC cabinet to have the case ready for motherboard installation.

Your motherboard screws into the standoffs you placed in the case, which guarantees not only a secure installation but also helps avoid the risk of short-circuiting the board. So never screw in the motherboard directly, as positioning the standoffs correctly is a major step for installing the board.

How to Install Motherboard Inside a Case

1. As stated above, we will first make sure the standoffs are in the right place before mounting the motherboard. Standoffs are usually pre-installed in the case for a specific motherboard size, but you might need to re-position them for your motherboard. So, get your tools and motherboard to learn how to position the standoffs correctly.

2. Now, position your motherboard inside the case above the standoffs installed in the case. The motherboard’s screw holes will line up to certain standoff positions. You might have to move your motherboard around inside the case and align the holes to the standoff points. Next, assess whether the current standoff positions work for your motherboard installation or not.

In the demonstration below, we have highlighted a few of the motherboard screw holes to their standoff locations. You can see that one of the standoffs in the middle row is missing here, so we will need to install it manually. Move to the next step to learn how to do that.

Note: If none of the standoffs are installed in the case, you will need to note down all the required positions based on your motherboard. Then, screw in the standoffs at the corresponding positions one by one.

3. Next, add in the I/O Shield if required. Don’t forget about the I/O Shield because it protects your motherboard’s ports instead of leaving them exposed. In our case, the motherboard comes with a pre-installed I/O Shield. But many low-end and budget motherboards come with an I/O Shield (metallic sheet with I/O port cutouts) in the box, and you need to install it manually. For example, here’s what a motherboard looks like with an I/O shield covering the ports.

5. Next, position the motherboard inside the case by first lowering the left side down. Make sure the various ports align with the I/O shield cover. Then, locate the standoffs and lower the right side of the motherboard, making sure they align perfectly with the holes and the board firmly rests on top of the standoffs. Once positioned properly, screw down the motherboard with your Philips head screwdriver.

Note: Never screw in the motherboard too tight. By screwing in the motherboard tightly, you may damage the PCB of your board. This voids the warranty if marks are left by the screws. Focus on tightening the motherboard screws till they feel just right, not too tight.

Get the motherboard manual and navigate to the ‘Front I/O headers’ section. Here, you will find an explanation of where to plug in the front I/O ports, power switch, reset switch, and front audio ports, among other things. Plug in the front I/O connectors one by one, in accordance with the information in your motherboard manual. In the manual, you will also find the location for USB headers, so plug in these to make the USB 3.0 or USB Type-C ports on the front functional.

Note: If you look closely, the proper locations of where to plug in Front I/O headers are also often printed on the motherboard itself.

7. After that, you need to connect the main power cable and other component cables once you have installed the PSU (power supply) in your build. We cannot elaborate where to connect each cable or connector on the motherboard in this guide. But no two motherboards are made the same, so you will have to use the manual to figure that out for yourself.

8. That’s it! You have successfully installed your motherboard inside the PC case. You can move on to putting together the rest of your PC build, installing components like the graphics card, PCIe add-on cards, and storage drives.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Google Adds Personalization To Toolbar Upgrade

Google Adds Personalization to Toolbar Upgrade

Google went live tonight with version 4 of its toolbar for IE (Firefox version coming soon I’m told). You can take a look at the laundry list of features and upgrades here.

Worth noting from my point of view are the following:

* Account sign-in (from the toolbar; creates another incentive to sign up for an account/Gmail)

Google also enables users to put Local, Froogle, Image Search, Video, News and Gmail (as mentioned) into the toolbar. Will this impact usage of these services? It could well boost their visibility and, ultimately, their usage.

The previously much criticized “Autolink” feature does some interesting things with Local, displaying all the addresses that appear on a map (e.g., “wine shops, Oakland, CA”‘) as a pull-down menu. That enables the user to quickly select a location if s/he knows it (“I want to one on Main,” etc.).

Google has a new marketing (and to some degree branding) vehicle to build awareness for these various services (Local, Video, Froogle) through their (opt-in) presence on the toolbar. And the Google Pack “Updater” will notify users of changes and updates, etc. How about a Google Music or Google Travel button in the future?

I’m sure I haven’t captured all the tricks the new toolbar can and will be able to do. But the thing that is most intriguing to me is the way in which the toolbar can house alerts/dynamic searches and could potentially become an RSS reader.

