Trending December 2023 # Xombrero: A Minimalist Browser With Focus On Security # Suggested January 2024 # Top 17 Popular

You are reading the article Xombrero: A Minimalist Browser With Focus On Security updated in December 2023 on the website We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested January 2024 Xombrero: A Minimalist Browser With Focus On Security

Xombrero, as it describes itself in its website, is a “minimalist Web browser with sophisticated security features designed-in,” and that just about sums it up. Unlike many minimalist browsers, such as Qutebrowser and Luakit, it actually has a familiar interface that allows users who are used to Firefox and the like to jump right in. For those who are looking for a lightweight keyboard-based browser, Xombrero is one interesting alternative you can check out.

What’s so special about Xombrero?

According to its developer, Xombrero is built with the idea that the user should be in charge of making decisions about security. It tackles both cookies and scripting issues by providing both persistent and per-session controls for scripts and cookies, making it easy to thwart tracking and scripting attacks. In short, it doesn’t allow cookie and javascript by default, and you have to whitelist the trusted sites to allow per-session cookies and javascripts from those sites.

If secure and familiar isn’t enough, it’s also fast. This could be due to the fact that no javascripts are allowed by default, and that improves sites loading speeds.


Installation is simple enough. Many distributions have Xombrero ready to download straight from repository or package manager, including Ubuntu:


apt-get install


Those who are proficient enough can grab the source code and compile it themselves, including options for OS X and FreeBSD.

Vim-like feature in Xombrero

Another great feature, like many other minimalist Web browsers, is the ability to browse the Net solely with the keyboard with Vim-like commands. No mouse required!

However, Xombrero does use different default shortcuts compared to favorite Firefox and Chrome add-ons such as Pentadactyl and Vimperator. For example, instead of a capital “H” to go back a page, the default shortcut is “Backspace.” This, of course, can be changed with custom shortcuts.

As amazing as minimalism can be, this does come with the usual text-only configuration which may turn some users off. Fortunately, they have an amazing man page which can be accessed in a browser by typing in :help.

Usage Whitelisting

Xombrero doesn’t allow cookies or javascript unless explicitly allowed. Thankfully this is simple to deal with. After navigating to a trusted website, type: :cookie save to allow cookies from that site or :js save to allow scripting.


Searching is done the same way as it is in Vim.  Press the “/” key, type in a search term and press Enter. All of the words that match the search term should be highlighted. Simply press “n” to search forward and “N” (note the capital) to search back. This will help immensely when searching the help page.

It also has a nifty contrast swap feature which can be used as a night mode by pressing “s.”

Saving browser session

To save a browsing session on exit, simply type “:wq” and Xombrero will save and close the current session. There are configuration options to make this happen automatically when closing the browser. This may sound like a broken record, but check the help file. There are a ton of amazing things that can be done with sessions.

Xombrero’s configuration

Now for the fun part. To create a configuration file, open up a text editor and save as “xombrero.conf” in the home directory.

Many of the settings found in :help can be written here and set equal to either “1” (enable) or “0” (disable). To automatically save the current session on exit and enable whitelists, this is all that is needed in the config file:

session_autosave =


browser_mode = whitelist

Save the file, restart the browser, and from now on all the tabs will be remembered when Xombrero is closed. Even in the event of a power failure. Okay, maybe it’s not that fun, but here’s something that is - Scripts!

Scripting in Xombrero

In some distributions, such as Void Linux, Xombrero may not be able to view YouTube out of the box. Thanks to the folks who work over at the Gentoo Wiki, we have a solution.

First create a file; let’s save it in the home directory and call it “” with these contents:











Note: mplayer may also be used (just replace “mpv” with “mplayer”), but most users will find “mpv” easier thanks to the default GUI controls.

Open a terminal to change the permissions on the script we just created.





Next let’s open that “xombrero.conf” back up and add these lines:

cmd_alias = yt,run_script ~

/ keybinding = yt,y

The first line of the code ties the alias “yt” to the script, so you can simply type :yt to activate the script. The second line allows us to simply press “y” to call it.

Let’s make sure mpv and youtube-dl are installed.  These should be available in most package repositories, but for Ubuntu:


apt-get install

mpv youtube-dl

Navigate to a YouTube video page, press “y” and the video should stream directly to mpv. Fantastic! Even playlists work. It also wouldn’t be that far-fetched to modify the script to download videos instead of simply streaming them for later offline viewing.  Keep in mind that this is just messing with “youtube-dl;” just imagine the scripting possibilities.

Final Thoughts

With its plethora of customization options and vim-like command concept, this is a great opportunity for anyone who wants to enter the world of keyboard-driven Web browsing without being chucked into the deep end.

While there are many minimalist browsers to choose from, Xombrero is the only one that has sane enough defaults for anyone to jump right in.

Logen Kain

I am a freelance technology writer and student of philosophy. I have been using computers since 1992 and have been a Linux enthusiast since 2003.

Subscribe to our newsletter!

Our latest tutorials delivered straight to your inbox

Sign up for all newsletters.

By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Policy and European users agree to the data transfer policy. We will not share your data and you can unsubscribe at any time.

You're reading Xombrero: A Minimalist Browser With Focus On Security

How To Use A Web Browser On Your Apple Tv

When you’re relaxing on the couch and want to surf the web, wouldn’t it be great if you could do so on the big screen using your Apple TV? Unfortunately, Apple TV doesn’t have a web browser, but there are ways to make it happen.

By using your iPhone, iPad, or Mac, you can open the browser on your Apple TV. If you plan to do it often, you can even look at iOS apps that help you browse the web on Apple TV. Let’s take a look at these options.

Table of Contents

Mirror Your iPhone or iPad Screen to Apple TV

You can mirror the screen from your iPhone or iPad to Apple TV using AirPlay. If you need help setting it up, look at our how-to for using AirPlay.

Open your web browser, such as Safari, on your iPhone or iPad.

Access the

Control Center

and select the

Screen Mirroring


Choose your

Apple TV

in the list of devices.

You should then see your iOS device screen on your Apple TV. You can open new browser tabs, visit additional sites, and navigate on your mobile device screen.

When you finish, reopen the Control Center, select the Screen Mirroring icon, and choose Stop Mirroring. Your devices then return to normal.

Mirror Your Mac Screen to Apple TV

Like on the iPhone and iPad, you can use AirPlay to mirror your Mac screen to your Apple TV. Open your web browser and visit a site.

Access the

Control Center

and select the

Screen Mirroring


Choose your

Apple TV

from the list. If you have multiple monitors connected to your Mac, simply pick the display you want to mirror.

When you finish, reopen the Control Center, select the Screen Mirroring icon, and deselect your Apple TV in the list.

Remember, if you run into problems, Switching to Mac can help resolve your AirPlay issues.

Use an Apple TV Web Browser App

While there isn’t a web browser app in the Apple TV App Store, a few third-party apps for iPhone and iPad let you surf the web on your smart TV.

Browser for Apple TV

Starting with the least expensive option, Browser for Apple TV is just under a buck. Using AirPlay, simply cast the web browser from your iPhone or iPad to Apple TV.

You can use touch control with a zoom feature and turn your iOS device into a remote control for web browsing. Switch between the mobile and desktop modes and use the built-in Scrollmode for moving through web pages quickly.

Get Browser for Apple TV on the App Store for $0.99 on iPhone or iPad. You’ll need at least an Apple TV 2 or 3.

Web for Apple TV

Another option is Web for Apple TV which also uses AirPlay to display the browser on your TV.

Once you have it set up, use gestures on your iPhone or iPad to select, scroll, and navigate the sites you’re viewing. Like the above app, you just use your iOS device as the remote for the web browser. Web for Apple TV also offers a private browsing mode to keep visited sites to yourself.

Get Web for Apple TV on the App Store for $1.99 on iPhone or iPad. Connect an Apple TV 1 using a VGA or HDMI cable or Apple TV 2 or 3 wirelessly.


AirWeb is one more app you can use to surf the web on Apple TV. Use AirPlay mirroring from your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch to visit your favorite sites.

Like the above apps, you’ll use your iOS device as a remote for the browser. Use gestures to pan, tap, pinch, and swipe for an easy way to maneuver any site you visit.

Get AirWeb on the App Store for $1.99 on iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch. Connect wirelessly to an Apple TV 2, 3, or 4.