Imagine third parties creating buttons or feeds (as more sites are doing) for specials/deals/offers that can become buttons or persistent searches in the toolbar. It creates some very interesting possibilities.

Yahoo!’s toolbar also has “anti-spy,” a feature that the new Google toolbar doesn’t offer (which I use to delete tracking cookies every day). Indeed, Google hasn’t duplicated all the features on the Yahoo! toolbar, but it has eliminated the “customization gap” that existed, and created a broader range of potential personalization opportunities.

In addition, the Google toolbar ties in to Google’s personalized homepage (for those registered and signed in) and to your “search history.” In this way we start to see how the “Fusion” strategy might start to knit together some of these disparate elements (personalized home, sidebar, desktop search, toolbar).

Google right now has a “many doors” approach, in that users can access Google and search through any number of tools and utilities (personalized home, Sidebar, toolbar, desktop search, etc.). Over time it will start to be clear to Google how users are predominantly tapping into its features and services and the company will place emphasis accordingly.

Toolbars have been important but we expect that over time they will become even more strategic. Yahoo! will not likely leave this development unanswered (at the very least I’d anticipate more custom buttons to be introduced).

So expect more competition and increasing levels of functionality on the “toolbar front” in the future.

Upgrade Php Version To Php 7.4 On Ubuntu

Upgrade PHP version to PHP 7.4 on Ubuntu. You can upgrade your current PHP version to the latest release PHP 7.4 on your Ubuntu 18.04.

This upgrade is tested on virtual machine instance running Ubuntu 18.04 OS on Google Cloud Compute Engine. So the steps mentioned in this guide works on any cloud servers like AWS, DigitalOcean, Linode, Vultr or any VPS or Dedicated servers running Ubuntu 18.04.

Here is a brief guide to show you how to install and upgrade to PHP 7.4 on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS with Apache and PHP7.4-fpm with Nginx.

You can follow this guide to Upgrade to PHP 8

Add PPA for PHP 7.4

Add the ondrej/php which has PHP 7.4 package and other required PHP extensions.

Once you have added the PPA you can install PHP 7.4.


Install PHP 7.4 for Apache

Execute the following command to install PHP 7.4

sudo apt install php7.4 Install PHP 7.4 Extensions

Installing PHP extensions are simple with the following syntax.

sudo apt install php7.4-


Now, install some commonly used php-extensions with the following command.


sudo apt install php7.4-common php7.4-mysql php7.4-xml php7.4-xmlrpc php7.4-curl php7.4-gd php7.4-imagick php7.4-cli php7.4-dev php7.4-imap php7.4-mbstring php7.4-opcache php7.4-soap php7.4-zip php7.4-intl -y

After the installation has completed, you can confirm the installation using the following command

php -v Enable PHP 7.4 for Apache

Now you need to tell Apache to use the installed version of PHP 7.4 by disabling the old PHP module (below I have mentioned php7.0, you need to use your current php version used by Apache) and enabling the new PHP module using the following command.

sudo a2dismod php


sudo a2enmod php


Restart Apache for the changes to take effect.


sudo service apache2 restart Install PHP 7.4 FPM for Nginx

For Nginx you need to install FPM, execute the following command to install PHP 7.4 FPM

sudo apt install php7.4-fpm

Follow the same method above mentioned to install the extensions

After the installation has completed, confirm that PHP 7.4 FPM has installed correctly with this command

php-fpm7.4 -v Modify Nginx configuration to use PHP 7.4

For Nginx you need to update the PHP-FPM socket in your Nginx configration located inside the sites-available directory. This will be located inside the location block location ~ .php$

Edit your configuration…

sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/


The line you need to modify will look like this…

fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php



You need to replace the old PHP version with the new version.

fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php



Test your configration.

sudo nginx -t

Save the file and exit the editor and restart Nginx for the changes to take effect.

sudo service nginx restart Configure PHP 7.4

Now we configure PHP for Web Applications by changing some values in php.ini file.

For PHP 7.4 with Apache the php.ini location will be in following directory.

sudo nano /etc/php/7.4/apache2/php.ini

For PHP 7.4 FPM with Nginx the php.ini location will be in following directory.

sudo nano /etc/php/7.4/fpm/php.ini

Hit F6 for search inside the editor and update the following values for better performance.

Once you have modified your PHP settings you need to restart your Apache for the changes to take effect.