One final option to check out is the AirBrowser app. You can use your iPhone 4s or newer, iPad 2 or newer, or iPod touch 5th generation to pop a browser on your Apple TV.

Get AirBrowser on the App Store for $4.99 on iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch. You can also check out the AirBrowser website and video for a quick preview.

Bonus: tvOS Browser

An additional option you can look at if you have a Mac and are familiar with using XCode is the tvOS Browser.

To install it, connect your Apple TV to your Mac using a USB cable and then open the tvOS Browser project from GitHub in XCode. For complete instructions and configuration settings, take a look at the steps on GitHub.

Hopefully, users will have a native option for an Apple TV web browser down the road. Until then, you do have a few options. Let us know which one you chose.

Becoming A Photography Gear Minimalist: What Do You Actually Need?

Edgar Cervantes / Android Authority

A common recent topic in the world of photography has been equipment minimalism. What is this movement all about? In this post, we’ll talk all about photography gear minimalism, give you reasons why you should adopt it, and even provide some recommendations to simplify your photography bag.

What is photography equipment minimalism?

Also: Photography tips that will take your images to the next level

Do I really need all of this camera gear, or is it simply weighing me down?

Edgar Cervantes

We’ve all heard time and again that a good photographer can take an amazing photo regardless of what equipment he is using. While I still believe this isn’t 100% accurate, I do think there is a lot of truth to it, especially as technology evolves. At the very least, I know I didn’t need as much as I had. I noticed I was using only a couple of lenses for over 90% of my photos. My lighting needs have also been much more minimal lately, as I generally stick with a couple of softboxes for most of my shoots. All these fancy accessories mostly took up space in my big bag, too. As I became a better photographer, my equipment needs were reduced. I’ve learned how to accomplish shots without over-complicating the setup because I had the fundamentals down.

I realized I was a photography equipment hoarder. Much of the stuff I thought was helpful, could be replaced with much more affordable products, just by adding a little touch of knowledge to the equation. What made my photos great (if I can say so myself) wasn’t all the expensive gear. It was the knowledge I had acquired over the years. The intangibles make most of the difference, such as composition, color theory, lighting effects, and that extra touch of style each photographer imprints on images.

Related: What a pro photographer can do with a cheap smartphone camera

Knowledge and practice

The old recommendation to invest in yourself is also valid in the world of photography. Learn the fundamentals of photography and practice as much as possible. Get to know your equipment until using it is second nature. This will help you be a much more efficient photographer in the long run.

We have plenty of photography education content here at Android Authority. We also recommend you check out other YouTubers, photographers, and courses for extra learning. Just soak in as much information as possible, and then put it into practice.

Get started: Photography terms you should know

Quality lenses

Edgar Cervantes / Android Authority

This is where you’ll likely spend the most money, and for good reason. Lenses are what make the most difference in image quality. Outstanding glass elements and sound engineering make images crisper and cleaner. They also determine other factors like aperture, which can affect the depth of field.

A true photography equipment minimalist will want to get as few lenses as possible. A good rule of thumb is to stick with three to four, at the most. This will offer plenty of versatility while keeping your options simple and light. Let’s talk about some of the options we recommend. You can then prioritize what matters to you most and make your choices. All of these are available from multiple manufacturers, but we’ll focus on the general lenses for each purpose for the sake of simplicity.

50mm f/1.8 prime

A 50mm f/1.8 lens could become your best investment. I have likely used mine for most of my photos.

The 50mm range produces the closest to what the human eye can see. Of course, this is given the lens is paired with a full-frame sensor; smaller sensors will see a zoomed-in perspective.

Prime lenses can’t zoom in or out. They are stuck with the focal length they were built with. The lack of moving parts usually makes them smaller and much more affordable. They tend to have excellent quality, and the wider aperture helps produce beautiful bokeh.

Related: What is macro photography?

Other options

Of course, there are plenty of other lenses you can get for more specialized shots. You can get wider-angle lenses (14-24mm) to cover a very ample space in a single shot. Fisheye lenses add an effect many love, and also take wide angles to the next level. You could also look into tilt-shifts for fun effects. Those types of lenses tend to be secondary, though. We didn’t recommend them because we’re trying to do the most we can with as few lenses as possible. It makes no sense for a minimalist to get lenses they might rarely use. Depending on your style and needs, you might deem them much more necessary, though.

What if you do need more? Consider renting

Edgar Cervantes / Android Authority

Depending on the type of photography you do, becoming an equipment minimalist might be more challenging. This is especially the case for general photographers who shoot many types of sessions. Or very specialized shooters who depend on a bunch of lighting, accessories, and other elements. The trick here is to determine how often you really need that extra equipment.

If you only need a specific lens once every couple of months, do you need to purchase it? There are plenty of photo and video equipment rental services out there that might become a better alternative to owning certain products. Indeed, you won’t mind the rental price if the gig you use it for is paid, not to mention it will likely be more affordable, especially for high-ticket items like professional bodies or expensive glass.

We’ll recommend some popular websites for renting camera equipment below, and check if you have any local options. I know of at least two in my area.

Popular camera equipment rental websites: 

If you decide to buy some quality equipment, you might want to consider renting it out too! Websites like ShareGrid allow you to rent your equipment to fellow creatives. ShareGrid even offers insurance, in case someone damages your equipment. It’s a great way to make up for some of your expenses.

My camera gear

I wanted to end this post with my plans on what will soon be in my camera bag and extra gear. My focus is primarily on tech product photography and some general shooting, so I’m keeping things relatively simple. I am trying to optimize my space and spending where it truly matters, so some of this equipment is on the pricier side, but I make up for that by reducing the amount of gear I’ll be purchasing.

Camera body

Lenses I definitely want Lenses I’m not sure about

Other gear Anything else?

I’ll often need some backdrops, but I don’t want to overload myself with them. I’ve been using paper for most backdrops, and I usually throw it away after I’m done with it. Paper is pretty cheap, so I find that better than keeping a bunch of cloth backdrops around. It also keeps my home studio clutter-free.

I might get some smaller LED panels for additional lighting, too. But other than that, I’ll try to keep gear to a minimum and stick to what I mentioned above.

Your turn

Substantial Concepts Associated With Internet Protocol Security

It is impossible to exaggerate how important it is to protect one’s data when using the internet in this day and age of widespread computer networks. Because of the complexity and breadth of the underlying technology and the progression of the technology through time, internet security encompasses a wide variety of subjects. Email, online shopping, banking, wireless internet, and other services have specialized security procedures, much like wireless internet. Implementation of several security protocols—Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), Transport Layer Security (TLS), and others—has been done to make the internet as risk-free as possible.

Multiple Overlapping Layers of Security

The Authentication Header (AH) protocol is a component of IPSec and offers the same services as ESP, including connectionless integrity and data origin authentication. However, unlike ESP, the AH protocol does not encrypt the data to preserve the confidentiality of the information. The AH Authentication Header ensures the integrity and responsibility for the IP packet and any additional headers that AH may contain.

We can use these two procedures alone or in conjunction with the other to reach the required degree of safety. Precise cryptographic methods are used to determine whether or not the protection they provide is adequate. They are not dependent on any specific algorithm, which makes it simple to implement new algorithms without affecting the functionality of the previously written code.

These protocols also support both IPsec modes-transport and tunnel.

Transport mode is risk-free for high-layer protocols like UDP or TCP operating under an IP load. AH, and ESP is responsible for providing the required level of security and protecting the transport header whenever they intercept packets from the Transport layer headed for the Network layer. When transport mode is being used, the communications endpoint is also the cryptography endpoint, which ensures the highest level of safety for the entirety of the connection.

In tunnel mode, data is encrypted by encapsulating it in a shielding sleeve before sending it to a security gateway to be de-capsulated.

Tunnel mode is an option that may utilize in situations in which the final destination of the packet is distinct from the location of the security gateway.

A system uses opportunistic encryption if, upon establishing a connection with another system, it tries to encrypt the communications channel before falling back on unencrypted communications. It contrasts with a design that immediately returns to unencrypted communications (OE). When utilizing this tactic, there is no requirement for further in-depth coordination between the two platforms.