Configure PHP 7.4 FPM Pools

PHP 7.4 FPM allows you to configure the user and group that the service will run under. You can modify these with these commands

Change the following lines by replacing the www-data with your username.

user =


group =


listen.owner =

username =


Hit CTRL+X and Y to save the configuration and check if the configuration is correct and restart PHP.

Restart PHP 7.4 FPM

Once you have updated your PHP FPM settings you need to restart it to apply the changes.

sudo php-fpm7.4 -t sudo service php7.4-fpm restart

Prepare yourself for a role working as an Information Technology Professional with Linux operating system


Now you have learned how to upgrade PHP to PHP 7.4 on Ubuntu 18.04.

Welcome Python 3.11, An Upgrade To Counter Decades

Python 3.11 is up to 10-60% faster than Python 3.10. On average, developers measured a 1.25x speedup on the standard benchmark suite.

Python is incredibly popular because it’s easy to learn, versatile, and has thousands of useful libraries for data science. But one thing, it is not as fast. That’s about to change in Python 3.11, currently in the first beta phase of its preview (version 3.11.0b1) ahead of its stable release later this year. It is one of the most keenly anticipated versions. “Python 3.11 is up to 10-60 percent faster than Python 3.10,” state the release notes.

How is this being done? Python 3.11 is the first release to benefit from a project called Faster CPython, where CPython is the standard version of the interpreter. Faster CPython is a project funded by Microsoft, whose members include Python inventor Guido van Rossum, Microsoft senior software engineer Eric Snow, and Mark Shannon – who is under contract to Microsoft as tech lead for the project.

A session scheduled for the EuroPython event to be held in Dublin in July centers on some of the changes that enable the speed-up. Shannon will describe the “adaptive specializing interpreter” in Python 3.11, which is PEP (Python Enhancement Proposal) 659. This describes a technique called specialization which, Shannon explains, “is typically done in the context of a JIT [just in time] compiler, but research shows specialization in an interpreter can boost performance significantly.”

The interpreter identifies code that can benefit from specialization and “once an instruction in a code object has executed enough times, that instruction will be “specialized” by replacing it with a new instruction that is expected to execute faster for that operation,” states the PEP. The speed up can be “up to 50 percent.”

New Features

Enhanced error locations in tracebacks

When printing tracebacks, the interpreter will now point to the exact expression that caused the error instead of just the line.

 For example:

Traceback (most recent call last):

    print(manhattan_distance(p1, p2))


  File “”, line 6, in manhattan_distance

    return abs(point_1.x – point_2.x) + abs(point_1.y – point_2.y)


AttributeError: ‘NoneType’ object has no attribute ‘x’

Previous versions of the interpreter would point to just the line making it ambiguous which object was None. These enhanced errors can also be helpful when dealing with deeply nested dictionary objects and multiple function calls,

Traceback (most recent call last):



  File “”, line 18, in magic_arithmetic

    return add_counts(x) / 25


  File “”, line 24, in add_counts

    return 25 + query_user(user1) + query_user(user2)


  File “”, line 32, in query_user

    return 1 + query_count(db, response[‘a’][‘b’][‘c’][‘user’], retry=True)


TypeError: ‘NoneType’ object is not subscriptable as well as complex arithmetic expressions:

Traceback (most recent call last):

    result = (x / y / z) * (a / b / c)


ZeroDivisionError: division by zero

New syntax features:

                     PEP 654: Exception Groups and except*. (Contributed by Irit Katriel in bpo-45292.)

New typing features:

PEP 646: Variadic generics.

PEP 655: Marking individual TypedDict items as required or potentially missing.

PEP 673: Self type.

PEP 675: Arbitrary literal string type.

Security improvements:

New -P command-line option and PYTHONSAFEPATH environment variable to not prepend a potentially unsafe path to chúng tôi such as the current directory, the script’s directory or an empty string.

Other Python 3.11 additions, fixes, and changes

Many smaller improvements also landed in Python 3.11:

Python objects require less memory, as their namespaces are now lazily created, and their namespace dictionaries now share keys whenever possible

Dictionaries where all keys are Unicode no longer need to store hashes, thus reducing the size of the dictionary and allowing more cache efficiency

The CPython runtime, the reference interpreter for Python, now has experimental support for being compiled to WebAssembly. This may aid the future development of projects like PyScript, which allow a WASM-compiled Python runtime to operate in the browser

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