It is possible to verify the genuineness of a message by utilizing a tinier piece of data known as he Message Authentication Code and a technique known as the Hash Message Authentication Code (keyed-hash message authentication code). HMAC creates a MAC as output by employing a key that is kept a secret along with a message fragment. This MAC is stored in the Authentication Data field of the Authentication header, which one can find in the AH. Everything in the TCP segment surrounds the calculation, and the authentication header is taken into account. When this IP packet reaches its ultimate location, the exact computation is repeated using the same key. If the MAC value of the packet matches the one received, then the packet may be relied upon as being genuine.

An extension of the IPsec and ISAKMP protocols, IPsec NAT-Traversal, makes it possible for VPN clients and gateways to communicate with one another even while using NAT routers. For example, IPsec is widely utilized by business travelers to link their personal computers to a virtual private network (VPN) located at their respective home offices. When these users are away from the office, they frequently require the usage of a NAT gateway, such as the one provided by a hotel, so that they may connect to the internet. In today’s environment, many firewalls come equipped with Network Address Translation (NAT) gateways. These gateways allow a company’s local area network (LAN) to appear to the outside world as having a single IP address. If you are excited about learning more about devices that do network address translation (NAT), you should look at RFC 1631.

Connected Systems and Safety: The Security Association is an essential concept in Internet Protocols (IP) Authentication and Confidentiality Procedures (SA). An association can provide security services to protect the data being sent in a connection that only goes in one direction, between a sender and a receiver. While connecting two private and secure parties, it is necessary to set up not one but two distinct security associations. The determining and distribution of secret keys are the two main focuses of the critical management process in IPSec. While adhering to the standards laid out by the IP Security Architecture guideline, it must support two essential management methods.

Manual: A system administrator will manually set up each system’s key and any other communication system’s keys. It works effectively in environments that are relatively static and have few changes.

When an automated technique is used, it is feasible to produce SA keys whenever required, and it also simplifies the process of employing keys in an extensive, distributed system whose configuration is always subject to change. You may obtain both of these benefits by using an automated method. Manual key management is frequently chosen instead of automated systems for smaller installations since the former requires significantly less investment in time and materials.


Users don’t need to be briefed on security procedures, individual keying materials don’t need to be issued, and keying material revocation after employee departure is unnecessary. If necessary, IPSec can offer security for single users. This function is helpful for remote employees and for creating a private virtual subnetwork within a company to use sensitive data.

Best Unblocked Browser With No Download (We’ve Tested 5)

Best Unblocked Browser With No Download (We’ve Tested 5) Tested and trusted unblocked browsers with no download








Unblocked browsers with no download allow users to access websites and online content with restrictions without downloading apps.

It connects users through a secure proxy server that gives users access to any site.

An unblocked browser works as a URL to be hosted in a native app browser.

Struggling with various browser issues? Try a better option: Opera One

You deserve a better browser! Over 300 million people use Opera One daily, a fully-fledged navigation experience coming with various built-in packages, enhanced resource consumption, and great design.

Here’s what Opera One can do:

Optimize resource usage: Opera One uses your Ram more efficiently than Brave

AI and User Friendly: New feature directly accessible from the sidebar

Gaming friendly: Opera GX is the first and best browser for gamers

⇒ Get Opera One

Users may be unable to access some online content and websites because of restrictions imposed on such websites or content. Hence, an unblocked browser that requires no download is essential.

There are also browsers to open blocked sites that require you to download apps. But this guide will cover unblocked browsers that do not need to be downloaded.

What is an unblocked browser?

An unblocked browser is a proxy server that allows users to access restricted websites and banned online content.

Furthermore, these browsers can come in different types depending on your preference. There are some unblocked browsers you need to download on your system, while some don’t require any software download.

An unblocked browser with no download works because you don’t have to install a separate app, but you can access proxy server browsers through other browsers. Some of the benefits of using them are:

Now, let’s cut to the chase and let’s see which are the best unblocked browsers without download.

What are the best unblocked browsers with no download?

Proxyboost is our best pick of unlocked browsers you can use online without downloading any apps or software. It is an American proxy site for surfing the internet anonymously.

Also, Proxyboost is free and doesn’t require you to subscribe to its services.

⇒ Use

DontFilter is an anonymous web browser that is accessible with no download. It is the most secure unlocked browser that allows users to browse through websites that aren’t available for every user.

Furthermore, it allows you to surf the internet anonymously without being noticed or saving any record that you visited the site. It is easy to navigate and is accessible by inputting its URL in a native browser.

Also, it is one of the best unblocked browsers for school and extracurricular activities. Users can access restricted online content without needing to install a third-party app. Its service is free and requires no subscription.

⇒ Use

Expert tip:

Moreover, it uses a secure server to access blocked websites and can also work for other blocked online content. Likewise, you can access it by launching the proxy server on your browser and accessing the blocked site.

Furthermore, it is easy to navigate and is free.

For users who need a fast and secure unblocked browser to access blocked or restricted sites, UnblockMyWeb is the best choice.

Moreover, it is a free proxy server hosting service that unblocks all restrictions on online content that may stop you from accessing it.

Also, it is ideal for school-related purposes and is an unblocking tool for watching videos online.

Replit is one of the most convenient ways of opening a blocked website because it starts in a web app.

It actually opens a Python script that triggers a Firefox browser. Now, all you need to do is just enter an address or look it up on Google.

Of course, you can use it minimized or just hit the Maximize icon to extend it to full screen.

⇒ Use Replit

Nonetheless, users can check our pick of the best browsers to open blocked sites and games. Also, we have a detailed guide on how to unblock websites on Safari and access their content.

Still experiencing issues?

Was this page helpful?


Start a conversation

Optimize Your Twitter Feed With These 10 Browser Extensions

However you use Twitter—whether it’s to stay up to date on world events, keep in touch with friends, or do something else entirely—you don’t have to settle for its basic, default functions. If you use the site in your browser, there are dozens of third-party extensions available that will add more features, change the Twitter interface, and level up your tweeting.

We’ve collected some of the best, concentrating on those that work with Google Chrome (and Microsoft Edge, as they share the same code), but some will function in other browsers as well.

Buffer, for scheduling tweets

You don’t necessarily want all your tweets bunched up into the hours you’re actually on Twitter, and that’s where Buffer comes in. It lets you queue up tweets to be sent out at regular intervals, and gives you access to analytics and other tools too. You can schedule up to 10 tweets at a time for free, and then pricing starts at $5 a month.

Twitter View Original Images, for getting full-size photos

[Related: How to share photos at their best quality]

Minimal Theme, for cutting out clutter

The free Minimal Theme for Twitter is perfect for limiting distractions and focusing just on the tweets in front of you. You can reduce the options in the navigation bar; hide the tweet button; hide retweet, reply, and like counts; and remove promoted posts, for example. The extension also allows you to choose the width of the Twitter feed in your browser tab.

Twemex, for adding a new sidebar

Love sidebars? Twemex may be for you. David Nield

Twitter Media Downloader, for saving files

If you see photos and videos on your Twitter timeline that you’d like to keep, Twitter Media Downloader makes saving them very straightforward. The free extension adds a new download button to the Twitter interface, positioned right underneath tweets, and it’ll handle one or several media files with ease.

Superpowers for Twitter, for bulk and automated actions

Superpowers for Twitter is free to use and automates certain actions within the Twitter interface. You can use it to mass-follow all the accounts on a page (maybe you’re viewing a Twitter list) or like every tweet on a particular page (such as a search page), to name a couple tasks it will let you do. This is all handled by some subtle extra buttons that appear on the interface.

[Related: The simplest way to post to all your social media accounts at once]

Plaintweet, for extreme simplicity

Plaintweet will strip Twitter down to the basics. David Nield

If you want an interface that’s even more sparse than the one Minimal Theme (above) offers, try Plaintweet. This free add-on concentrates on the text of tweets, hiding extra paraphernalia such as likes, retweets, mentions, image previews, quote tweets, and profile images. You have  the option of using a light or dark theme as well.

Scroll Portal, for less doomscrolling

Scroll Portal is free to install and encourages users to take a more focused approach to Twitter. You do this by setting a scrolling “speed limit” that you must stick to, which will stop you from rushing through your timeline too quickly. The extension will also count the number of tweets you’ve scrolled past, encouraging you to take more time reading each one.

Social Scroll for Twitter, for finding older tweets

Update the detailed information about Xombrero: A Minimalist Browser With Focus On Security on the website. We hope the article's content will meet your needs, and we will regularly update the information to provide you with the fastest and most accurate information. Have a great day!